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/ For centuries prior to the coming of the pioneers the woodland and jirairie 

; of Fulton county had been the home of the red man. He had full swav over 
this, one of the finest sections of the globe. But nature's hand had been too 
lavish in the distribution of natural advantages to let it remain longer in pos- 
session of those who refused to develop, even in the slightest degree, any of 
her great resources, accordingly she directed hitherward the Anglo Saxon. 
The westward tread of the sturdy pioneer was heard and felt by the savage 
race during the early part of the present century. On thej' came with a firm 
resolute step, until this fair clime and country was reached, when they pitched 
their tents and ere long a fruitful field was blooming where the large forest 
trees and wild grass had waved in the breezes for hundreds of years, undis- 
turbed. They transformed the wigwams into cities; dotted the knolls with 
school-houses and churches; replaced the buffalo, deer, elk, ami wolf, which 
had been driven further westward, with domestic animals ; erected factories, 
built railroads, and reared a refined, enlightened and cultured people. 

In this volume we have attempted to portray these changes; to picture 
them that future generations, as well as the present, may know something of 
what it cost to give them such a fair land. That they may have an idea of its 
once primitive condition, and learn of the brave men and women who have 
subdued the country; converted the wilderness into wbfft we now behold. 
If we have placed facts upon record so that they are thus understood we will 
have fulfilled our mission. 

We have taken much care in recording the pioneer history, that coming 
generations, those who will not have the early settler to relate to them the 
history incident to the settlement and development of this county, may famil- 
iarize themselves with it through this medium ; and that the reader may see 
the county in its various stages of progression. We do not profess to have 
fully delineated the trials, s .fferings, and hardships that were experienced in 
converting even this fertile land from its virgin wildness into the luxuriant 
and densely populated country it now is. I'Vo ! for human tongue or pen is far 
from being adequate to that task. 




Different persons have given us honest and sincere, but nevertheless 
conflicting accounts of the same events, and it has been both a difficult and 
delicate task to harmonize them, and draw therefrom reasonable and 
approximately correct conclusions. We had only one aim in view, one plan to 
carry out, and that was, to record events impartialh' — to detail them as they 
actualh' occurred. 

That we have completed our work, fulfilled all our promises to the utter- 
most, we feel conscientiously assured, and we submit the result of our labors 
to the charitable consideration of this intelligent and liberal people. It must 
not be expected that, in the multiplicity of names, dates, and events, no 
errors will be detected. "We do not dare hope that in the numerous 
and varied details this book is absolutly correct, nor is it expected that it is 
beyond criticism, yet we believe it will be found to be measurably correct and 
reliable. We have labored assiduously and Mith studious care to make it a 
standard work of reference, as well as an authoritative record for future histo- 
rians to build upon. 

Believing a work of this nature would be comparatively incomplete with- 
out speaking of the history of the State, of which Fulton county forms no 
unimportant portion, we have carefully prepared a condensed, yet very com- 
plete history of Illinois, which we incorporate in this volume. And as a 
valuable aid in transacting every-day business, we append a carefully com- 
piled digest of Illinois State Laws, which both the business man and farmer 
will find of great value. 

Before laying aside our pen, we de.sire to express our warmest thanks to 
the editors of the various newspapei-s published throughout the county ; to 
the county officials, and to the people in general for the assistance and liberal 
patronage given us. ■» 

'— 1879. Publishers. 









Illinois Confederacy 23 

Starved Rock 23 

Sacs and Foxes 24 

Manners and Customs 27 

Single-handed Combat with Indians... 29 


Nicholas Perrot 31 

.Toliet and Marquette 31 

l^aSalle's Explorations 33 

Great Battle of the Illinois 34 

Tonti Safe at Green Bay 41 

I^aSalle's Assassination 43 


First Settlements 44 

The Mississippi Company 45 


Gen. Clark's Exploits 51 


County of Illinois 55 


Ordinance of 17S7 56 

St. Clair Governor of N. W. Territory... 59 



Massacre of Fort Dearborn (iO 

Expeditions up the Mississippi..., 71 


Organization 74 

Derivation of the name "Illinois" 77 

State Bank 7,S 

LaFayette's Visit 79 

Grammar and Cook (Jontrasted 82 





The Military Tract 191 

Fulton County 191 

Dr. Davison, the Hermit.. 194 

John Eveland 195 

Ossian M. Ross 196 

Feuner Brothers 197 | 

The Sergeants and Barnes 197 

Sergeant's wedding 200 | 

"When my Commission 

Comes" 202 

Other Settlers 203 

The First Mail Carriers... i203 

A Trading Expedition 204 

Frightened by Indians... 204 
The Battle of Malony's 

Ferry 205 

Trouble in Settling the 

Military Tract 206 

Robert Fulton 209 




Early Preachers 211 i 

Training day 212 1 

A Few First Things 214 

Organization of Fulton 

County 218 

Trade 219 

Early Milling 221 

Wild Hog.s 222 

The Deep Snow 224 

Sudden Change 227 

High Water 227 

The Severe Winter of 

1842-3 228 

Money 228 

The Beautiful Prairies.. 230 
Incidents of Pioneer 

Life 232 

What the Pioneers Have . 

Done 235 



Winnebago War 


Stillman's Run 

Battle of Bad Axe 

Black Hawk Captured 

Biographical Sketch of Black Hawk 

FROM 1834 TO 1842 

Internal Improvements 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 

ilartvr for Liberty 




Battle of Bueiiii Vista 


States Seceding 

The Fall of Sumter 

Call for Troops Promptly Answered 

The War Ended— The Union Restored.. 

Schedule of Regiments 






Lieutenant Governors 

State Officials 

U. S. Senators 

Representatives in Congress 


The Great Fire 

Commerce of Chicago 



County Court 

'J'ownship Organization 

County Expenditures... 



Troops Raised 


First Meeting 237 

("ounty-Seat Located 239 

Tavern Licenses 239 

Ferry Licenses 240 

More Justices of the 

Peace 241 

The First Court-House.. 241 

First Treasurer 245 

First Grand Jury 245 

First Marriage 245 

I'av for Assessment of 

Taxes 246 

First Petit Jury 247 

Militia Precincts 247 

First Marriage in Chi- 
cago 248 

Niew ("ommissioinerR 

and a New Clerk 248 

First Mart-iage License.. 249 

Estray Pen 249 

County Revenue 2.50 

A New Court-House 250 

Another Jail 251 

The Present Court- 252 

First Temperance Work 2.54 

Paupers Sold 2.55 

A New Jail 2.55 

First Poor Farm 255 

Last Meeting 256 




BOTANY' 271 



Stillman's Defeat 

Horrible Massacre 

The Westerfield Defeat. 







First Indications of the 

First Call for Troops 

Various Meetings Held 
in the County 

Death of Senator Doug- 

A Picture of a Sad and 
Desolate Home 

Soldier's Aid Society... 

Soldiers in Fulton Co... 

The Close 

Fulton County Volunteers 




Pioneer Courts 

Court Days 

Circuit Judges 

Pro.secuting Attorneys.. 

The Bar :.. 

Present Bar 




















Astoria 409 

Banner 469 

Buckheart 477 

Bernadotte 506 

Canton 515 

Cass 582 

Deerfielfl 602 

Ellisville 615 

Fairview 623 

Farmers' 648 

Farmington 678 

Harris 697 

Isabel 712 

Joshua 724 

Kerton 748 

Lee 760 

Le\vistown 769 

Liverpool 820 

Orion 843 

Pleasant 84-S 

Starved Rock 25 

An Iroquois Chief 37 

Gen. Geo. R. Clark 49 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair .58 

Old Fort Dearborn 61 

Old Kinzie House 65 

Pontiae 69 

Black Hawk 85 

Abbott, Daniel 395 

Addi.s, A. I) 468 

Babcock, W. H 468 

Barker, J. W 661 

Beam, O. J 883 

Bearce, Orson 369 

Benson, Hon. Jesse 225 

Bovington, E. L 733 

Breed, C. G 571 

Brown, Jacob 715 

Brown, Mrs. Jacob 715 

Bvbee, T. T 4S5 

Chapman, S. S 449 

Coleman, W. D 537 

Colter, Hon. H. R 243 

Cummings, Hon. S. P 431 

Curtis Dr. L. W -537 

Custer, P. Y 571 

Foutch. John 721 

Gallagher. P. W 873 

Gardiner, J. H 727 

Gardiner. Margaret 727 

Haacke, Capt. David 297 

Laws 1039 

Jurisdiction of Courts 1039 

County Court.*^ 1040 

Com. of Highwavs 1040 

Fences 1042 

Drainage 1044 of Stock 1014 

Estravs 1015 

Horses 1016 

Marks and Brands 1017 

Articles of Agreement 1017 , 

Notes 1018 I 

.Judgment Note lOi'.i 

fnterest 1049 | 

'Is 10.51 

nt 1055 


•es and Trust Deedsl057 

>eds 1058 


e 1060 

Putman 865 

Union 880 

Vermont 897 

Waterford 936 

Woodland 940 

Young Hickory 969 



Election Returns 976 





Fulton County Ledger.. 991 
Lewistown Democrat... 993 

Canton Register 995 

News-Chronicle 997 

Vermont Chronicle 1000 

Farmington News 1001 

Weeklv Times 1002 

Stream of Light 1004 

Avon Sentinel 1005 


C, R.-I. & P. R. R. Depot... 99 

Eye and Ear Infirmary Ill 

Deaf and Dumb Institute... 115 
Scene on Fox River 221 

. Lincoln Monument. 137 

Asylum for Feeble Minded 143 

I Southern Normal Univer- i 
sity 151 1 


Hartough, H. H 625 

Herring. J. R 867 

Herring, Mrs/M. A 867 

Higgins, H .:.^^ 369 

Holni.e.'?, C...j..-..r„.v 73:? 

Hulit, N ■..„.,..;..'.™T 857 

Hummel, I. M;.';........„ 801 

Hummel, Mrs. I. M....^.:..... 80L 

Hummel, Jessie L .SOI 

John.son, B. C 733 

Leslie, L. T 369 

Maus, Jacob 825 

McCall.J. H 207 

McCune. J. L.. 8.51 

McCune, Mrs. J. L 851 

McDowell, W. M 261 

Merrill, H. S 413 

Miner, Wm 661 

Moore, B. H -537 

Mower\', Jacob 3:i3 

Onion.'j. M 369 

Orendorff. John .519 

Orendorff, W. J .519 


Days of Grace 1061 i 

Limitation of Action 1061 

Receipt.< 1062 

Exemptions from Forced { 

Sales 1062 

Landlords and Tenants Uh;3 

Criminal Law 1066 

Taxes 10(W 

Subscription 10<;9 ' 

Contract for Personal Ser- 
vices 1070 

Newsjjaper LiVjel 1071 | 

Tender 1071 i 

Drunkenness 1073 

Marriage Contract 1074 

School Months 1076 

Infants 1076 

Adoption of Children 1077 

Church Organizations ...Wrt-i 

Game .....1078 i 



C, B. <fc Q.— 

Rush%-ille Branch 1006 

Quincv Branch 1009 

St. L. Di\-ision 1009 

T., P. & W. Rv 1010 

Fulton Co. N.-G. Ry 1038 



C. & L. Plank Road 1014 

Count\--.Seat Contest 1015 

Matrimonial 1018 

School Statistics 1020 

Table of Distances 1022 

Population 1023 

Wealth of Fulton Co. -.1023 

Fulton Countv Fair 1025 

Avon Fair 1027 

Reminiscences 1028 

" Fulton County" 1032 

Miscellaneous B i o g - 
raphies 1035 

Central Insane Hospital 160 

Indufstrial University 160 

The Crib 176 

Court- House 190 

Map of Fulton County 14-15 

Present Jail 643 

Old Court House 811 

First Court- House. Frontispiece 

Parlin, Wm 351 

Peirsol, J. E 333 

Peirsol, Dr. J. H 781 

Phelps, Wm 791 

Phelps, Mrs. Wm 791 

Potts. L. W Si5 

Powell, E. G 315 

Quillin. E 857 

Robb, Andrew 679 

Ross, Mrs. Mary 771 

Rothman, J. R 279 

Sa-vill. J. M 315 

Sheplev, T. J 571 

Smith,'Wm. H 468 

Standard, Thos 739 

Standard, Rachel 739 

Stockdale, Jas .537 

TenEvck, Peter 625 

Toler, Dr. B. C 413 

Turner, James 468 

Welch. Dr. J. K 873 

Wedge, Dr. D. 825 

Worrell, J. J 679 

Millers 1080 

Paupers 1080 

Public and Private Convey- 
ances 1082 

Wages and Stakeholders 1083 

Sunday , 10a5 

Definition of Commercial 

Terms 1085 

Legal Weights and Meas- 
ures 1085 

Bees 1084 

Dogs lf)81 

Crueln- to Animals 108<i 

Names. 108<> 

U. S. Mails 108<; 

Rates of Postage 1088 

Rates of Postage on Third- Matter 1069 

Registered Matter 1090 

Monev '^-''— io<tO 






T. I X. 

T. J X 

"''^e... o/>^ 




-n^ ^ 




The numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities 
found in various parts of our country, clearly demonstrate that a 
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad 
surface of our continent before its possession by the present In- 
dians; but the date of their rule of the Western World is so re- 
mote that all traces of their history, their progress and decav, lie 
buried in deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Euro- 
peans came, had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the 
forests were all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many cen- 
turies; and naught existed to point out who and what they were 
who formerly lived, and loved, and labored, and died, on the conti- 
nent of America. This pre-historic race is known as the Mound- 
Builders, from the numerous large mounds of earth-works left by 
them. The remains of the works of this people form the most in- 
teresting class of antiquities discovered in the United States. Their 
character can be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences 
and the peculiarities of the only remains left, — the mounds. They 
consist of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, 
idols, cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure 
grounds, etc., etc. Their habitations must have been tents, struc- 
tures of wood, or other perishable material; otherwise their remains 
would be numerous. If the Mound-Builders were not the ancestors 
of the Indians, who were they? The oblivion whicli has closed over 
them is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answei to 
the question. Those who do not believe in the common parentage 
of mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of the West- 
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came 
from the East, and imagine they can see coincidences in the religion 
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of 

18 mSTOKV ()1<" ILLINOIS. 

the Mound- Builders, They were, no doubt, idolators, and it hh^ 
been conjectured tiiat the sun was tlie object of their adoration. Tl»e 
mounds were generally built in a situation aifording a view of the 
rising sun: when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the 
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried alwaye 
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially en- 
closed by a semi-circular pavement, it was on the east side; wheb 
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were 
laid in a direction east and west; and, tinully. medals have been 
found representing the sun and his raj's of light. 

At what period they came to this country, is likewise a matter oi 
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among 
them, it has been inferred that the time was verv remote. Their 
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which 
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoved 
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people 
would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society 
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. 

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this 
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact 
that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small 
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are 
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost 
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the 
bluffs which border the narrower vallej's; so that when one finds him- 
self in such positions as to command the grandest views for river 
scenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing upon, 
or in close proximity to, some one or more of these traces of the 
labors of an ancient people. 


On the top of the high blufis that skirt the west bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, about two and a half miles from (J-alena, are a number of 
these silent monuments of a pre-historic age. The spot is one of 
surpassing beauty. From that point may be obtained a view of a 
portion of three States, — Illinois, Iowa and "Wisconsin. A hundred 
feet below, at the foot of the perpendicular clifis, the trains of the 
Illinois Central Railroad thunder around the curve, the portage is 
in full view, and the " Father of Waters," with its numerous bayous 


and islands, sketches a grand pamorama for miles above and below. 
Here, probably thousands of years ago, a race of men now extinct, 
and unknown even in the traditions of the Indians who inhabited 
that section for centuries before the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, built these strangely wonderful and enigmatical mounds. At 
this point these mounds are circular and conical in form. The larg- 
est one is at least forty feet in diameter at the base, and not less 
than fifteen feet high, even yet, after it has been beaten by the 
storms of many centuries. On its top stands the large stump of an 
oak tree that was cut down about tifty years ago, and its annual 
rings indicate a growth of at least 200 years. 

One of the most singular earth-works in the State was found on 
the top of a ridge near the east bank of the Sinsinawa creek in the 
lead region. It resembled some huge animal, the head, ears, nose, 
legs and tail, and general outline of which being as perfect as 
if made bv men versed in modern art. The ridjje on which it was 
situated, stands on the prairie, 300 yards wide, 100 feet in height, 
and rounded on the top by a deep deposit of clay. Centrally, 
along the line of its summit, and thrown up in the form of an 
embankment three feet high, extended the outline of a quadruped 
measuring 250 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the 
tail, and having a width of 18 feet at the center of the body. The 
head was 35 feet in length, the ears 10 feet, legs 60 and tail 75. The 
curvature in both the fore and hind leijs was natural to an animal 
lying on its side. The general outline of the figure most nearly 
resembled the extinct animal known to ojeoloo-ists as the Mcirathe- 
rium. The question naturally arises. By whom and for what pur- 
pose was this earth figure raised? Some have conjectured that 
numbers of this now extinct animal lived and roamed over the prai- 
ries of Illinois when the Mound-Builders first made their appearance 
on the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and that their wonder 
and admiration, excited by the colossal dimensions of these huge 
creatures, found some expression in the erection of this figure. 
The bones of some similar gigantic animals were exhumed on this 
stn'eam about three miles from the same place. 


Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the Western 
country ia 1817, speaking of the mounds in the American Bottom, 
says: "The great number and extremely large size of some of 


them may be regarded as furnishing, with other circumstances, 
evidences of tlieir antiquity. 1 have sometimes been induced to 
think that at the period wlien they were constructed there was a 
population here as numerous as that which once animated the 
borders of the Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most num- 
erous, as well as considerable, of these remains are found in pre- 
cisely those parts of the country where the traces of a numerous 
population might be looked for, namely, from the mouth of the 
Ohio on the east side of the Mississippi, to the Illinois river, and 
on the west from the St. Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly 
satisfied that cities similar to those of ancient Mexico, of several 
hundred thousand souls, have existed in this country." 

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds — 
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments 
were built, and the race who built them vanished from the face 
of the earth, ages before the Indians occupied the land, but their 
date must probably forever baffle human skill and ingenuity. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture 
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the 
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than 
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greater number 
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincina; a his-her deo'ree of civ- 
ilization than that attained by the Indians. The ancient earth- 
works of the Mound -Builders have occasionally been appropriated 
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may 
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by 
their greater stature. 

What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query 
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works 
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was 
their posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first 
visited by the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with 
the exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Pelics com- 
mon to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is believed 
that the religious uses which tliey subserved were the same. If, 
indeed, the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the 
more ancient Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the 
cause of their overthrow, and final extermination. 

A thousand other queries naturally arise respecting these nations 


which now repose under the ground, but the most searching investi- 
gation can give us only vagne speculations for answers. No histo- 
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given an 
account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting 


FoUowino; the Monnd-Builders as inhabitants of North America, 
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magniticent 
cities the ruins of which are found in Central America. This peo- 
ple was far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the 
Mound-Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins 
of broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples, 
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the 
ground, must have been of great extent, magnificent and very pop- 
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect 
such colossal structures, and, again, the time required to reduce 
them to their present ruined state, we can conceive something of 
their antiquity. These cities must have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were being built. 

The third race inhabiting North America, distinct from the 
former two in every particular, is the present Indians. They 
were, when visited by the early discoverers, without cultivation, 
refinement or literature, and far behind the Mound-Builders in 
the knowledge of the arts. The question of their origin has long 
interested archasologists, and is the most difficult they have been 
called upon to answer. Of their predecessors the Indian tribes 
knew nothing; they even had no traditions respecting them. It is 
quite certain that they were the successors of a race which had 
entirely passed away ages before the discovery of the New World. 
One hypothesis is that the American Indians are an original race 
indigenous to the Western hemisphere. Those who entertain this 
view think their peculiarities of physical structure preclude the 
possibility of a common parentage with the rest of mankind. 
Prominent among those distinctive traits is the hair, which in the 
red man is round, in the white man oval, and in the black man flat. 
A more common supposition, however, is that they are a derivative 
race, and sprang from one or more of the ancient peoples of Asia. 
In the absence of all authentic history, and when even tradition is 


wanting, any attempt to point out the particular location of their 
origin must prove unsatisfactory. Though the exact place of origin 
may never be known, yet the striking coincidence of physical 
organization between the Oriental type of mankind and the Indians 
point unmistakably to some part of Asia as the place whence they 
emigrated, which was originally peopled to a great extent by the 
children of Shem. In this connection it has been claimed that the 
meeting of the Europeans, Indians and Africans on the continent 
of America, is the fulfillment of a prophecy as recorded in Gen- 
esis ix. 27: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the 
tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant." Assuming the 
theory to be true that the Indian tribes are of Shemitic origin, 
they were met on this continent in the fifteenth century by the 
Japhetic race, after the two stocks had passed around the globe by 
directly difierent routes. A few years afterward the Hamitic 
branch of the human family were brought from the coast of Africa. 
During the occupancy of the continent by the three distinct races, 
the children of Japheth have grown and prospered, while the called 
and not voluntarv sons of Ham have endured a servitude in the 
wider stretching: vallevs of the tents of Shem. 

When Christopher Columbus had finally succeeded in demon- 
strating the trutli of his theory that by sailing westward from Eu- 
rope land would be discovered, landing on the Island of Bermuda 
he supposed he had reached the East Indies. This was an error, 
but it led to the adoption of the name of " Indians " for the inhab- 
itants of the Island and the main land of America, by which name 
the red men of America have ever since been known. 

Of the several great branches of Xorth American Indians the 
only ones entitled to consideration in Illinois history are the Algon- 
quins and Iroquois. At the time of the discovery of America the 
former occupied the Atlantic seaboard, while the home of the 
Iroquois was as an island in this vast area of Algonquin popula- 
tion. The latter great nation spread over a vast territory, and various 
tribes of Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, adopting, 
in time, distinct tribal customs and laws. An almost continuous 
warfare was carried on between tribes; but later, on the entrance of 
the white man into their beloved homes, every foot of territory 
was fiercely disputed by the confederacy of many neighboring tribes. 
The Algonquins formed the most extensive alliance to resist the 
encroachment of the whites, especially the English. Such was the 


nature of Kin<^ Philip's war. This King, with his Algonquin 
braves, spread terror and desolation throughout New England. With 
the Algonquins as the controlling spirit, a confederacy of conti- 
nental proportions was the result, embracing in its alliance the tribes 
of every name and lineage from the Northern lakes to the gulf. 
Pontiac, having breathed into them his implacable hate of the 
English intruders, ordered the conflict to commence, and all the 
British colonies trembled before the desolating fury of Indian 


The Illinois confederacy, the various tribes of which comprised 
most of the Indians of Illinois at one time, was composed of five 
tribes: the Tamaroas, Michigans, Kaskaskias, Cahokas, and Peorias. 
The Illinois, Miamis and Delawares were of the same stock. As 
early as 1670 the priest Father Marquette mentions frequent visits 
made by individuals of this confederacy to the missionary station at 
St. Esprit, near the western extremity of Lake Superior. At that 
time they lived west of the Mississippi, in eight villages, whither 
they had been driven from the shores of Lake Michigan by the 
Iroquois. Shortly afterward they began to return to their old 
hunting ground, and jnost of them finally settled in Illinois. 
Joliet and Marquette, in 1673, met with a band of them on their 
famous voyage of discovery down the Mississippi. They were 
treated with the greatest hospitality by the principal chief. On their 
return voyage up the Illinois river tliey stopped at the principal 
town of the confederacy, situated on the banks of the river seven 
miles below the present town of Ottawa. It was then called Kas- 
kaskia. Marquette returned to the village in 1675 and established 
the mission of the Immaculate Conception, the oldest in Illinois. 
When, in 1679, LaSalle visited the town, it had greatly increased, 
numbering 460 lodges, and at the annual assembly of the different 
tribes, from 6,000 to 8,000 souls. In common with other western 
tribes, they became involved in the conspiracy of Pontiac, although 
displaying no very great warlike spirit. Pontiac lost his life by 
the hands of one of the braves of the Illinois tribe, which so enraged 
the nations that had followed him as their leader that they fell upon 
the Illinois to avenge his death, and almost annihilated them. 


Tradition states that a band of this tribe, in order to escape the 
general slaughter, took refuge upon the high rock on the Illinois 


river since known as Starved Rock. Nature has made this one of 
the most formidable militarj' fortresses in the world. From the 
waters which wash its base it rises to an altitude of 125 feet. Three 
of its sides it is impossible to scale, while the one next to the land 
may be climbed with difficulty. From its summit, almost as inac- 
cessible as an eagle's nest, the valley of the Illinois is seen as 
a landscape of exquisite beauty. The river near by struggles 
between a number of wooded islands, while further below it quietly 
meanders through vast meadows till it disappears like a thread of 
liirht in the dim distance. On the summit of this rock the Illinois 
were besieged by a superior force of the Pottawatomies whom the 
great strength of their natural fortress enabled them to keep at bay. 
Hunger and thirst, however, soon accomplished what the enemy 
was unable to effect. Surrounded b}' a relentless foe, without food 
or water, they took a last look at their beautiful hunting grounds, 
and with true Indian fortitude lay down and died from starvation. 
Years afterward their bones were seen whitening in that place. 

At the beginning of the present century the remnants of this 
once powerful confederacy were forced into a small compass around 
Kaskaskia. A few years later they emigrated to the Southwest, 
and in 1850 they were in Indian Territory, and numbered but 84 


The Sacs and Foxes, who figured most conspicuously in the later 
history of Illinois, inhabited the northwestern portion of the State. 
By long residence together and intermarriage they had substan- 
tiall}' become one people. Drake, in his "Life of Black Hawk," 
speaks of these tribes as follows : " The Sacs and Foxes fought their 
way from the waters of the St. Lawrence to Green Bay, and after 
reaching that place, not only sustained themselves against hostile 
tribes, but were the most active and courageous in the subjugation, 
or rather the extermination, of the numerous and powerful Illinois 
confederacy. They had many wars, offensive and defensive, with 
the Sioux, the Pawnees, the Osages, and other tribes, some of which 
are ranked among the most fierce and ferocious warriors of the 
whole continent; and it does not appear that in these conflicts, run- 
ning through a long period of years, they were found wanting in 
this, the greatest of all savage virtues. In the late war with Great 
Britain, a party of the Sacs and Foxes fought under the British 


standard as a matter of choice; and in the recent contest between a 
fragment of these tribes and the United States, although defeated 
and literally cut to pieces by an overwhelming force, it is very 
questionable whether their reputation as braves would suffer by a 
comparison with that of their victors. It is believed that a careful 
review of their history, from the period when they tirst established 
themselves on the waters of the Mississippi down to the present 
time, will lead the inquirer to the conclusion that the Sacs and 
Foxes were truly a courageous people, shrewd, politic, and enter- 
prising, with no more ferocity and treachery of character than is 
common among the tribes by whom they were surrounded," These 
tribes at the time of the Black Hawk War were divided into twenty 
families, twelve of which were Sacs and eight Foxes. The follow- 
ing were other prominent tribes occupying Illinois: the Kickapoos, 
Shawnees, Mascoulius, Piaukishaws, Pottawatomies, Chippewas, 
and Ottawas. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strens:th, were furnished with a bow and arrow and tauo-ht to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing large quadrupeds 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 
sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the jnelding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the aiiimals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 


speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted, it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. Tnese formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchangeof articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself i')v retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the InJian's 
glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his .person with all tlie refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easilj' be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 


imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens,— in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 


The most desperate single-handed combat with Indians ever 
fought on the soil of Illinois was that of Tom Iliggins, August 21, 
1814. Higgins was 25 years old, of a muscular and compact 
build, not tall, but strong and active. In danger he possessed a 
quick and discerning judgment, and was without fear. He was a 
member of Journey's rangers, consisting of eleven men, stationed 
at Hill's Fort, eight miles southwest of the present Greenville, Put- 
nam county. Discovering Indian signs near the fort, the company, 
early the following morning, started on the trail. They had not 
gone far before they were in an ambuscade of a larger party. At 
the first fire their commander. Journey, and three men fell, and 
six reti'eated to the fort; but Higgins stopped to "have another 
pull at the red-skins," and, taking deliberate aim at a straggling 
savage, shot him do^vn. Higgins' horse had been wounded at the 
first fire, as he supposed, mortally. Coming to, he was about to 
effect his escape, when the familiar voice of Burgess hailed him 
from the long grass, "Tom, don't leave me." Higgins told him to 
come along, but Burgess replied that his leg was smashed. Hig- 
gins attempted to raise him on his horse, but the animal took fright 
and ran away. Higgins then directed Burgess to limp off" as well 
as he could; and by crawling through the grass he reached the fort 
while the former loaded his gun and remained behind io protect 
him against the pursuing enemy. When Burgess was well out of 
the way, Higgins took another route, which led by a small thicket, 
to throw any wandering enemy off the trail. Here he was con- 
fronted by three savages approaching. He ran to a little ravine 
near for shelter, but in the efibrt discovered for the first time tha,t. 


he was badly wounded in the ]eg. He was closely pressed by the 
largest, a powerful Indian, who lodged a ball in his thigh. He fell, 
but instantly rose again, only, however, to draw the fire of the other 
two, and again fell wounded. The Indians now advanced upon him 
with their tomahawks and scalping knives; but as he presented his 
gun first at one, then at another, from his place in the ravine, each 
wavered in his purpose. Neither party had time to load, and the 
large Indian, supposing finally that Iliggins' gun was empty, rushed 
forward with uplifted tomahawk and a yell; but as he came near 
enough, was shot down. At this the others raised the war-whoop, 
and rushed upon the wounded Higgins, and now a hand-to-hand 
conflict ensued. Thev darted at him with their knives time and 
again, inflicting many ghastly flesh-wounds, which bled profusely. 
One of the assailants threw his tomahawk at him with such pre- 
cision as to sever his ear and lay bare his skull, knocking him down. 
They now rushed in on him, but he kicked them ofi', and grasping 
one of their spears thrust at him, was raised up by it. He quickly 
seized his gun, and by a powerful blow crushed in the skull of one, 
but broke his rifle. His remaining antagonist still kept up the con- 
test, making thrusts with his knife at the bleeding and exhausted 
Higgins, which he parried with his broken gun as well as he could. 
Most of this desperate engagement was in plain view of the fort; 
but the rangers, having been in one ambuscade, saw in this fight 
only a ruse to draw out the balance of the garrison. But a Mrs. 
Pursely, residing at the fort, no longer able to see so brave a man 
contend for his life unaided, seized a gun, mounted a horse, and 
started to his rescue. At this the men took courage and hastened 
along. The Indian, seeing aid comii.g, fled. Higgins, being near- 
ly hacked to pieces, fainted from loss of blood. He was carried to 
the fort. There being no surgeon, his comrades cut two balls from 
his flesh; others remained in. For days his life was despaired of; 
but by tender nursing he ultimately regained his health, although 
badly crippled. He resided in Fayette county for many years after, 
and died in 1829. 




The first white nuiii who ever set foot on the soil ernhraced within 
the boundary of tlie present populous State of Illinois was Nicli- 
olas Perrot, a Frenchman. He was sent to Chicago in the year 1671 
by M. Talon, Intendant of Canada, for the purpose of inviting the 
Western Indians to a great peace convention to be held at Green 
Bay. This convention had for its chief object the promulgation of 
a plan for the discovery of the Mississippi river. This great river 
had been discovered by De Soto, the Spanish explorer, nearly one 
hundred and fifty years previously, but his nation left the country 
a wilderness, without further exploration or settlement within its 
borders, in which condition it remained until the river was dis- 
covered by Joliet and Marquette in 1673. It was deemed a wise 
policy to secure, as far as possible, the friendship and co-operation 
of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon an enterprise 
which their hostility might render disastrous. Thus the great con- 
vention was called. 


Although Perrot was the first European to visit Illinois, he was 
not the first to make any important discoveries. Tliis was left for 
Joliet and Marquette, which they accomplished two years thereafter. 
The former, Louis Joliet, was"born at Quebec in 161:5. He was 
educated for the clerical profession, but he abandoned it to 
engage in the fur trade. His companion. Father Jacques Mai'- 
quette, was a native of France, born in 1637. He was a Jesuit 
priest by education, and a man of simple faith and great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the In- 
dians. He was sent to America in 1666 as a missionary. To con- 
vert the Indians he penetrated the wilderness a thousand miles 
in advance of civilization, and bv his kind attention in their afflic- 
tions he won their affections and made them his lasting friends. 
There were others, however, who visited Illinois even prior to the 
famous exploration of Joliet and Marquette. In 1672 the Jesuit 


missionaries, Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the 
standard of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through 
western Wisconsin and northern Illinois. 

According to the pre-arranged plan referred to above, at the Jes- 
uit mission on the Strait of Mackinaw, Joliet joined Marquette, 
and with five other Frenchmen and a simple outfit the daring ex- 
plorers on the ITtli of Maj, 1673, set out on their perilous vojao-e 
to discover the MississijDpi. Coasting along the northern shore of 
Lake Michigan, they entered Green Bay, and passed thence up Fox 
river and Lake Winnebago to a village of the Muscatines and 
Miamis, where great interest was taken in the expedition by the 
natives. With guides they proceeded down the river. Arriving 
at the portage, they soon carried their light canoes and scanty bag- 
gage to the Wisconsin, about three miles distant. Their guides 
now refused to accompany them farther, and endeavored, by re- 
citing the dangers incident to the voyage, to induce them to return. 
They stated that huge demons dwelt in the great river, whose voices 
could be heard a long distance, and who engulfed in the raging 
waters all who came within their reach. They also represented that 
if any of them should escape the dangers of the river, fierce tribes of 
Indians dwelt upon its banks ready to complete the work of de- 
struction. They proceeded on their journey, however, and on the 
17th of June pushed their frail barks on the bosom of the stately 
Mississippi, dawn which they smoothly glided for nearly a hundred 
miles. Here Joliet and Marquette, leaving their canoes in charge 
of their men, went on the western shore, where they discovered an 
Indian village, and were kindly treated. They journeyed on down 
the unknown river, passing the mouth of the Illinois, then run- 
ning into the current of the muddy Missouri, and afterwaid the 
waters of the Ohio joined with them on their journey southward. 
Near the mouth of the Arkansas they discovered Indians who 
showed signs of hostility; but when Marquette's mission of peace 
was made known to them, they were kindly received. After pro- 
ceeding up the Arkansas a short distance, at the advice of the 
natives tlley turned their faces northward to retrace their steps. Af- 
ter several weeks of hard toil they reached the Illinois, up which 
stream they proceeded to Lake Michigan. Following the western 
shore of the lake, they entered Green Bay the latter part of Sep- 
tember, having traveled a distance of 2,500 miles. 


On his way np the Illinois, Marquette visited the Kaskaskias, 
near what is now Utica, in LaSalle county. The following vear 
he returned and established anion^ them the mission of the Im- 
maculate Virgin Mary. This was the last act of his life. He died 
in Michigan, May 18, 1675. 

lasalle's explorations. 

The first French occupation of Illinois was effected by LaSalle, 
in 1680. Having constructed a veesel, the " Griffin," above the 
falls of Niagara, he sailed to Green Bay, and passed thence in 
canoe to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, by which and the Kan- 
kakee he reached the Illinois in January, 1680; and on the 3d he 
entered the expansion of the river now called Peoria lake. Here, 
at the lower end of the lake, on its eastern bank, now in Tazewell 
' county, he erected Fort Crevecoeur. The place where this ancient 
fort stood may still be seen just below the outlet of Peoria lake. It 
had, however, but a temporary existence. From this point LaSalle 
determined, at that time, to descend the Mississippi to its mouth. 
This he did not do, however, until two years later. Returning to 
Fort Frontenac for the purpose of getting material with which to 
rig his vessel, he left the fort at Peoria in charge of his lieutenant, 
Henri Tonti, an Italian, who had lost one of his hands by the 
explosion of a grenade in the Sicilian wars. Tonti had with him 
fifteen men, most of whom disliked LaSalle, and were ripe for a 
revolt the first opportunity. Two men who had, previous to LaSalle's 
departure, been sent to look for the " Giiffin " now returned and 
reported that the vessel was lost and that Fort Frontenac was in 
the hands of LaSalle's creditors. This disheartening intelligence 
had the effect to enkindle a spirit of mutiny among the garrison. 
Tonti had no sooner left the fort, with a few men, to fortify what 
was afterward known as Starved Pock, than the garrison at the 
fort refused longer to submit to authority. They destroyed the 
fort, seized the ammunition, provisions, and other portables of value, 
and fied. Only two of their number remained true. These hast- 
ened to apprise Tonti of what had occurred. He thereupon sent 
four of the men with him to inform LaSalle. Thus was Tonti in 
the midst of treacherous savages, with only five men, two of whom 
were the friars Pibourde and Membre. With these he immediately 
returned to the fort, collected what tools had not been destroyed, 
and conveyed theui to the great town of the Illinois Indians. 


By this voluntary display of confidence he hoped to remove the 
jealousy created in the minds of the Illinois by the enemies of La- 
Salle. Here he awaited, unmolested, the return of LaSalle. 


!N^either Tonti nor his wild associates suspected that hordes of Iro- 
quois were gathering preparatory to rushing down upon their 
country and reducing it to an uninhabited waste. Already these 
hell-hounds of the wilderness had destroyed the Hurons, Eries, and 
other natives on the lakes, and wei-e now directing their attention 
to the Illinois for new victims. Five hundred Iroquois warriors 
Bet out for the home of the Illinois. All was fancied security and 
idle repose in the great town 'of this tribe, as the enemy stealthily 
approached. Suddenly as a clap of thunder from a cloudless sky 
the listless inhabitants were awakened from their lethar^v. A 
Shawnee Indian, on his return home after a visit to the Illinois, 
first discovered the invaders. To save his friends from the im- 
pending danger, he hurriedly returned and apprised th^m of the 
coming enemy. This intelligence spread with lightning rapidity 
over the town, and each wigwam disofors^ed its boisterous and as- 
tonnded inmates. Women snatched their children, and in a delirium 
of f.ight wandered aimlessly about, rending the air with their 
screams. The men, more self-possessed, seized their arms ready 
for the coming fray. Tonti, long an object of suspicion, was soon 
surrounded by an angry crowd of warriors, who accused him of be- 
ing an emissary of the enemy. His inability to defend himself 
properly, in consequence of not fully understanding their language 
left them still inclined to believe him guilty, and they seized his 
effects from the fort and threw them into the river. The women 
and children were sent down the river for safety, and the wai riors, 
not exceeding four hundred, as most of their young men were ofi" 
huntino:, returned to the villaofe. Alon^ the shores of the river 
they kindled huge bonfires, and spent the entire night in greasing 
their bodies, painting their faces, and performing the war-dance, 
to prepare for the approaching enemy. At early dawn the scouts 
who had been sent out returned, closely followed by the Iroquois. 
The scouts had seen a chief arrayed in French costume, and re- 
ported their suspicions that LaSalle was in the camp of the enemy, 
and Tonti again became an object of jealousy. A concourse of 
wildly gesticulating savages immediately gathered about him, de- 


manding his life, and nothing saved him from, their uplifted weap- 
ons hut a promise that he and his men would go with them to meet 
the enemy. With their suspicions partly lulled, they hurriedly 
crossed the river and met the foe, when both commenced firing. 
Toiiti, seeino- that the Illinois were outnumbered and likely to 
be defeated, determined, at the imminent risk of liis life, to stay 
the fio-ht by an attempt at mediation. Presuming on the treaty of 
peace then existing between the French and Iroquois, he exchanged 
his gun for a belt of wampum and advanced to meet the savage 
multitude, attended by three companions, who, being unnecessarily 
exposed to danger, were dismissed, and he proceeded alone. A 
short walk brought him in the midst of a pack of yelping devils, 
writhing and distorted with fiendish rage, and impatient to shed 
his blood. As the result of his swarthy Italian complexion and 
half-savage costume, he was at first taken for an Indian, and before 
the mistake was discovered a young warrior approached and stabbed 
at his heart. Fortunately the blade was turned aside by coming 
in contact with a rib, yet a large fiesh wound was inflicted, which 
bled profusely. At this juncture a chief discovered his true char- 
acter, and he was led to the rear and efibrts were made to staunch 
his wound. When sufficiently recovered, he declared the Illinois 
were under the protection of the French, and demanded, in consid- 
eration of the treaty between the latter and the Iroquois, that they 
should be suffered to remain without further molestation. Durino- 
this conference a young warrior snatched Tonti's hat, and, fleeing 
with it to the front, held it aloft on the end of his gun in view of 
the Illinois. The latter, judging that Tonti had been killed, 
renewed the figrht with great vio^or. Simultaneouslv, intellio^ence 
was brought to the Iroquois that Frenchmen were assisting their 
enemies in the fight, when the contest over Tonti was renewed 
with redoubled fury. Some declared that he should be immediately 
put to death, while others, friendly to LaSalle, with equal earnest- 
ness demanded that he should be set at liberty. During their 
clamorous debate, his hair was several times lifted by a Imge sav- 
age who stood at his back with a scalping knife ready for execution. 
Tonti at length turned the current of the angry controversy in hie 
favor, by stating that the Illinois were 1,200 strong, and that there 
were 60 Frenchmen at the village ready to assist them. This state- 
ment obtained at least a partial credence, and his tornientors now 


determined to use him as an instrument to delude the Illinois with a 
pretended truce. The old warriors, therefore, advanced to the front 
and ordered the firing to cease, while Tonti, dizzy from the loss of 
blood, was furnished with an emblem of peace and sent staggering 
across the plain to rejoin the Illinois. The two friars who had just 
returned from a distant hut, whither they had repaired for prayer 
and meditation, were the first to meet him and bless God for what 
they regarded as a miraculous deliverance. With the assurance 
brought by Tonti, the Illinois re-crossed the river to their lodges, 
followed by the enemy as far as the opposite bank. Not long after, 
large numbers of the latter, under the pretext of hunting, also crossed 
the river and hung in threatening groups about the town. These 
hostile indications, and the well-known disregard which the Iroquois 
had always evinced for their pledges, soon convinced the Illinois 
that their only safety was in flight. With this conviction they set 
fire to their village, and while the vast volume of flames and smoke 
diverted the attention of the enemy, they quietly dropped down the 
river to join their women and children. As soon as the flames would 
permit, the Iroquois entrenched themselves on the site of the vil- 
lage. Tonti and his men were ordered by the suspicious savages 
to leave their hut and take up their abode in the fort. 

At first the Iroquois were much elated at the discomfiture of the 
Illinois, but when two days afterward they discovered them recon- 
noitering their intrenchments, their courage greatly subsided. 
With fear they recalled the exaggerations of Tonti respecting their 
numbers, and concluded to send him with a hostage to make over- 
tures of peace. He and his hostage were received with delight by 
the Illinois, who readily assented to the proposal which he brought, 
and in turn sent back with him a hostage to the Iroquois. On his 
return to the fort his life was again placed in jeopardy, and the 
treaty was with great difficulty ratified. The young and inexpe- 
rienced Illinois hostage betrayed to his crafty interviewers the nu- 
merical weakness of his tribe, and the savages immediately rushed 
upon Tonti, and charged him with having deprived them of the spoils 
and honors of victory. It now required all the tact of which he was 
master to escape. After much difficulty however, the treaty was con- 
cluded, but the savages, to show their contempt for it, immediately 
commenced constructing canoes in which to descend the river and 
attack the Illinois. 







Tonti managed to apprise the latter of their designs, and he and 
Membre were soon after summoned to attend a council of the Iro- 
quois, who still labored under a wholesome fear of Count Frontenac, 
and disliking to attack the Illinois in the presence of the French, 
thej thought to try to induce them to leave the country. At the 
assembling of the council, six packages of beaver skins were intro- 
duced, and the savage orator, presenting them separately to Tonti, 
explained the nature of each. "The first two," said he, "were to de- 
clare that the children of Count Frontenac, that is, the Illinois, 
should not be es-ten; the next was a plaster to heal the wounds of 
Tonti; the next was oil wherewith to anoint him and Membre, 
that they might not be fatigued in traveling; the next proclaimed 
that the sun was bright; and the sixth and last required them to 
decamp and go home." 

At the mention of going home, Tonti demanded of them when 
they intended to set the example by leaving the Illinois in the 
peaceable possession of their country, which they had so unjustly in- 
vaded. The council grew boisterous and angry at the idea that 
they should be demanded to do what they required of the French, 
and some of its members, forgetting their previous pledge, declared 
that they would "eat Illinois flesh before they departed." Tonti, in 
imitation of the Indians' manner of expressing scorn, indignantly 
kicked away the presents, of fur, saying, since they intended to de- 
vour the children of Frontenac with cannibal ferocity, he would not 
accept their gifts. This stern rebuke resulted in the expulsion of 
Tonti and his companion froai the council, and the next day the 
chiefs ordered them to leave the country. 

Tonti had now, at the great peril of his life, tried every expedient 
to prevent the slaughter of the Illinois. There was little to bo ac- 
complished by longer remaining in the country, and as longer delay 
might imperil the lives of his own men, he determined to depart, not 
knowing where or when he would be able to rejoin LaSalle. With 
this object in view, the party, consisting of six persons, embarked in 
canoes, which soon proved leaky, and they were compelled to land 
for the purpose of making repairs. While thus employed, Father Ri- 
bourde, attracted by the beauty of the surrounding landscape, wan- 
dered f >rth among the groves for meditation and prayer. Not return- 
ing in due time, Tonti became alarmed, and started with a compan- 


ion to ascertain the cause of the long delay. They soon discovered 
tracks of Indians, by whom it was supposed he had been seized, and 
guns were fired to direct his return, in case he was alive. Seeing 
nothing of him during the day, at night they built fires along the 
bank of the river and retired to the opposite side, to see who might 
approach them. Near midnight a number of Indians were seen 
flitting about the light, by whom, no doubt, had been made the tracks 
seen tlie previous day. It was afterward learned that they were a 
band of Kickapoos, who had for several daj'S been hovering about 
the camp of the Iroquois in quest of scalps. They had fell in 
with the inoffensive old friar and scalped him. Thus, in the 65th 
year of his age, the only heir to a wealthy Burgundian house per- 
ished under the war-club of the savages for whose salvation he had 
renounced ease and affluence. 


During this tragedy a far more rev^olting one was being enacted 
in the great town of Illinois. The Iroquois were tearing open the 
graves of the dead, and wreaking their vengeance upon the bodies 
made hideous by putrefaction. At this desecration, it is said, they 
even ate portions of the dead bodies, while subjecting them to every 
indignity that brutal hate could inflict. Still unsated by their hell- 
ish brutalities, and now unrestrained by the presence of the French, 
they started in pursuit of the retreating Illinois. Day after day 
they and the opposing forces moved in compact array down the 
river, neither being able to gain any advantage over the other. At 
length the Iroquois obtained by falsehood that which number and 
prowess denied them. They gave out that their object was to pos- 
sess the country, not by destroying, but by driving out its present 
inhabitants. Deceived by this false statement, the Illinois separa- 
ted, some descending the Mississippi and others crossing to the 
western shore. Tlie Taraaroas, more credulous than the rest, re- 
mained near the mouth of the Illinois, and were suddenlv attacked 
by an overwhelming force of the enemy. The men fled in dismay, 
and the women and children, to the number of 700, fell into the 
hands of the ferocious enemy. Then followed the tortures, butch- 
eries and burnings which only the infuriated and imbruted Iroquois 
could perpetrate. LaSalle on his return discovered the half-charred 
bodies of women and children still bound to the stakes where they 
had suffered all the torments hellish hate could devise. In addition 


to those who had been burnt, the mangled bodies of women and 
children thickly covered the ground, many of which bore marks of 
brutality too horrid for record. 

After the ravenous horde had sufficiently glutted their greed for 
carnage, they retired from the country. The Illinois returned and 
rebuilt their town. 


After the death of Ribourde, Tonti and his men again resumed 
their journey. Soon again their craft became disabled, when they 
abandoned it and started on foot for Lake Michigan, Their 
supply of provisions soon became exhausted, and they were 
compelled to subsist in a great measure on roots and herbs. 
One of their companions wandered off in search of game, and lost 
his way, and several days elapsed before he rejoined them. In his 
absence he was without flints and bullets, yet contrived to shoot 
some^turkeys by using slugs cut from a pewter porringer and afire- 
brand to discharge his gun, Tonti fell sick of a fever and greatly 
retarded the progress of the march. Nearing Green Bay, the cold 
increased and the means of subsistence decreased and the party would 
have perished had they not found a few ears of corn and some froz- 
en squashes in the fields of a deserted village, Near the close of 
j^ovember they had reached the Pottawatomies, who warmly greet- 
ed them. Their chief was an ardent admirer of the French, and 
was accustomed to say: " There were but three great captains in the 
world, — himself, Tonti and LaSalle." For the above account of 
Tonti's encounter with tlie Iroquois, we are indebted to Davidson 
and Stuve's History of Illinois, 

lasalle's return. 

LaSalle returned to Peoria only to meet the hideous picture of 
devastation, Tonti had escaped, but LaSalle knew not whither. Pass- 
ing down the lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discov- 
ered that the fort had been destroyed; but the vessel which he had 
partly constructed was still on the stocks, and but slightly injured. 
After further fruitless search he fastened to a tree a painting repre- 
senting himself and party sitting in a cxnoe and bearing a pipe of 
peace, and to the painting attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

LaSalle was born in France in 1643, of wealthy parentage, and edu- 
cated in a college of the Jesuits, from which he separated and came 
to Canada," a poor man, in 1G66. He was a man of daring genius, 


and outstripped all his competitors in exploits of travel and com- 
merce with the Indians. He was granted a large tract of land at 
LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. In 1669 
he visited the headquarters of the great Iroquois confederacy, at 
Onondaga, New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio 
river to the falls at Louisville. For many years previous, it must 
be remembered, missionaries and traders were obliged to make their 
way to the Northwest through Canada on account of the fierce 
hostility of the Iroquois along the lower lakes and Niagara river, 
which entirely closed this latter route to the upper lakes. Thej' 
carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, paddling them through 
Ottawa river to Lake Ni pissing, carrying them across the portage 
to French river, and descending that to Lake Huron. This being 
the route by which they reached the Northwest, we have an explana- 
tion of the fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established 
in the neighborhood of tlie upper lakes. LaSalle conceived the 
grand idea of opening the route by Niagara river and the Tower 
lakes to Canada commerce by sail vessels, connecting it with the 
navigation of the Mississippi, and thus opening a magnificent water 
communication from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. This truly grand and comprehensive purpose seems to have 
animated him in his wonderful achievements, and the matchless 
difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first step in the 
accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the 
present city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of 
land from the French crown, and a body of troops, bv which he 
repulsed the Iroquois and opened passage to Niagara Falls. Hav- 
ing by this masterly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto 
untried expedition, his next step, as we have seen, was to build a 
ship with which to sail the lakes. He was successful in this under- 
taking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a strange com- 
bination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently hated 
LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and united with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his success in opening new channels of commerce. While they were 
plodding with their bark canoes through the Ottawa, he was con- 
structino^ sailinof vessels to command the trade of the lakes and the 
Mississippi. These great plans excited the jealousy and envy of 


small traders, introduced treason and revolt into the ranks of his 
men, and linally led to the foul assassination by whicli his great 
achievements were permanently ended. 

lasalle's assassination. 
Again visiting the Illinois in the year 1682, LaSalle de- 
scended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. He erected a 
standard upon veliich he inscribed the arms of France, and took 
formal possession of the whole valley of this mighty river in the 
name of Louis XIV., then reigning, and in honor of whom he named 
the country Louisiana. LaSalle then returned to France, was 
appointed Governor, and returned with a fleet of immigrants for the 
purpose of planting a colony in Illinois. They arrived in due time 
in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to find the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, up which they intended to sail, his supply ship, with the 
immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on Matagorda Bay. 
With the fragments of the vessel he constructed rude huts and 
stockades on the shore for the protection of his followers, calling 
the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, 
returned to find his colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved 
to travel on foot to Illinois. With some twenty of his men they 
filed out of their fort on the 12th of January, 1687, and after the part- 
ing, — which was one of sighs, of tears, and of embraces, all seeming 
intuitively to know that they should see each otlier no more, — they 
started on their disastrous journey. Two of the party, Du Ilaut 
and Leotot, wlien on a hunting expedition in company with a 
nephew cf LaSalle, assassinated liim while asleep. The long 
absence of his nephew caused LaSalle to go in search of him. On 
approaching the murderers of his nephew, they fired upon him, kill- 
ing him instantly. They then despoiled the body of its clothing, 
and icft it to be devoured by the wild beasts of the forest. Thus, 
at the age of 43, perished one whose exploits have so greatly 
enriched the history of the New World. To estimate aright the 
marvels of his patient fortitude, one must follow on his track 
through the vast scene of his interminable journeyings, those thou- 
sands of weary miles of forest, marsh and river, where, again and 
again, in the bitterness of baffled striving, the untiring pilgrim 
pushed onward toward the goal he never was to attain. America 
owes him an enduring memory; for in this masculine figure, cast 


in iron, she sees the heroic pioneer who guided her to the possession 
of her richest lieritage. 

Tonti, who had been stationed at the fort on the Illinois, learning 
of LaSalle's unsuccessful voyage, immediately started down the 
Mississippi to his relief. Reaching the Gulf, lie found no traces of 
the colony. He then returned, leaving some of his men at the 
mouth of the Arkansas. These were discovered by the remnant of 
LaSalle's followers, who guided them to the fort on the Illinois, 
where they reported that LaSalle was in Mexico. The little band 
left at Fort St. Louis were finally destroyed by the Indians, and the 
murderers of LaSalle were shot. Thus ends the sad chapter of 
Kobert Cavalier de LaSalle's exploration. 



The first mission in Illinois, as we have already seen, was com- 
menced by Marquette in April, 1675. lie called the religious 
society which he established the " Mission of the Immaculate Con- 
ception," and the town Kaskaskia. The first military occupation of 
the country was at Fort Crevecoeur, erected in 1680; but there is no 
evidence that a settlement was commenced there, or at Peoria, on 
the lake above, at that early date. The first settlement of which there 
is any authentic account was commenced with the building of Fort 
St, Louis on the Illinois river in 1682; but this was soon abandoned. 
The oldest permanent settlement, not only in Illinois, but in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, is at Kaskaskia, situated six miles above the 
mouth of the Kaskaskia river. This was settled in 1690 by the 
removal of the mission from old Kaskaskia, or Ft. St. Louis, on the 
Illinois river. Cahokia was settled about the same time. The 
reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difticult route by Lake 
Michigan and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and 
travelers and traders traveled down and up the Mississippi by the 
Fox and Wisconsin rivers. It was removed to the vicinity of the 
Mississippi in order to be in the line of travel from Canada to 
Louirfiana, that is, the lower part of it, for it was all Louisiana then 
south of the lakes. Illinois came into possession of the French in 
1682, and was a dependency of Canada and a part of Louisiana. 
During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population 


probably never exceeded ten thousand. To the year 1T30 the fol- 
lowing five distinct settlements were made in the territory of 
Illinois, numbering, in population, 140 French families, about 600 
"converted " Indians, and many traders; Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia creek and about five miles below the present city of 
St. Louis; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia; Fort 
Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia; Kaskaskia, situated on the 
Kaskaskia river six miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, 
and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort Chartres. Fort Chartres was 
built under the direction of the Mississippi Company in 1718, and 
was for a time the headquarters of the military commandants of 
the district of Illinois, and the most impregnable fortress in JNorth 
America. It was also the center of wealth and fashion in the West. 
For about eighty years the French retained peaceable possession 
of Illinois. Their amiable disposition and tact of ingratiating them- 
selves with the Indians enabled them to escape almost entirely the 
broils which weakened and destroyed other colonies. Whether 
exploring remote rivers or traversing hunting grounds in pursuit 
of game, in the social circle or as participants in the religious exer- 
cises of the church, the red men became their associates and were 
treated with the kindness and consideration of brothers. For more 
than a hundred years peace between the white man and the red was 
unbroken, and when at last this reign of harmony terminated it 
was not caused by the conciliatory Frenchman, but by the blunt 
and sturdy Anglo-Saxon. During this century, or until the coun- 
try was occupied by the English, no regular court was ever held. 
When, in 1765, the country passed into the hands of the English, 
many of the French, rather than submit to a change in their insti- 
tutions, preferred to leave their homes and seek a new abode. 
There are, however, at the present time a few remnants of the old 
French stock in the State, who still retain to a great extent the 
ancient habits and customs of their fathers. 


During the earliest period of French occupation of this country, 
M. Tonti, LaSalle's attendant, was commander-in-chief of all the 
territory embraced between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, and 
extending east and west of the Mississippi as far as his ambition or 
imagination pleased to allow. He spent twenty-one years in estab- 
lishing forts and organizing the first settlements of Illinois, Sep- 


tember 14, 1712, the French government granted a monopoly of all 
the trade and commerce of the country to M. Crozat, a wealthy 
merchant of Paris, who established a trading company in Illinois, 
and it was by this means that the early settlements became perma- 
nent and others established. Crozat surrendered his charter in 
1717, and the Company of the West, better known as the Missis- 
sippi Company, was organized, to aid and assist the banking system 
of John Law, the most famous speculator of modern times, and 
perhaps at one time the wealthiest private individual the world 
has ever known ; but his treasure was transitory. Under the 
Company of the West a branch was organized called the Company 
of St. Philip's, for the purpose of working the rich silver mines sup- 
posed to be in Illinois, and Philip Renault was appointed as its 
agent. In 1719 he sailed from France with two hundred miners, 
laborers and mechanics. During 1719 the Company of the West 
was by royal order united with the Royal Company of the Indies, 
and had the influence and support of the crown, who was deluded 
by the belief that immense wealth would flow into the empty treas- 
ury of France. This gigantic scheme, one of the most extensive 
and wonderful bubbles ever blown up to astonish, deceive and ruin 
thousands of people, was set in operation by the fertile brain of 
John Law. Law was born in Scotland in 1671, and so rapid had 
been his career that at the age of twenty-three he was a " bankrupt, 
an adulterer, a murderer and an exiled outlaw." But he possessed 
great financial ability, and by his agreeable and attractive manners, 
and his enthusiastic advocacy of his schemes, he succeeded in 
inflaming the imagination of the mercurial Frenchmen, whose greed 
for gain led them to adopt any plans for obtaining wealth. 

Law arrived in Paris with two and a half millions of francs, 
which he had gained at the gambling table, just at the right time. 
Louis XIY, had just died and left as a legacy empty coffers and an 
immense public debt. Every thing and everybody was taxed to 
the last penny to pay even the interest. All the sources of in- 
dustry were dried up; the very wind which wafted the barks of 
commerce, seemed to have died away under the pressure of the 
time; trade stood still; the merchant, the trader, the artificer, once 
flourishing in affluence, were transformed into clamorous beggars. 
The life-blood that animated the kinordom was stagnated in all 
its arteries, and the danger of an awful crisis became such that 


the nation was on the verge of bankruptcy. At this critical junc- 
ture John Law arrived and proposed liis grand scheme of the 
Mississippi Company; 200,000 shares of stock at 500 livres each were 
at first issued. This sold readily and great profits were realized. 
More stock was issued, speculation became rife, the fever seized 
everybody, and the wildest speculating frenzy pervaded the whole 
nation. Illinois was thought to contain vast and rich mines of 
minerals. Kaskaskia, then scarcely more than the settlement of a 
few savages, was spoken of as an emporium of the most extensive 
traffic, and as rivaling some of the cities of Europe in refinement, 
fashion and religious culture. Law was in the zenith of his glory, and 
the people in the zenith of their infatuation. The high and the low, 
the rich and the poor, were at once filled with visions of untold 
wealth, and every age, set, rank and condition were buying and selling 
stocks. Law issued stock ao-ain and again, and readilv sold until 
2,235,000,000 livres were in circulation, equaling about $450,000,000. 
While confidence lasted an impetus was given to trade never before 
known. An illusory policy everywhere prevailed, and so dazzled 
the eve that none could see in the horizon the dark cloud announc- 
ing the approaching storm. Law at the time was the most influ- 
ential man in Europe. His house was beset from morning till 
night with eager applicants for stock. Dukes, marquises and 
counts, with their wives and daughters, waited for hours in the 
street below his door. Finding his residence too small, he changed 
it for the Place Yendome, whither the crowd followed him, and the 
spacious square had the appearance of a public market. The boule- 
vards and public gardens were forsaken, and the Place Vendome 
became the most fashionable place in Paris; and he was unable to 
wait upon even one-tenth part of his applicants. The bubble burst 
after a few years, scattering ruin and distress in every direction. 
Law, a short time previous the most popular man in Europe, fled 
to Brussels, and in 1729 died in Venice, in obscurity and poverty. 


As early as 1750 there could be perceived the first throes of the 
revolution, which gave a new master and new institutions to Illi- 
nois. France claimed the whole valley of the Mississippi, and Eng- 
land the right to extend her possessions westward as far as she 
might desire. Through colonial controversies the two mother 


countries were precipitated into a bloody war within tlie !N"ortli- 
westeru Territory, George Wasliingtou firing the first gun of the 
military struggle which resulted in the overthrow of the French 
not only in Illinois but in North America. The French evinced a 
determination to retain control of the territory bordering the Ohio 
and Mississippi from Canada to the Gulf, and so long as the En- 
glish colonies were confined to the sea-coast there was little reason 
for controversy. As the English, however, became acquainted 
with this beautiful and fertile portion of our country, they not only 
learned the value of the vast territory, but also resolved to set up a 
counter claim to the soil. The French established numerous mili- 
tary and trading posts from the frontiers of Canada to New Or- 
leans, and in order to establish also their claims to jurisdiction over 
the country they carved the lilies of France on the forest trees, or 
sunk plates of metal in the ground. These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations; 
and though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was 
. gathering, and it was only a question of time when the storm 
should burst upon the frontier settlement. The French based 
their claims upon discoveries, the English on grants of territory 
extending from ocean to ocean, but neither part}^ paid the least 
attention to the prior claims of the Indians. From this posi- 
tion of affairs, it was evident that actual collision between the 
contending parties would not much longer be deferred. The En- 
glish Government, in anticipation of a war, urged the Governor 
of Virginia to lose no time in building two forts, which were 
equipped by arms from England. The French anticipated the 
English and gathered a considerable force to defend their possessions. 
The Governor determined to send a raessenojer to the nearest 
French post and demand an explanation. This resolution of the 
Governor brought into the history of our country for the first time 
the man of all others whom America most loves to honor, namely, 
George "Washington. He was chosen, although not yet twenty-one 
years of age, as the one to perform this delicate and difiicult mission. 
"With five companions he set out on Nov. 10, 1753, and after a per- 
ilous journey returned Jan. 6, ITo-i. Tiie struggle commenced and 
continued long, and was bloody and fierce; but en the lOtli of Octo- 
ber, 1765, the ensign of France was replaced on the ramparts of 
Fort Chartres by the flag of Great Britain. This fort was the 






depot of supplies and the place of rendezvous for the united forces 
of the French. At this time the colonies of the Atlantic seaboard 
were assembled in preliminary congress at New York, dreaming of 
liberty and independence for the continent; and Washington, who 
led the expedition against the French for the English king, in less 
than ten years was commanding the forces opposed to the English 
tyrant. Illinois, besides being constructively a part of Florida for 
over one hundred years, during which time no Spaniard set foot 
upon her soil or rested his eyes upon her beautiful plains, for nearly 
ninety years had been in the actual occupation of the French, their 
puny settlements slumbering quietly in colonial dependence on the 
distant waters of the Kaskaskia, Illinois and Wabash. 

GEN. CLAKk's exploits. 

The J^orthwest Territory was now entirely under English rule, 
and on the breaking out of the Revolutionary war the British held 
every post of importance in the West. While the colonists of the 
East were maintaining a fierce struggle with the armies of England, 
their western frontiers were ravaged by merciless butcheries of In- 
dian warfare. The jealousy of the savage was aroused to action by 
the rapid extension of American settlement westward and the im- 
proper influence exerted by a number of military posts garrisoned by 
British troops. To prevent indiscriminate slaughters arising froin 
these causes, Illinois became the theater of some of the most daring 
exploits connected with American history. The hero of the achieve- 
ments by which this beautiful land was snatched as a gem from 
the British Crown, was George Rogers Clark, of Yirginia. lie had 
closely watched the movements of the British throughout the 
Northwest, and understood their whole plan; he also knew the 
Indians were not unanimously in accord with the English, and 
therefore was convinced that if the British could be defeated and 
expelled from the Northwest, the natives might be easily awed into 
neutrality. Having convinced himself that the enterprise against 
the Illinois settlement might easily succeed, he repaired to the cap- 
ital of Virginia, arriving Nov. 5, 1777. While he was on his way, 
fortunately, Burgoyne was defeated (Oct. 17), and the spirits of the 
colonists were thereby greatly encouraged. Patrick Henry was 
Governor of Yirginia, and at once entered heartily into Clark's 
plans. After satisfying the Yirginia leaders of the feasibility of 
his project, he received two sets of instructions, — one, secret, the 


other open. The latter authorized him to enlist seven companies 
to go to Kentucky, and serve three months after their arrival m 
the West. The secret order authorized him to arm these troops, 
to procure his powder and lead of General Hand at Pittsburg, and 
to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 


With these instructions Col. Clark repaired to Pittsburg, choos- 
ing rather to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew 
all were needed in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. 
W. B. Smith to Holstein and Captains Helm and Bowman to 
other localities to enlist men; but none of them succeeded in rais- 
ing the required number. Tlie settlers in these parts were afraid 
to leave their own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few 
could be induced to join the expedition. With these companies 
and several private volunteers Clark commenced his descent of the 
Ohio, which he navigated as far as the falls, where he took posses- 
sion of and fortified Corn Island, a small island between the present 
cities of Louisville, Ky., and Xew Albany, Ind. Here, after having 
completed his arrangements and announced to the men their real 
destination, he left a small garrison; and on the 24rth of June, dur- 
ing a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured no good, they 
floated down the river. His plan was to go by water as far as Fort 
Massac, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. Here lie intended to 
surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to Cahokia, then to 
Yincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he intended to 
march directly to the Mississippi river and cross it into the Spanish 
country. Before his start he received good items of information: 
one that an alliance had been formed between France and the United 
States, and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants at the various frontier posts had been led 
by the British to believe that the " Long Knives," or Virginians, 
were the most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped 
a foe. With this impression on their minds, Clark saw that 
proper management would cause them to submit at once from fear, 
if surprised, and then from gratitude would become friendly, if 
treated with unexpected lenity. The march to Kaskaskia was 
made through a hot July sun, they arriving on the evening of the 
4th of July, 1778. They captured the fort near the village and 
soon after the village itself, by surprise, and without the loss of 


a single man and without killing any of the enemy. After suffi- 
ciently working on the fears of the natives, Clark told them they 
were at perfect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take 
whichever side of the great conflict they would; also he would pro- 
tect them against any barbarity from British or Indian foe. This 
had the desired effect; and the inhabitants, so unexpectedly and bo 
gratefully surprised by the unlooked-for turn of affairs, at once 
swore allegiance to the American arms; and when Clark desired 
to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accompanied him, and 
through their influence the inhabitants of the place surrendered 
and gladly placed themselves under his protection. 

In the person of M. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain pos- 
session of the Korthwest and ti-eat successfully with the Indians, he 
must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. St. Yin- 
cent, the post next in importance to Detroit, remained yet to be 
taken before the Mississippi valley was conquered. M. Gibault 
told him that he would alone, by persuasion, lead Yincennes to 
throw off its connection with England. Clark gladly accepted this 
offer, and July 14th, in company with a fellow-townsman, Gibault 
started on his mission of peace. On the 1st of August he returned 
with the cheerful intelligence that everything was peaceably ad- 
justed at Yincennes in favor of the Americans. During the inter- 
val. Col. Clark established his courts, placed garrisons at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his men, and sent word to 
have a fort (which proved the germ of Louisville) erected at the 
falls of the Ohio. 

While the American commander was thus negotiating with the 
Indians, Hamilton, the British Governor of Detroit, heard of Clark's 
invasion, and was greatly incensed because the country which he 
had in charge should be wrested from him by a few ragged militia. 
He therefore hurriedly collected a force, marched by way of the 
Wabash, and appeared before the fort at Yincennes. The inhabi- 
tants made an effort to defend the town, and when Hamilton's 
forces arrived, Captain Helm and a man named Henry were the 
only Americans in the fort. These men had been sent by Clark. 
The latter charged a cannon and placed it in the open gateway, and 
the Captain stood by it with alighted match and cried out, as Ham- 
ilton came in hailing distance, "Halt!" The British officer, not 


knowing the strength of the garrison, stopped, and demanded the 
surrender of tlie fort. Hehn exclaimed, " Ko man shall enter here 
till I know the terms." Hamilton responded, " You shall have the 
honors of war." The entire garrison consisted of one officer and one 


On taking Kaskaskia, Clark made a prisoner of Rocheblave, 
commander of the place, and got possession of all his written 
instructions for the conduct of the war. From these papers he 
received important information respecting the plans of Col. Ham- 
ilton, Governor at Detroit, who was intending to make a vigorous 
and concerted attack upon the frontier. After arriving at Yin- 
cennes, however, he gave np his intended campaign for the winter, 
and trusting to his distance from danger and to the difficulty of 
approaching him, sent off his Indian warriors to prevent troops from 
coming down the Ohio, and to annoj the Americans in all ways. Thus 
he sat quietly down to pass the winter with only about eighty soldiers, 
but secure, as he thought, from molestation. But he evidently did 
not realize the character of the men with whom he was contending. 
Clark, although he could muster only one hundred and tliirt}' men, 
determined to take advantage of Hamilton's weakness and security, 
and attack him as the only means of saving himself; for unless he 
captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Accordingly, 
about the beginning of February, 1779, he dispatched a small galley 
which he had fitted out, mounted with two four-pounders and four 
swivels and manned with a company of soldiers, and carrying stores 
for his men, with orders to force her way up the Wabash, to take 
her station a few miles below Vincennes, and to allow no person to 
pass her. He himself marched with his little band, and spent six- 
teen days in traversing the country from Kaskaskia to Yincennes, 
passing with incredible fatigue through woods and marshes. He 
was five days in crossing the bottom lands of the Wabash; and for 
five miles was frequently up to the breast in water. After over- 
coming difficulties which had been thought insurmountable, he 
appeared before the place and completely surprised it. The inhab- 
itants readily submitted, but Hamilton at first defended himself in 
the fort. Next day, however, he surrendered himself and his gar- 
rison prisoners-of-war. By his activity in encouraging the hostili- 
ties of the Indians and by the revolting enormities perpetrated by 


those savages, Hamilton had rendered himself so obnoxious that he 
was thrown in prison and put in irons. During his command of 
the British frontier posts he offered prizes to the Indians for all the 
scalps of the Americans thej^ would bring him, and earned in con- 
sequence thereof the title, "llair-Bujer General," by which he was 
ever afterward known. 

The services of Clark proved of essential advantage to his coun- 
trymen. They disconcerted the plans of Hamilton, and not only saved 
the western frontier from depredations by the savages, but also 
greatly cooled the ardor of the Indians for carrying on a contest in 
which they were not likely to be the gainers. Had it not been for 
this small army, a union of all the tri'oes from Maine to Georgia 
against the colonies might have been effected, and the whole current 
of our history changed. 



In October, 1778, after the successful campaign of Col. Clark, the 
assembly of Virginia erected the conquered country, embracing all 
the territory northwest of the Ohio river, into the County of Illi- 
nois, which was doubtless the largest county in the world, exceeding 
in its dimensions the whole of Great Britian and Ireland. To speak 
more definitely, it contained the territory now embraced in the great 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. On the 
12th of December, 1778, John Todd was appointed Lieutenant- 
Commandant of this county by Patrick Henry, then Governor of 
'Virginia, and accordingly, also, the first of Illinois County. 


Illinois continued to form a part of Virginia until March 1, 1784, 
when that State ceded all the territory north of the Ohio to the 
United States. Immediately the general Government proceeded to 
establish a form of government for the settlers in the territories 
thus ceded. This form continued until the passage of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, for the government of the ISTorthwestern Terri- 
tory. No man can study the secret history of this ordinance and 
not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye the des- 


tinies of these unborn States. American legislation has never 

achieved anything more admirable, as an internal government, 

than this comprehensive ordinance. Its provisions concerning the 

distribution of property, the principles of civil and religious liberty 

which it laid at the foundation of the communities since established, 

and the efficient and simple organization by which it created the 

first machinery of civil society, are worthy of all the praise that has 

ever been given them. 

t ■ 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to ^Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it ag.dnst slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of ITS-i. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the v^ery heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern Territory. He M'as an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as Jul}'- 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slaverj' clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory, Everything 
seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the 
public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his 
mission, his personal character, all combined to complete one of 
those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 


once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like 
the breath of the Almighty. 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
Eno-land. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, 
a man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler tlieir agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, ai:d Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler, The entire South ral- 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constituents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jeiferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 
were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 


the enactment of any law that ehould nullity pre-existing contracts. 
Beit forever remembered that this compact declared that "re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13. 17S7, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free- 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1 803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Kandolph was chairnuin. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 


"With all this timely aid it was, however, a most desperate and 
protracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. 
It was the natural battle-iield for the irrepressible conflict. In the 
southern end of the State slavery preceded the compact. It ex- 
isted amoiiir the old French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. 
That portion was also settled from the slave States, and this popu- 
lation brought their laws, customs, and institutions with them. A 
stream of population from the North poured into the northern part 
of the State. These sections misunderstood and hated each other 
perfecth*. The Southerners regarded the Yankees as a skinning, 
tricky, penurious race of peddlers, tilling the country with tinware, 
brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The Northerner thought of the 
Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing in a hut. and 
riotina: in whiskv, dirt, and iffuorance. These causes aided in 
making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of 
the deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French set- 
tlers to retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States nuVht 


„v»vEf-SlTY Of 



bring tlieir slaves if they would give tliera an opportunity to choose 
freedom or yeai*s of service and bondage for their cliildren till they 
should become thii ty years x)f age. If they chose freedom they 
must leave the State within sixty days, or be sold as fugitives. 
Servants we^e whipped for oifenses for which white men were fined. 
Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A negro ten miles from 
home without a pass was whipped. These famous laws were im- 
ported from the slave States, just as the laws for the inspection of 
flax and wool were imported when there was neither in the State. 


On October 5, 1T87, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was, by Congress, 
elected Governor of this vast territory. St. Clair was born in Scot- 
land and emigrated to America in 1755. He served in the French 
and English war, and was major general in the Revolution. In 
1786 he was elected to Congress and chosen President of that body. 


After the division of the Northwestern Territory Illinois became 
one of the counties of the Territory of Indiana, from which it was 
separated by an act of Congress Feb. 3, 1809, forming the Territory 
of Illinois, with a population estimated at 9,000, and then included 
the present State of Wisconsin. It was divided, at the time, into 
two counties, — St. Clair and Randolph. John Boyle, of Ken- 
tucky, was appointed Governor, by the President, James Madison, 
but declining, Ninian Edwards, of the same State, was then 
appointed and served with distinction; and after the organization 
of Illinois as a State he served in the same capacity, being its third 


For some years previous to the war between the United States 
and England in 1812, considerable trouble was experienced with the 
Indians. Marauding bands of savages would attack small settle- 
ments and inhumanly butcher all the inhabitants, and mutilate 
their dead bodies. To protect themselves, the settlers organized 
companies of rangers, and erected block houses and stockades in 
every settlemen-t. The largest, strongest and best one of these was 
Fort Russell, near the present village of Edwardsville. This stockade 


was made the main rendezvous for troops and military stores, and 
Gov. Edwards, who during the perilous times of 1812, when Indian 
hostilities threatened on every hand, assumed command of the Illi- 
nois forces, established his headquarters at this place. The Indians 
were incited to many of these depredations by English emissaries, 
who for years continued their dastardly work of '' setting the red 
men, like dogs, upon the whites." 

In the summer of 1811 a peace convention was held with the 
Pottawatomies at Peoria, when they promised that peace should 
prevail; but their promises were soon broken. Tecumseh, the great 
warrior, and fit successor of Pontiac, started in the spring of 1811, 
to arouse the Southern Indians to war against the whites. The pur- 
pose of this chieftain was well known to Gov. Harrison, of Indiana 
Territory, who determined during Tecumseh's absence to strike and 
disperse the hostile forces collected at Tippecanoe. This he success- 
fully did on iS'ov. 7, winning the sobriquet of " Tippecanoe," by 
which he was afterwards commonly known. Several peace councils 
were held, at which the Indians promised good behavior, but only 
to deceive the whites. Almost all the savages of the Northwest 
were thoroughly stirred up and did not desire peace. The British 
agents at various points, in anticipation of a war with the United 
States, sought to enlist the favor of the savages by distributing to 
them large supplies of arms, ammunition and other goods. 

The English continued their insults to our flag upon the high 
seas, and their government refusing to relinquish its offensive course, 
all hopes of peace and safe commercial relations were abandoned, 
and Congress, on the J9th of June, 1812, formally declared war 
against Great Britain. In Illinois the threatened Indian troubles 
had already caused a more thorough organization of the militia and 
greater protection by the erection of forts. As intimated, the In- 
dians took the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities 

between the two civilized nations, committing great depredations, 
the most atrocious of which was the . 


During the war of 1812 between the United States and England, 
the greatest, as well as the most revolting, massacre of whites that 
ever occurred in Illinois, was perpetrated by the Pottawatomie In- 
dians, at Fort Dearborn. This fort was built by the Government, 
in 180-1, on the south side of the Chicago river, and was garrisoned 



by 54 men under command of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by 
Lieutenant Helm and Ensign Ronan; Dr. Voorliees, surgeon. Tiie 
residents at tlie post at that time were the wives of officers Heald 
and Helm and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadians. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and Winnebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them. 

On the Tth of August, 1812, arrived the order from Gen. Hull, at 
Detroit, to evacuate Fort Dearborn, aud distribute all United States 
property to the Indians. Chicago was so deep in the wilderness 


that this was the first intimation the garrison received of the dec- 
laration of war made on the 19th of June. The Indian chief who 
brouo^ht the dispatch advised Capt. Heald not to evacuate, and 
that if he should decide to do so, it be done immediately, and by 
forced marches elude the concentration of the savao'es before the 
news could be circulated among them. To this most excellent ad- 
vice the Captain gave no heed, but on the 12th held a council with 


the Indians, apprising them of the orders received, and offering a 
liberal reward for an escort of Pottawatomies to Fort Wayne. The 
Indians, with many professions of friendship, assented to all he 
proposed, and promised all he required. The remaining officers re- 
fused to join in the council, for they had been informed that treach- 
ery was designed, — that the Indians intended to murder those in 
the council, and then destroy those in the fort. The port holes were 
open, displaying cannons pointing directly upon the council. This 
action, it is supposed, prevented a massacre at that time. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Capt. Heald 
not to confide in their promises, or distribute the arms and ammu- 
nitions among them, for it would only put power in their hands to 
destroy the whites. This argument, true and excellent in itself, 
was now certainly inopportune, and would only incense the treach- 
erous foe. But the Captain resolved to follow it, and accordingly on 
the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other property, the 
arms were broken, and the barrels of whisky, of which there was a 
large quantity, were rolled quietly through the sally-port, their 
heads knocked in and their contents emptied into the river. On that 
night the lurking red-skins crept near the fort and discovered the 
destruction of the promised booty going on within. The next morn- 
ing the powder was seen floating on the surface of the river, and 
the Indians asserted that such an abundance of " fire-water" had 
been emptied into the river as to make it taste " g^oggy.'^ Many 
of them drank of it freely. 

On the l-ith the desponding garrison was somewhat cheered by 
the arrival of Capt. Wells, with 15 friendly Miamis. Capt. Wells 
heard at Fort Wavne of the order to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
knowing the hostile intentions of the Indians, made a rapid march 
through the wilderness to protect, if possible, his niece, Mrs. Heald, 
and the officers and the garrison from certain destruction. But 
he came too late. Every means for its defense had been destroyed 
the night before, and arrangements were made for leaving the fort 
on the following morning. 

The fatal morning of the 16th at length dawned brightly on the 
world. The sun shone in unclouded splendor upon the glassy waters 
of Lake Michigan. At 9 a. m., the party moved out of the south- 
ern gate of the fort, in military array. The band, feeling the solem- 
nity of the occasion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. Capt. 


Wells, with his face blackened after the manner of the Indians, led 
the advance guard at the head of his friendly Miainis, the garrison 
with loaded arms, the baggage wagons with the sick, and the women 
and children following, while the Pottawatomie Indians, about 500 
in number, who had jDledged their honor to escort the whites in 
safety to Fort Wayne, brought up the rear. The party took the 
road along the lake shore. On reaching the range of sand-hills 
separating the beach from the prairie, about one mile and a half- 
from the fort, the Indians defiled to the right into the prairie, bring 
ing the sand-hills between them and the whites. This divergence 
was scarcely effected when Capt. Wells, who had kept in advance 
with his Indians, rode furiously back and exclaimed, "They are 
about to attack us. Form instantly and charge upon them!" 
These words were scarcely uttered before a volley of balls from 
Indian muskets was poured in upon them. The troops were hastily 
formed into line, and charged up the bank. One veteran of 70 fell 
as they ascended. The Indians were driven back to the prairie, and 
then the battle was waged by 54 soldiers, 12 civilians, and three or 
four women — the cowardly Miamis having fled at the outset — 
against 500 Indian warriors. The whites behaved gallantly, and 
sold their lives dearly. They fought desperately until two-thirds 
of their number were slain; the remaining 27 surrendered. And 
now the most sickening and heart-rending butchery of this calam- 
itous day was committed by a young savage, who assailed one of 
the baggage wagons containing 12 children, every one of which fell 
beneath his murderous tomahawk. When Capt. Wells, who with 
the others had become prisoner, beheld this scene at a distance, he 
exclaimed in a tone loud enough to be heard by the savages, " If 
this be your game, I can kill too;" and turning his horse, started 
for the place where the Indians had left their squaws and children. 
The Indians hotly pursued, but he avoided their deadly bullets for 
a time. Soon his horse was killed and he severely wounded. With 
a yell the young braves rushed to make him their prisoner and re- 
serve him for torture. But an enraged warrior stabbed him in the 
back, and he fell dead. His heart was afterwards taken out, cut in 
pieces and distributed among the tribes. Billy Caldwell, a half- 
breed Wyandot, well-known in Chicago long afterward, buried his 
rental ns the next day. Wells street in Chicago, perpetuates his 


la this fearful combat women bore a coiispicuous part. A wife 
of one of the soldiers, who had frequently heard that the Indians 
subjected their prisoners to tortures worse than death, resolved not 
to be taken alive, and continued fighting until she was literally cut 
to pieces. Mrs. Heald was an excellent equestrian, and an expert 
in the use of the rifle. iShe fought bravely, receiving several wounds. 
Though faint from loss of blood, she managed to keep in her saddle. 
A savage raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full 
in the face, and with a sweet smile and gentle voice said, in his 
own language, " Surely you will not kill a squaw." The arm of 
of the savage fell, and the life of this heroic woman was saved. 
Mrs. Ilelm had an encounter with a stalwart Indian, who attempted 
to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, she received the glancing 
blow on her shoulder, and at the same time she seized the savage 
round the neck and endeavored to get his sciilping-knife which 
huno: in a sheath at his breast. While she was thus struggling, she 
was dragged from his grasp by another and an older Indian. The 
latter bore her, struggling and resisting, to the lake and plunged 
her in. She soon perceived it was not his intention to drown her, 
because he held her in such a position as to keep her head out of 
the water. She recognized him to be a celebrated chief called 
Black Partridge. When the tiring ceased she was conducted up 
the sand-bank. 


The prisoners were taken back to the Indian camp, when a new 
scene of horror was enacted. The wounded not beins included in 
the terms of the surrender, as it was interpreted by the Indians, 
and the British general, Proctor, having offered a liberal bounty for 
American scalps, nearly all the wounded were killed aiid scalped, 
and the price of the trophies was afterwards paid by the British 
general. In the stipulation of surrender, Capt. Ileald had not 
particularly mentioned the wounded. These helpless sufferers, on 
reaching the Indian camp, were therefore regarded by the brutal 
savages as fit subjects upon which to display their cruelty and satisfv 
their desire for bload. Referring to the terrible butchery of the 
prisoners, in an account given by Mrs. Helm, she says: "An old 
squaw, infuriated by the loss of friends or excited by the sanguin- 
ary scenes around her, seemed possessed of demoniac fury. She 
seized a stable-fork and assaulted one miserable victim, who lay 



groaning and writhing in the agonies of his wounds, aggravated by 
the scorching beams of the sun. With a delicacy of feeling, scarcely 
to have been expected under such circumstances. Wan-bee-nee-wan 
stretched a mat across two poles, between me and this dreadful scene. 
I was thus spared, in some degree, a view of its horrors, although I 
could not entirely cloise my ears to the cries of the sufferer. The 
following night live more of the wounded prisoners were toma- 


That evening, about sundown, a council of chiefs was held to 
decide the fate of the prisoners, and it was agreed to deliver them 


to the British commander at Detroit. After dark, many warriors 
from a distance came into camp, who were thirsting for blood, and 
were determined to murder the prisoners regardless of the terms of 
surrender. Black Partridge, with a few of his friends, surrounded 
Kinzie's house to protect the inmates from the tomahawks of the 
bloodthirsty savages. Soon a band of hostile warriors rushed by 
them into the liouse, and stood with tomahawks and scalping-knives, 
awaiting the signal from their chief to commence the work of death.. 


Black Partridge said to Mrs. Kinzie: "We are doing everything 
in our power to save jou, but all is now lost; you and your friends, 
together with all the prisoners of the camp, will now be siain." At 
that moment a canoe was heard approaching the shore, when Black 
Partridge ran down to the river, trying in the darkness to make out 
the new comers, and at the same time shouted, "Who are you?" 
In the bow of the approaching canoe stood a tall, manly personage, 
with a rifle in his hand. He jumped ashore exclaiming, " I am 
Sau-ga-nash." "Then make all speed to the house; our friends are 
in danger, and you only can save them.'' It was Billy Caldwell, 
the half-breed Wyandot. He hurried forward, entered the house 
with a resolute step, deliberately removed his accouterments, placed 
his rifle behind the door, and saluted the Indians: " How now, ray 
friends! a good day to you. I was told there were enemies here, 
but am glad to find only friends." Diverted by the coolness of his 
manner, they were ashamed to avow their murderous purpose, and 
simply asked for some cotton goods to wrap their dead, for burial. 
And thus, by his presence of mind, Caldwell averted the murder of 
the Kinzie family and the prisoners. The latter, with their wives 
and children, were dispersed among the Pottawatomie tribes along 
the Illinois, Rock and Wabash rivers, and some to Milwaukee. 
The most of them were ransomed at Detroit the following spring. 
A part of them, however, remained in captivity another year. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession of 
the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their successes, 
penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great depre- 
dations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the people 
to a realization of the erreat danger their homes and families were 
in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp Russell, 
and Capt. Russell came from Yincennes with about 50 more. Being 
officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of October 
on horseback, carrying with them 20 days' rations, to Peoria. Capt. 
Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with provisions 
and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to Peoria 
Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They arrived late 


at night, within a few miles of the village, without their presence 
being known to the Indians. Four men were sent out that night 
to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four brave men who 
volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas Carlin (after- 
ward Governor), and Ivobert, Stephen and Davis Whiteside. They 
proceeded to the village, and explored it and the approaches to it 
thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking the bark of a 
dog. The low lands between the Indian village and the troops were 
covered with a rank growth of tall grass, eo high and dense as to 
readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within a few feet of 
him. The ground had become still more yielding by recent rains, 
rendering it almost imy^assable by mounted men. To prevent de- 
tection, the soldiers had camped without lighting the usual camp- 
fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless camp, with 
many misgivings. They well remembered how the skulking sav- 
ages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during the night. To 
add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier was carelessly 
discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 


Tlirough a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its- line of march for tlie Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to eurrender, but Judy observed that he "did not leave home to take 
prisoners, ' and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony "singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired. Many guns 
were immediatelv discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterwards restored 
to her nation. 


On rearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 


provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were fouud who had been left in ihe hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, oue of whom was in a starving condition and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given liim. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

About the time Gov. Edwards started with his little band against 
the Indians, Gen. Hopkins, with 2,000 Kentucky riflemen, left 
Viucennes to cross the prairies of Illinois and destroy the Indian 
villages along the Illinois river. Edwards, with his rangers, ex- 
pected to act in concert with Gen. Hopkins' riflemen. After 
inarching 80 or 90 miles into the enemy's country. Gen. Hopkins' 
men became dissatisfied, and on Oct. 20 the entire army turned 
and retreated homeward before ev^en a foe had been met. After the 
victory of the Illinois rangers they heard nothing of Gen. Hopkins 
and his 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen ; and apprehensive that a 
large force of warriors would be speedily collected, it was deemed 
prudent not to protract their stay, and accordingly the retrograde 
march was commenced the very day of the attack. 


The force of Capt. Craig, in charge of the provision boats, was 
not idle during this time. They proceeded to Peoria, where they 
were fired on by ten Indians during the night, who immediately 
fled. Capt. Craig discovered, at daylight, their tracks leading up 
into the French town. He inquired of the French their where- 
abouts, who denied all knowledge of them, and said they " had 
heard or seen nothing; " but he took the entire number prisoners, 
burned and destroyed Peoria, and bore the ca|)tured inhabitants 
away on his boats to a point below the present city of Alton, where 
he landed and left them in the woods, — men, women, and cliildren, — 
in the inclement month of November, without shelter, and without 
food other than the slender stores they had themselves gathered up 
before their departure. Tliey found their way to St. Louis in an 
almost starving condition. The burning of Peoria and taking its 
inhabitants prisoners, on the mere suspicion that they sympathized 
with the Indians, was generally regarded as a needless, if not 
wanton, act of military power. 




In the early part of 1813, the country was put in as good defense 
as the sparse popuhition admitted. In spite of the precaution taken, 
numerous depredations and murders were committed bj the In- 
dians, which again aroused the whites, and another expedition was 
sent against the foe, who had collected in large numbers in and 
around Peoria. This army was composed of about 900 men, collect- 
ed from both Illinois and Missouri, and under command of Gen. 
Howard. They marched across the broad prairies of Illinois to 
Peoria, where there was a small stockade in charge of United States 
troops. Two days previously the Indians made an attack on the 
fort, but were repulsed. Being in the enemy's country, knowing 
their stealthy habits, and the troops at no time observing a high de- 
gree of discipline, many unnecessary night alarms occurred, yet the 
enemy were far away. The army marched up the lake to Chili- 
cothe, burning on its way two deserted villages. At the present 
site of Peoria the troops remained in camp several weeks. While 
there they built a fort, which they named in honor of Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, who with his brave Virginians wrested Illinois from 
the English during the Revolutionary struggle. This fort was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1818. It gave a name to Peoria which it wore for 
several years. After the building of Fort Crevecceur, in 1680, Peo- 
ria lake was very familiar to Western travel and history; but there 
is no authentic account of a permanent European settlement there 
until 1778, when Laville de Meillet, named after its founder, was 
started. Owing to the quality of the water and its greater salu- 
brity, the location was changed to the present site of Peoria, and by 
1796 the old had been entirely abandoned for the new village. 
After its destruction in 1812 it was not settled again until 1819, 
and then by American pioneers, though in 1813 Fort Clark was 
built there. 


The second campaign against the Indians at Peoria closed with- 
out an engagement, or even a sight of the enemy, yet great was the 
benefit derived from it. It showed to the Indians the power and 
resources of his white foe. Still the calendar of the horrible deeds 
of butchery of the following year is long and bloody. A joint ex- 
pedition again moved against the Indians in 1814, under Gov. 


Clark of Missouri. This time they went up the Mississippi in 
barges, Prairie du Cliien being the point of destination. There tliey 
found a small garrison of British troops, which, however, soon fled, 
as did the inhabitants, leaving Clark in full possession. He im- 
mediately set to work and erected Fort Shelby. The Governor 
returned to St. Louis, leaving his men in peaceable possession of 
the place, but a large force of British and Indians came down upon 
them, and the entire garrison surrendered. In the mean time Gen. 
Howard sent 108 men to strengthen the garrison. Of this number 
66 were Illinois rangers, under Capts. Rector and Riggs, who oc- 
cupied two boats. The remainder were with Lieut. Campbell. 


At Rock Island Campbell was warned to turn back, as an attack 
was contemplated. The other boats passed on up the river and 
were some two miles ahead when Campbell's barge was struck by a 
strong gale which forced it against a small island near the Illinois 
shore. Thinking it best to lie to till the wind abated, sentinels 
were stationed while the men went ashore to cook breakfast. At 
this time a large number of Indians on the main shore under 
Black Hawk commenced an attack. The savages in canoes passed 
rapidly to the island, and with a war-whoop rushed upon the men, 
who retreated and sought refuge in the barge. A battle of brisk 
musketry now ensued between the few regulars aboard the stranded 
barge and the hordes of Indians under cover of trees on the island, 
with severe loss to the former. Meanwhile Capt. Rector and Riggs, 
ahead with their barges, seeing the smoke of battle, attempted to 
return; but in the strong gale Riggs' boat became unmanageable 
and was stranded on the rapids. Rector, to avoid a similar disaster, 
let go his anchor. The rangers, however, opened with good aim 
and telling effect upon the savages. The unequal combat having 
raged for some time and about closing, the commander's barge, 
with many wounded and several dead on board, — among: the former 
of whom, very badly, was Campbell himself, — was discovered to be 
on fire. Now Rector and his bi'ave Illinois rangers, comprehending 
the horrid situation, performed, without delay, as cool and heroic a 
deed — and did it well — as ever imperiled the life of mortal man. 
In the howling gale, in full view of hundreds of infuriated savages, 
and within range of their rifles, they deliberately raised anchor, 


liglitened their barge by casting overboard quantities of provisions, 
and guided it with the utmost labor down the switt current, to the 
windward of the burning barge, and under the galling fire of the 
enemy rescued all the survivors, and removed the wounded and 
dying to their vessel. This was a deed of noble daring and as 
heroic as any performed during the war in the West. Rector hur- 
ried with his over-crowded vessel to St. Louis. 

It was now feared that Riggs and his company were captured 
and sacrificed by the savages. His vessel, which was strong and well 
armed, was for a time surrounded by the Indians, but the whites 
on the inside were well sheltered. The wind becoming allayed in 
the evening, the boat, under cover of the night, glided safel}^ down 
the river without the loss of a single man. 


Notwithstanding the disastrous termination of the two expedi- 
tions already sent out, during the year 1814, still another was pro- 
jected. It was under Maj. Zachary Taylor, afterward President. 
Rector and Whiteside, with the Illinoisan, were in command of 
boats. The expedition passed Rock Island unmolested, when it 
was learned the country was not only swarming with Indians, but 
that the English were there in command with a detachment of regu- 
lars and artillerv. The advanced boats in command of Rector, White- 
side and Hempstead, turned about and began to descend the rapids, 
fighting with great gallantry the hordes of the enemy, who were 
pouring their fire into them from the shore at every step. 

Near the mouth of Rock river Maj. Taylor anchored his fleet out 
in the Mississippi. During the night the English planted a battery 
of six pieces down at the water's edge, to sink or disable the boats, 
and filled the islands with red-skins to butcher the whites, who 
might, unarmed, seek refuge there. But in this scheme they were 
frustrated. In the morning Taylor ordered all the force, except 20 
boatmen on each vessel, to the upper island to dislodge the enemy. 
The order was executed with great gallantry, the island scoured, 
many of the savages killed, and the rest driven to the lower island. 
In the meantime the British cannon told with eflfect upon the fleet. 
The men rushed back and the boats were dropped down the stream 
out of range of the cannon. Capt. Rector was now ordered with 
his company to make a sortie on the lower island, which he did, 


driving the Indians back among the willows ; but they being re-in- 
forced, in turn hurled Rector back upon the sand-beach. 

A council of officers called by Taylor had by this time decided 
that their force was too small to contend with the enemy, who 
outnumbered them tliree to one, and the boats were in full retreat 
down the river. As Hector attempted to get under way his boat 
grounded, and the savages, with demoniac yells, surrounded it, 
when a most desperate hand-to-hand conflict ensued. The gallant 
ranger, Samuel Whiteside, observing the imminent peril of his 
brave Illinois comrade, went immediately to his rescue, who but for 
his timely aid would undoubtedly have been overpowered, with all 
his force, and murdered. 

Thus ended the last, like the two previous expeditions up the 
Mississippi during the war of 1S12, in defeat and disaster. The 
enerny was in undisputed posession of all the country north of the 
Illinois river, and the prospects respecting those territories boded 
nothing but gloom. "With the approach of winter, however, Indian 
depredations ceased to be committed, and the peace of Ghent, Dec. 
24, 1814, closed the war. 



In January of 1818 the Territorial Legislature forwarded to 
Nathaniel Pope, delegate in Congress from Illinois, a petition pray- 
ing for admission into the national Union as a State. On April 
18th of the same year Congress passed the enabling act, and Dec. 
3, after the State government had been organized and Gov. Bond 
had signed the Constitution, Congress by a resolution declared Illi- 
nois to be "one of the United States of America, and admitted into 
the Union on an equal footing with the original States in all 

The ordinance of 1787 declared that there should be at least three 
States carved out of the Northwestern Territory. The boundaries 
of the three, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, were fixed by this law. 
Congress reserved the power, however, of forming two other States 
out of the territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southern boundary of Lake Michigan. It was generally 
conceded that this line would be the northern boundary of Illinois ; 


but as this would give tlie State no coast on Lake Michigan; and 
rob her of the port of Chicago and the northern terminus of the 
Illinois & Michigan canal which was then contemplated, Judge 
Pope had the northern boundary moved fifty miles further north. 


!N'ot only is Illinois indebted to Nathaniel Pope for the port where 
now enter and depart more vessels during the year than in any 
other port in the world, for the northern terminus of the Illinois 
& Michigan ca::al, and for the lead mines at Galena, but the nation, 
the undivided Union, is largely indebted to him for its perpetuity. 
It was he, — his foresight, statesmanship and energy, — that bound 
our confederated Union with bands of iron that can never be broken. 
The geographical position of Illinois, with her hundreds of miles 
of water-courses, is such as to make her the key to the grand arch 
of Northern and Southern States. Extending from, the great chain 
of lakes on the north, with snow and ice of the arctic region, to the 
cotton-fields of Tennessee ; peopled, as it is, by almost all races, 
classes and conditions of the human family ; guided by the various 
and diversified political, agricultural, religious and educational 
teachings common to both North and South, — Illinois can control, 
and has controlled, the destinies of our united and beloved republic. 
Pope seemingly foresaw that a struggle to dissolve the Union would 
be made. With a prophetic eye he looked down the stream of time 
for a half century and saw the great conflict between the South and 
North, caused by a determination to dissolve the confederation of 
States; and to preserve the Union, he gave to Illinois a lake coast. 

Gov. Ford, in his History of Illinois, wi'itten in 1847, while 
speaking of this change of boundary and its influence upon our 
nation, says: 

"What, then, was the duty of the national Government? Illinois 
was certain to be a great State, with any boundaries which that 
Government could give. Its great extent of territory, its unrivaled 
fertility of soil and capacity for sustaining a dense population, 
together with its commanding position, would in course of time 
give the new State a very controlling inflfience with her sister 
States situated upon the Western rivers, either in sustaining the 
federal Union as it is, or in dissolving it and establishing new gov- 
ernments. If left entirely upon the waters of these great rivers, it 


was plain that, in case of threatened disruption, the interest of the 
new IState would be to join a Southern and Western confederacy; 
but if a large portion of it could be made dependent upon the com- 
merce and navigation of the great northern lakes, connected as they 
are with the Eastern States, a rival interest would be created to 
check the wish for a Western and Southern confederacy. 

" It therefore became tlie duty of the national Government not 
only to make Illinois strong, but to raise an interest inclining and 
binding her to the Eastern and JSTorthern portions of the Union. 
This could be done only through an interest in the lakes. At that 
time the commerce on the lakes was small, but its increase was con- 
fidently expected, and, indeed, it has exceeded all anticipations, 
and is yet only in its infancy. To accomplish this object efi'ectually, 
it was not only necessary to give to Illinois the port of Chicago and 
a route for the canal, but a considerable coast on Lake Michigan, 
with a country back of it sufficiently extensive to contain a popu- 
lation capable of exerting a decided influence upon the councils of 
the State, 

" There would, therefore, be a large commerce of the north, west- 
ern and central portion of the State afloat on the lakes, for it was 
then foreseen that the canal would be made; and this alone would 
be like turning one of the many mouths of the Mississippi into 
Lake Michigan at Chicago. A very large commerce of the center 
and south would be found both upon the lakes and rivers. Asso- 
ciations in business, in interest, and of friendship would be formed, 
both with the Xorth and the South. A State thus situated, having 
such a decided interest in the commerce, and in tlie preservation of 
the whole confederacj', can never consent to disunion ; for the Union 
cannot be dissolved without a division and disruption of the State 
itself. These views, urged by Judge Pope, obtained the unquali- 
fied assent of the statesmen of 1818. 

" These facts and views are worthy to be recorded in history as 
a standing and perpetual call upon Ulinoisans of every age to 
remember the great trust which has been reposed in them, as the 
peculiar champions and guardians of the Union by the great men 
and patriot sages who adorned and governed this country in the 
earlier and better days of the Republic." 

During the dark and trying days of the Kebellion, well did she 
remember this sacred trust, to protect which two hundred thousand 


of her sons went to the bloody field of battle, crowning their arms 
with the laurels of war, and keeping inviolate the solemn obliga- 
tions bequeathed to them by their fathers. 


In July and August of 1818 a convention was held at Kaskaskia 
for the purpose of drafting a constitution. This constitution was 
not submitted to a vote of the people for their approval or i^ejection, 
it being well known that they would approve it. It was about the 
first organic law of any State in the Union to abolish imprisonment 
for debt. The first election under the constitution was held on the 
third Thursday and the two succeeding days in September, 1818. 
Shadrach Bond was elected Governor, and Pierre Menard Lieuten- 
ant Governor. Their term of office extended four years. At this 
time che State was divided into fifteen counties, the population being 
about 40,000. Of this number by far the larger portion were from 
the Southern States. The salary of the Governor was $1,000, while 
that of the Treasurer was $500. The Legislature re-enacted, ver- 
batim, the Territorial Code, the penalties of which were unneces- 
sarily severe. Whipping, stocks and pillory were used for minor 
offenses, and for arson, rape, horse-stealing, etc., death bv hano-ino- 
was the penalty. These laws, iiowever, were modified in 1821. 

The Legislature first convened at Kaskaskia, the ancient seat of 
empire for more than one hundred and fifty years, both for the 
French and Americans. Provisions were made, however, for the 
removal of the seat of government by this Legislature. A place in the 
wilderness on the Kaskaskia river was selected and named Yandalia. 
From Yandalia it was removed to Springfield in the year 1837. 


The name of this beautiful "Prairie State" is derived from 
Illini.'Axx Indian word signifying superior men. It has a French 
termination, and is a symbol of the manner in which the two races, 
the French and Indians, were intermixed during the early history 
of the country. The appellation was no doubt well applied to the 
primitive inhabitants of the soil, whose prowess in savage warfare 
long withstood the combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the 
one side, and the no less savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the 
other. The Illinois were once a powerful confederacy, occupying 
the most beautiful and fertile region in the great valley of the 


Mississippi, which their enemies coveted and struggled long and 
hard to wrest from them. Bj the fortunes of war thej were dimin- 
ished in number and finally destroyed. " Starved Rock," on the 
Illinois river, according to tradition, commemorates their last trag- 
edy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than surrender. 

The low cognomen of " Sucker," as applied to lUinoisans, is said 
to have had its origin at the Galena lead mines. In an early day, 
when these extensive mines were being worked, men would run up 
the Mississippi river in steamboats in the spring, work the lead 
mines, and in the fall return, thus establishing, as was supposed, asim- 
ilitude between their migratory habits and tiiose of the fishy tribe 
called "Suckers." For this reason the Illinoisans have ever since 
been distinguished by the epithet " Suckers." Those who stayed 
at the mines over winter were mostly from Wisconsin, and were 
called " Badgers." One spring the Missourians poured into the 
mines in such numbers that the State was said to have taken a puke, 
and the offensive appellation of " Pukes " was afterward applied to 
all Missourians. 

The southern part of the State, known as " Egypt," received this 
appellation because, being older, better settled and cultivated, grain 
was had in greater abundance than in the central and northern por- 
tion, and the immigrants of this region, after the manner of the 
children of Israel, went "thitlier to buy and to bring from thence 
that they might live and not die." 


The Legislature, during the latter years of territorial existence, 
granted charters to several banks. The result was that paper money 
became very abundant, times flush, and credit unlimited; and every- 
body invested to the utmost limit of his credit, with confident 
expectation of realizing a handsome advance before the expiration 
of his credit, from the throng of immigrants then pouring into the 
country. By 1819 it became apparent that a day of reckoning 
would approach before their dreams of fortune could be realized. 
Banks everywhere began to waver, paper money became depreci- 
ated, and gold and silver driven out of the country. The Legisla- 
ture sought to bolster up the times by incorporating the '' Bank 
of Illinois," which, with several branches, was created by the ses- 
sion of 1821. This bank, being wholly supported by the credit of 
the State, was to issue one, two, three, five, ten and twenty-dollar 


notes. It was the duty of the bank to advance, upon personal prop- 
erty, money to the amount of $100, and a larger amount upon real 
estate. All taxes and public salaries could be paid in such bills; 
and if a creditor refused to take them, he had to wait three years 
longer before he could collect his debt. The people imagined that 
simply because the government had issued the notes, they would 
remain at par; and although this evidently could not be the case, 
they were yet so infatuated with their project as actually to request 
the United States government to receive them in payment for their 
public lands! Although there were not wanting men who, like 
John McLean, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, fore- 
saw the dangers and evils likely to arise from the creation of such 
a bank, by tar the greater part of the people were in favor of it. 
The new bank was themfore started. The new issue of bills by the 
bank of course only aggravated the evil, heretofore so grievously 
felt, of the absence of s])ecie, so that the people were soon com- 
pelled to cut their bills in halves and quarters, in order to make 
small change in trade. Finally the paper currency so rapidly depre- 
ciated that three dollars in these bills were considered worth only 
.one in specie, and the State not only did not increase its revenue, 
but lost full two-thirds of it, and expended three times the amount 
required to pay the expenses of the State government. 

Lafayette's visit. 
In the spring of 1825 the brave and generous LaFayette visited 
Illinois, accepting the earnest invitation of the General Assembly, 
and an affectionately written letter of Gov. Cole's, who had formed 
his personal acquaintance in France in 1817. The General in reply 
said: " It has been my eager desire, and it is now my earnest inten- 
tion, to visit the Western States, and particularly the State of Illi- 
nois. The feelings which your distant welcome could not fail to 
excite have increased that patriotic eagerness to admire on that 
blessed spot the happy and rapid results of republican institutions, 
public and domestic virtues. I shall, after the 22d of February 
(anniversary daj'), leave here for a journey to the Southern States, 
and from New Orleans to the Western States, so as to return to 
Boston on the 14th of June, when the corner-stone of the Bunker 
Hill monument is to be laid, — a ceremony sacred to the whole Union 
and in which I have been engaged to act a peculiar and honorable 


General LaFayette and suite, attended by a large delegation of 
prominent citizens of Missouri, made a visit by the steamer jS'atch- 
ez to the ancient town of Kaskaskia. No military parade was 
attempted, but a multitude of patriotic citizens made him welcome. 
A reception was held, Gov. Cole delivering a glowing address of 
welcome. During the progress of a grand ball held that night, a 
very interestinor interview took place between the honored General 
and an Indian squaw whose father had served under him in the 
Revolutionary war. The squaw, learning that the great white chief 
was to be at Kaskaskia on that night, had ridden all day, from early 
dawn till sometime in the night, from her distant home, to see 
tlie man whose name had been so often on her father's tongue, and 
with which she was so familiar. In identification of her claim to 
his distinguished acquaintance, she brought with her an old, worn 
letter which the General had written to her father, and which the 
Indian chief had preserved with great care, and finally bequeathed 
on his death-bed to his daughter as the most precious legacy he had 
to leave her. 

By 12 o'clock at night Gen. La Fayette returned to his boat and 
started South. The boat was chartered by the State. 


In the year 1822 the term of office of the first Governor, Shadrach 
Bond, expired. Two parties sprung up at this time, — one favorable, 
the other hostile, to tlie introduction of slavery, each proposing a 
candidate of its own for Governor. Both parties worked hard to 
secure the election of their respective candidates; but the people at 
large decided, as they ever have been at heart, in favor of a free 
State. Edward Coles, an anti-slavery man, was elected, although a 
majority of the Legislature were opposed to him. The subject of 
principal interest during his administration was to make Illinois a 
slave State. The greatest effort was made in 1824, and the propo- 
sition was defeated at the polls by a majority of 1,800. The aggre- 
gate vote polled was 11,612, being about 6,000 larger than at the 
previous State election. African slaves were first introduced into 
Illinois in 1Y20 bv Renault, a Frenchman, 

Senator Duncan, afterward Governor, presented to the Legisla- 
ture of 1824-5 a bill for the support of schools by a public tax; and 
William S. Hamilton presented another bill requiring a tax to be 


used for the purpose of constructing and repairing the roads, — both 
of which bills passed and became laws. But although these laws 
conferred an incalculable benelit upon the public, the very name of 
a tax was so odious to the people that, rather than pay a tax of the 
smallest possible amount, they preferred working as they formerly 
did, five days during the year on the roads, and would allow their 
children to grow up without any instruction at all. Consequently 
both laws were abolished in 1826. 

In the year 1826 the office of Governor became again vacant. 
Ninian Edwards, Adolphus F. Hubbard and Thomas C Sloe were 
candidates. Edwards, though the successful candidate, had made 
himself many enemies by urging strict inquiries to be made into 
the corruption of the State bank, so that Jiad it not been for his 
talents and noble personal appearance, he would most probably not 
have been elected. Hubbard was a man of but little personal merit. 
Of him tradition has preserved, among other curious sayings, a 
speech on a bill granting a bounty on wolf-scalps. This speech, 
delivered before the Legislature, is as follows: "Mr. Speaker, I rise 
before the question is put on this bill, to say a word for my constit- 
uents. Mr. Speaker, I have never seen a wolf. I cannot say that 
I am very well acquainted with the nature and habits of wolves. 
Mr. Speaker, I have said that I had never seen a vyolf; but now I 
remember that once on a time, as Judge Brown and I were riding 
across the Bonpas prairie, we looked over the prairie about three 
miles, and Judge Brown said, ' Hubbard, look! there goes a wolf; ' 
and I looked, and I looked, and I looked, and I said, ' Judge, where?' 
and he said, 'There!' And I looked again, and this time in the 
edge of a hazel thicket, about three miles across the prairie, I think 
I saw the wolf's tail. Mr. Speaker, if I did not see a wolf that 
time, I think I never saw one; but I have heard much, and read 
more, about this animal. I have studied his natural history. 

"By the bye, history is divided into two parts. There is first 
the history of the fabulous; and secondly, of the non-fabulous, or 
unknown age. Mr. Speaker, from all these sources of information 
I learn that the wolf is a very noxious animal ; that he goes prowl- 
ing about, seeking something to devour; that he rises up in the 
dead and secret hours of night, when all nature reposes in silent 
oblivion, and then commits the most terrible devastation upon the 
rising generation of hogs and sheep. 


" Mr. Speaker, I have done; and I return mj thanks to the house 
for tlieir kind attention to my remarks." 

Gov. Edwards was a large and v/ell-made man, vpith a noble, 
princely appearance. Of him Gov. Ford savs: "He never con- 
descended to the common low art of electioneering. Whenever he 
went out among the people he arrayed himself in the style of a 
gentleman of the olden time, dressed in fine broadcloth, with short 
breeches, long stockings, and high, fair-topped boots; was drawn in 
a fine carriage driven by a negro; and for success he relied upon his 
speeches, which were delivered in great pom]) and in style of difi'iise 
and florid eloquence. Wlieu he was inaugurated in 1826, he 
appeared before the General Assembly wearing a golden-laced cloak, 
and with great pomp pronounced his first message to the houses 
of the Legislature." 


Demagogism had an early development. One John Grammar, 
who was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1816, and held the 
position for about twenty years, invented the policy of opposing 
every new thing, saying, "If it succeeds, no one will ask who 
voted against it: if it proves a failure, he could quote its record." 
When first honored with a seat in the Assembly, it is said that 
he lacked the apparel necessary- for a member of the Legislature, 
and in order to procure them he and his sons gathered a large 
quantity of hazel-nuts, which were taken to the Ohio Saline and 
sold for cloth to make a coat and pantaloons. The cloth was the 
blue strouding commonly used by the Lidians. 

The neighboring women assembled to make up the garments; the 
cloth was measured every way, — across, lengthwise, and from corner 
to corner, — and still was found to be scant. It was at last con- 
cluded to make a very short, bob-tailed coat and a long pair of leg- 
gins, which being finished, Mr. Grammar started for the State 
capital. In sharp contrast with Grammar was the character of D. 
P. Cook, in honor of whom Cook county was named. Such was 
his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that his will was 
almost the law of the State. In Cono-ress. a voung man and from 
a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 


Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, 
' Jackson, Clay, Crawford and Adams. Tn^re being no choice by 
the people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so bal- 
anced that it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, elect- 
iiioj him. Ho tlien came home to face the wrath of the Jackson 
party in Illinois. 

The first mail route in the State was established in 1805. This 
was from Vincennes to Cahokia. In 1824 there was a direct mail 
route from Vandalia to Springfield. The first route i'rom the central 
part of the State to Chicago was established in 1832, from Shelby- 
ville. The difficulties and dangers encountered by the early mail 
carriers, in time of Indian troubles, were very serious. The bravery 
and ingenious devices of Harry Milton are mentioned with special 
commendation. When a boy, in 1812, he conveyed the mail on a 
wild French pony from Shawneetown to St. Louis, over swollen 
streams and through the enemy's country. So infrequent and 
irregular were the communications by mail a great part of the time, 
that to-day, even the remotest part of the United States is unable to 
appreciate it by example. 

The first newspaper published in Illinois was the Illinois Herald^ 
established at Kaskaskia by Mathew Duncan. There is some va- 
riance as to the exact time of its establishment. Gov. Revnolds 
claimed it was started in 1809. Wm. H. Brown, afterwards its 
editor, gives the date as 1814. 

In 1831 the criminal code was first adapted to penitentiary pun- 
ishment, ever since which time the old system of whipping and 
pillory for the punishment of criminals has l)een disused. 

There was no legal rate of interest till 1830. Previously the rate 
often reached as high as 150 per cent., but was usually 50 per cent. 
Then it was reduced to 12, then to 10, and lastly to 8 per cent. 



The Indians, who for some years were on peaceful terms with 
the whites, became troublesome in 1827. The Winnebagoes, Sacs 
and Foxes and other tribes had been at war for more than a hun- 
dred 3'ears. In the summer of 1827 a war party of the TVinnebafjoes 
surprised a party of Chippewas and killed eight of them. Four 


of the murderers were arrested and delivered to the Chippewas, 
by whom they were immediately shot. This was the first irritation 
of the Winnebagoes. Red Bird, a chief of this tribe, in order to 
avenge the execution of the four warriors of his own people, attacked 
the Chippewas, but was defeated; and being determined to satisfy 
his thirst for revenge by some means, surprised and killed several 
white men. Upon receiving intelligence of these murders, the 
whites who were working the lead mines in the vicinity of Galena 
formed a body of volnnteers,and, re-inforced by a company of United 
States troops, marched into the country of the Winnebagoes. To 
save their nation from the miseries of war, Red Bird and six other 
men of his nation voluntarily surrendered themselves. Some of 
the number were executed, some of them imprisoned and destined, 
like Red Bird, ingloriously to pine away within the narrow confines 
of a jail, when formerly the vast forests had proven too limited for 


In August, 1830, another gubernatorial election was held. The 
candidates were William Kinney, then Lieutenant Governor, and 
John Reynolds, formerly an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
both Jackson Democrats. The opposition brought forward no can- 
didate, as they were in a helpless minority. Reynolds was the 
successful candidate, and under his administration was the famous 


In the year of 1804 a treaty was concluded between the United 
States and the chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations. One old chief of 
the Sacs, however, called Black Hawk, who had fought with great 
bravery in the service of Great Britain during the war of 1812, had 
always taken exceptions to this treaty, pronouncing it void. In 1831 
he established himself, with a chosen band of warriors, upon the dis- 
puted territory, ordering the whites to leave the country at once. The 
settlers complaining, Gov. Reynolds dispatched Gen. Gaines, with a 
company of regulars and 1,500 volunteers, to the scene of action. 
Taking the Indians by surprise, the troops burnt their villages and 
forced them to conclude a treaty, by which they ceded all lands east 
of the Mississippi, and agreed to remain on the western side of the 
river. Necessity forced the proud spirit of Black Hawk into 
submission, which made him more than ever deterniined to be 



aveno-ed npoi: his enemies. Having rallied around him the warlike 
braves of tiie Sat-, and Fox. natio^ns, he crossed the Mississippi in tiie 
spring of 1(>32. Upon hearing of the invasion, Gov. Reynolds 
hastily collecte-' a body of 1,800 volunteers, placing them under the 
command oi iiiig-Gen. Samuel Whiteside. 

stillman's kun. 

The army marched to the Mississippi, and havirig reduced to 
ashes the Indian village known as '-Prophet's Town,'' proceeded 
for several miles up the river to Dixon, to join the regular forces 
under Gen. Atkinson. They found at Dixon two companies of 
volunteers, who, sighing for glory, were dispatched to reconnoiter 
the enemy. Tliey advanced under command of M:ij. Stillman, to a 
creek afterwards called "Stillman's run;" and while encamping 
there saw a party of mounted Indians at the distance of a mile. 
Several of SilUman's party mounted their horses and charged the 
Indians, killing three of them; but, attacked by the main body 
under Black Hawk, they were routed, and by their precipitate 
flight spread such a panic through the camp that the whole company 
ran off to Dixon as fast as their logs could carry them. On their 
arrival it was found that there had been eleven killed. The party 
came straggling into camp all night long, four or five at a time, 
each squad positive that all who were left behind were massacred. 

It is said that a big, tall Kentuckian, with a loud voice, who 
was a colonel of the militia but a private with Stillman, upon his 
arrival in camr- gave to Gen. Whiteside and the wondering multi- 
tude the follov/ino: g-lowing and bombastic account of the battle: 
"Sirs," said lie, "our detachment was encamped among some scat- 
tering timber on the north side of Old Man's creek, with the prairie 
from the north gently sloping down to our encampment. It was 
just after twilight, in the gloaming of the evening, when we dis- 
covered Black Hawk's army coming down upon us in solid column; 
they displayed in the form of a crescent upon the brow of the prai- 
rie, and such accuracy and precision of military movements were 
never witnessed Dy man; they were equal to the best troops of 
Wellington in Spain. ^ have said that the Indians came down in 
solid columns, and displayed in the form of a crescent; and what was 
most wonderful, there were large squares of cavalry resting upon 
the points of the curve, which squares were supported again by 


other columns fifteen deep, extending back through the woods and 
over a swamp three-quarters of a mile, which again rested on the 
main bodv of Black Hawk's army bivouacked upon the banks of the 
Kishwakee. It was a terrible and a glorious sight to see the tawny 
warriors as they rode along our flanks attempting to outflank us, 
with the g.ittering moonbeams glistening from their polished blades 
and burnished spears. It was a sight well calculated to strike con- 
sternation in the stoutest and boldest heart; and accordingly our 
men soon began to break in small squads, for tall timber. In a 
very little time the rout became general, the Indians were soon 
upon our flanks and threatened the destruction of our entire detach- 
ment. About this time Maj. Stillman, Col, Stephenson, Maj. 
Perkins, Capt. Adams, ]\Ir. Hackelton, and myself, with some 
others, threw ourselves into the rear to rally the fugitives and pro- 
tect the retreat. But in a short time all my companions fell 
bravely fighting hand-to-hand with the savage enemy, and I alone 
was left upon the field of battle. About this time I discovered not 
far to the left a corps of horsemen which seemed to be in tolerable 
order. I immediately deployed to the left, when, leaning down and 
placing my body in a recumbent posture upon the mane of my 
horse so as to bring the heads of the horsemen between my eye 
and the horizon, I discovered by the light of the moon that they 
were jrentlemen who did not wear hats, bv which token I knew thev 
were no friends of mine. I therefore made a retrogade movement 
and recovered my position, where I remained some time meditating 
what further I could do in the service of ray country, when a ran- 
dom ball came whistling by my ear and plainly whispered to me, 
' Stranger, you have no further business here.' Upon hearing this I 
followed the example of my companions in arms, and broke for 
tall timber, and the way I ran was not a little." 

For a long time afterward Maj. Stillnan and his men were sub- 
jects of ridicule and merriment, which was as undeserving as their 
expedition was disastrous. Stillman's defeat spread consternation 
throughout the State and nation. The number of Indians was 
greatly exaggerated, and the name of Black Hawk carried with it 
associations of great military talent, savage cunning and cruelty. 


A regiment sent to spy out the country between Galena and Rock 
Island was surprised by a party of seventy Indians, and was on the 


point of being thrown into disorder when Gen. Whiteside, then 
serving as a private, shouted out that he would shoot the first man 
who should turn his back to the enemy. Order being restored, the 
battle began. At its very outset Gen. Whiteside shot the leader of 
the Indians, who thereupon commenced a hasty retreat. 

In June, 1832, Black Hawk, with a band of 150 warriors, attack- 
ed the Apple Hiver Fort, near Galena, defended by 25 men. This 
fort, a mere palisade of logs, was erected to afford protection to the 
miners. For fifteen consecutive hours the garrison had to sustain 
the assault of the savage enemy ; but knowing very well that no 
quarter would be given them, they fought with such fury and des- 
peration that the Indians, aft€r losing many of their best warriors, 
were compelled to retreat. 

Another party of eleven Indians murdered two men near Fort 
Hamilton. They were afterwards overtaken by a company of 
twenty men and every one of them was killed. 


A new regiment, under the command of Gen. Atkinson, assem- 
bled on the banks of the Illinois in the latter part of June. Maj. 
Dement, with a small party, was sent out to reconnoittr the move- 
ments of a large body of Indians, whose endeavors to surround him 
made it advisable fur him to retire. Upon hearing of this engage- 
ment. Gen. Atkinson sent a detachment to intercept the Indians, 
while he with the main body of his army, moved north to meet the 
Indians under Black Hawk. They moved slowly and cautiously 
through the country, passed through Turtle village, and marched 
up along Bock river. On their arrival news was brought of the 
discovery of the main trail of the Indians. Considerable search 
was made, but they were unable to discover any vestige of Indians 
save two who had shot two soldiers the day previous. 

Hearing that Black Hawk was encamped on Rock river, at the 
Manitou village, they resolved at once to advance upon the enemy; 
but in the execution of their design they met with opposition from 
their officers and men. The officers of Gen. Henry handed to him 
a written protest; but he, a man equal to any emergency, ordered 
the officers to be arrested and escorted to Gen. Atkinson. Within 
a few minutes after the stern order was given, the officers all collected 
around the General's quarters, many of them with tears in their 


eyes, pledging themselves that if forgiven they would return to duty 
and never do the like again. The General rescinded the order, and 
they at once resumed duty. 


Gen. Henry marched on the 15th of July in pursuit of the 
Indians, reaching Ruck river after three days' journey, where he 
learned Black Hnwk was encamped further up the river. On July 
19th the troops were ordered to commence their march. After 
havino; made tiftv miles, tliev were overtaken l>y a terrible thunder- 
storm which lasted all night. Nothing cooled, however, in their 
courage and zeal, they marched again lifty miles the next day, 
encamping near the place where the Indiana had encamped the 
night before. Hurrying along as fast as they could, the infantry 
keeping up an equal pace with the mounted force, the troops on the 
morning of the 21st crossed the river connecting two of the four 
lakes, by which the Indians had been endeavoring to escape. They 
found, on their way, the ground strewn with kettles and articles of 
baggage, which the haste of their retreat had obliged the Indians 
to throw away. The troops, inspired with new ardor, advanced so 
rapidly that at noon they fell in with the rear guard of the Indians. 
Those who closely pursued them were saluted with a sudden 
lire of musketry by a body of Indians who had concealed them- 
selves in the high grass of the prairie. A most desperate charge 
was made upon the Indians, who, unable to resist, retreated 
obliquely, in order to out-flank the volunteers on the right; but the 
latter charged the Indians in their ambush, and expelled them 
from their thickets at the point of the bayonet, and dispersed tliera. 
Night set in and the battle ended, having cost the Indians ^% of 
their bravest men, while the loss of the Illinoisans amounted to but 
one killed and 8 wounded. 

Soon after this battle Gens. Atkinson and Henry joined their 
forces and pursued the Indians. Gen. Henry struck the main trail, 
left his horses behind, formed an advance guard of eight men, 
and marched forward upon their trail. When these eight men 
came within sight of the river, they were suddenly tired upon and 
five of them killed, the remaining three maintaining their ground 
till Gen. Henry came up. Then the Indians, charged upon with 
the bayonet, fell back upon their main force. The battle now 


became general; the Indians fonglit with desperate valor, but were 

furiously assailed by the volunteers with their bayonets, cutting 

many of the Indians to pieces and driving the rest into the river. 

Those who escaped from being drowned took refuge on an island. On 

hearing the frequent discharge of musketry, indicating a general 

engagement, Gen. Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of the twenty 

Indians under Black Hawk himself, and hurried to the scene of 

action, where he ariivcd too late to take part in the battle. He 

immediately forded the river with his troops, the water reaching 

up to their necks, and landed on the island where the Indians had 

secreted themselves. The soldiers rushed upon the Indians, killed 

several of them, took others prisoner, and chased the rest into 

the river, where they were either drowned or shot before reaching 

the opposite shore. Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 300^ 

besides 50 prisoners; the whites but 17 killed and 12 wounded. 


Many painful incidents occurred during this battle. A Sac 
woman, the sister of a warrior of some notoriety, found herself in 
the thickest of the fight, but at length succeeded in reaching the 
river, when, keeping her infant child safe in its blankets by means 
of her teeth, she plunged into the water, seized the tail of a horse 
with her hands whose rider was swimming the stream, and was 
drawn safely across. A young squaw during the battle was stand- 
ing in the grass a short distance from the American line, holding 
her child — a little girl of four years — in her arms. In this posi- 
tion a ball struck the right arm of the child, shattering the bone, 
and passed into the breast of the young mother, instantly killing 
her. She fell upon the child and confined it to the ground till the 
Indians were driven from that part of the field. Gen. Anderson, 
of the United States army, hearing its cries, went to the spot, took 
it from under the dead body and carried it to the surgeon to have 
its wound dressed. The arm was amputated, and during the oper- 
ation the half-starved child did not cry, but sat quietly eating a 
hard piece of biscuit. It was sent to Prairie du Chien, where it 
entirely recovered. 


Black Hawk, with his twenty braves, retreated up the Wisconsin, 
river. The Winnebagoes, desirous of securing the friendship of 


the whites, went in pursuit and captured and delivered them to 
Gen. Street, the United States Indian agent. Among the prisoners 
were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of the tribe. These 
with Black Hawk were taken to Washington, D. C, and soon con- 
signed as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. 

At the interview Black Hawk had with the President, he closed 
his speech delivered on the occasion in the following words: " We 
did not expect to conquer the whites. They have too many houses, 
too many men. I took up the hatchet, for my part, to revenge 
injuries which my people could no longer endure. Had I borne 
them longer without striking, my people would have said, • Black 
Hawk is a woman; he is too old to be a chief; he is no Sac' These 
reflections caused me to raise the war-whoop. I say no more. It 
is known to you. Keokuk once was here; you took him by the 
hand, and when he wished to return to his home, you were willing. 
Black Hawk expects, like Keokuk, he shall be permitted to return 


Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, was born in the prin- 
cipal Sac village, near the junction of Rock river with tlie Missis- 
sippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa. Black 
Hawk early distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of 
fifteen was permitted to paint, and was ranked among the braves. 
About the year 1783 he went on an expedition against the enemies 
of his nation, the Osages, one of whom he killed and scalped; and 
for this deed of Indian bravery he was permitted to join in the 
scalp dance. Three or four years afterward he, at the head of two 
hundred braves, went on another expedition against the Osages, to 
avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to his 
own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. 
The Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the 
Cherokees for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them near 
the present city of St. Louis his father was slain, and Black Hawk, 
taking possession of the " Medicine Bag," at once announced him- 
self chief of the Sac nation. He had now conquered the Cherokees, 
and about the year 1800, at the head of five hundred Sacs and 
Foxes and a hundred lowas, he waged war against the Osage 


nation, and subdued it. For two years he battled successfully with 
other Indian tribes, all of which he conquered. 

The year following the treaty at St. Louis, in 1804, the United 
States Government erected a fort near the head of Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, 
who at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the 
west side of the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Des Moines. 
The fort was garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. 
The difficulties with the British Government arose about this time, 
and the war of 1812 followed. That government, extending aid to 
the Western Indians, induced them to remain hostile to the Ameri- 
cans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing 
on his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn 
massacre had a few days before been perpetrated. Of his con- 
nection with the British but little is known. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indians w^est of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United 
States and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black 
Hawk did not sign any treaty, however, until May of the following 
year. From the time of signing this treaty, in 1816, until the 
breaking out of the Black Hawk war, he and his band passed their 
time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and 
Fox Indians were urged to move to the west of the Mississippi. 
All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of which 
Black Hawk was leader. He strongly objected to the removal, and 
was induced to comply only after being threatened by the Govern- 
ment. This action, and various others on the part of the white 
settlers, provoked Black Hawk and Iris band to attempt the capture 
of his native village, now occupied by the whites. The war fol- 
lowed. He and his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and 
had his wishes been complied with at the beginning of the struggle, 
much bloodshed would have been prevented. 


By order of the President, Black Hawk and his companions, 
who were in confinement at Fortress Monroe, were set free on the 
4th day of June, 1833. Before leaving the fort Black Hawk 


made the following farewell speech to the commander, which is not 
onlj eloquent but shows that within his chest of steel there beat a 
heart keenly alive to the emotions of gratitude: 

" Brother, I have come on my own part, and in belialf of my 
companions, to bid you farewell. Our great father has at length 
been pleased to permit us to return to our hunting grounds. We 
have buried the tomahawk, and the sound of the ritle hereafter will 
only bring death to the deer and the buftalo. Brothers, you have 
treated the red man very kindly. Tour squaws have made them 
presents, and you have given them plenty to eat and drink. The 
memory of your friendship will remain till the Great Spirit says it 
is time for Black Hawk to sing his death song. Brother, your 
houses are as numerous as the leaves on the trees, and 3'our young 
warriors like the sands upon the shore of the big lake that rolls 
before us. The red man has but few houses and few warriors, but 
the red man has a heart which throbs as warmly as the heart of his 
white brother. The Great Spirit has given us our hunting grounds, 
and the skin of the deer which we kill there is his favorite, for its 
color is white, and this is the emblem of peace. This hunting 
dress and these feathers of the eagle are white. Accept them, my 
brother. I have given one like this to the "White Otter. Accept it as 
a memorial of Black Hawk. When he is far away this will serve 
to remind you of him. May the Great Spirit bless you and your 
children. Farewell." 

After their release from prison they were conducted, in charge 
of Major Gai-land, through some of the principal cities, that 
tliev might witness the power of the United States and learn 
their own inability to cope with them in war. Great multitudes 
flocked to see them wherever thev were taken, and the attention 
paid them rendered their progress through the country a triumphal 
procession, iistead of the trausportation of prisoners by an oflicer. 
At Rock Island the prisoners were given their liberty, amid 'great 
and impressive ceremony. In 1S38 Black Hawk built him a 
dwelling near Des Moines, Iowa, and furnished it alter the manner 
of the whites, and engaged in agricultural pursuits and hunting and 
fishino". Here, with his wife, to whom he was greatly at^ached, he 
passed the few remaining days of his life. To his credit, it may be 
said, that Black Hawk remained true to his wife, and served her 


with a devotion uncommon among Indians, living with her up- 
ward of forty years. 


At all times when Black Hawk visited the whites he was 
received with marked attention. He was an honored guest at the 
old settlers' re- union in Lee county, Illinois, at some of their 
meetings and receiv^ed many tokens of esteem. In September, 
1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his annuity from 
the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted in a 
fatal attack of bilious fever, and terminated his life October 3. 
After his death, lie was dressed in the uniform presented to him by 
the President while in Washington, He was buried in a grave six 
feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. The body was 
placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture upon a seat 
constructed for the purpose. On his left side ths cane given him 
by Henry Clay was placed upright, with his right hand resting 
upon it. Thus, after a long, adventurous and shifting life, Black 
Hawk was gathered to his fathers. 

FROM 18;U TO 1842. 


'No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers 
began rapidly to pour into the northern part of Illinois, now free 
from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown into a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into 
prominence. I 

At the general election in 1831 Joseph Duncan was chosen 
Governor, by a handsome majority. His principal opponent was 
ex-Lieutenant Governor Kinney. A reckless and uncontrollable 
desire for internal public improvements seized the minds of the 
people. In his message to the Legislature, in 1835, Gov. Duncan 
said: " When we look abroad and see the extensive lines of inter- 
communication penetrating almost every section of our sister States; 
when we see the canal boat and the locomotive bearinsr with seem- 
ing triumph the rich productions of the interior to the rivers, lakes 
and ocean, almost annihilating time, burthen and space, what 
patriot bi)som does not beat higli with a laudable ambition to give 
Illinois her full share of those advantages which are adorning her 


sister States, and which a magnificent Providence seems to invite 
by a wonderful adaptation of our whole country to such improve- 


The Legislature responded to the ardent words of the Govepfior, 
and enacted a system of internal improvements without a parallel 
in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the construction 
of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all directions. 
This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. There 
were a few counties not touched by railroad, or river or canal, and 
they were to be comforted and compensated by the free distribution 
of $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond credence, it 
was ordered that work should commence on both ends of each of these 
railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the same time. 
This provision, which has been called the crowning folly of the 
entire system, was the result of those jealous combinations ema- 
nating from the fear that advantages might accrue to one section 
over another in the commencement and completion of the works. 
We can appreciate better, perhaps, the magnitude of this grand 
system by reviewing a few figures. The debt authorized for these 
improvements in the first instance was $10,230,000. But this, as 
it was soon found, was based upon estimates at least too low by 
half. This, as we readily see, committed the State to a liability of 
over $20,000,000, equivalent to $200,000,000, at the present time, 
with over ten times the population and more than ten times the 

Siich stupendous undertakings by the State naturally engendered 
the fever of speculation among individuals. That particular form 
known as the town-lot fever assumed the malignant type at first in 
Chicago, from whence it spead over the entire State and adjoining 
States. It was an epidemic. It cut up men's farms without regard 
to -locality, and cut up the purses of the purchasers without regard 
to consequences. It was estimated that building lots enough were 
sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Chicago, which in 1830 was a small trading-post, had within a 
few years grown into a city. This was the starting point of the 
wonderful and marvelous career of that city. Improvements, 


unsurpassed by individual efforts in the annals of the world, were 
then begun and have been maintained to this day. Tliough visited 
by the terrible fire fiend and the accumulations of years swept 
away in a night, yet she has arisen, and to-day is the best built city 
in the world. Heports of the rapid advance of property in Chicago 
spread to the East, and thousands poured into her borders, bringing 
money, enterprise and industry. Every ship that left her port 
carried with it maps of splendidly situated towns and additions, 
and every vessel that returned was laden with immigrants. It was 
said at the time that the staple articles of Illinois export were town 
plots, and that there M'as danger of crowding the State with towns 
to the exclusion of land fur agriculture. 


The Illinois and Michigan canal again received attention. This 
enterprise is one of the most important in the early development 
of Illinois, on account of its magnitude and cost, and forming 
as it does the connecting link between the great chain of lakes and 
the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Gov. Bond, the first Governor, 
recommended in his first message the building of the canal. In 
1821 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
This work was performed by two young men, who estimated the 
cost at $000,000 or $700,000. It cost, however, when completed, 
$8,000,000. In 1825 a law was passed to incorporate the Canal 
Company, but no stock was sold. In 1826, upon the solicitation of 
Daniel P. Cook, Congressman from this State, Congress gave 
800,000 acres of land on the line of the work. In 1828 commis- 
sioners were appointed, and work commenced witli a new survey 
and new estimates. In 1834-5 the work was again pushed forward, 
and continued nntil 1818, when it was completed. 


Bonds of the State were recklessly disposed of both in the East 
and in Europe. Work was commenced on various lines of railroad, 
but none were ever completed. On the Northern Cross Railroad, 
from Meredosia east eight miles, the first locomotive that ever 
turned a wlieel in the great valley of the Mississippi, was run. 
The date of this remarkable event was Nov. 8, 1838. Large suras 
of money were being expended with no assurance of a revenue, 


and consequently, in 1S40, the Legislature repealed the improve- 
Dient laws passed three years previously, nut, however, until the 
State had accumulated a debt of nearly $15,00(',0U0. Tiius fe 1, 
after a short but eventful life, by the hands of its creator, the most 
stupendous, extravagant and almost ruinous folly of a grand sj'S- 
tem of internal improvements that any civil community, perhaps, 
ever engaged in. The State banks failed, specie was scarce, an 
enormous debt was accumulated, the interest of which could not 
be paid, people were disappointed in the accumulation of wealth, 
and real estate was worthless. All this had a tendency to create a 
desire to throw off the heavy burden of State debt by repudiation. 
This was boldly advocated by some leading men. The fair fame 
and name, however, of the State was not tarnished by repudiation. 
Men, true, honest, and able, were placed at the head of affairs; and 
thouorh the hours were dark and e-oomv, and the times most trv- 
ing, yet our grand old State was brought through and prospered, 
until to-day, after the expenditure of millions for public improve- 
ments and for carrying on the late war, she has, at present, a debt 
of only about S3uO,000. 


The year 1S37 is memorable for the death of the first martyr for 
liberty, and the abolishment of American slavery, in the State. 
Elijah P. Lovejoy was shot by a mob in Alton, on the night of the 
7th of November of that year, lie was at the time editor of the 
Alton Obi<ervef\ and advocated anti-slavery principles in its 
columns. For this practice three of his presses had been destroyed. 
On the arrival of the fourth the trasredv occurred which cost him 
his life. In anticipation of its arrival a series of meetings were 
held ill which the friends of freedom and of slavery were represented. 
The object was to effect a compromise, but it was one in which 
liberty was to make concessions to oppression. In a speech made 
at one of these meetings, Lovejoy said: ** !Mr. Chairman, what 
have I to compromise? If freely to forgive those who have so greatly 
injured me; if to pray for their temporal and eternal happiness; if 
still to wish for the prosperity of your city and State, notwith- 
standing the indignities I have suffered in them, — if this be the 
compromise intended, then do I willingly make it. I do not admit 
that it is the business of any body of men to say whether I shall 

LlCi.iAlli f 

'--- Z I"/.. 

NO, 5^ 


or shall not publish a paper in this city. That right was given to 
ine hy my Creator, and is solemnly guaranteed by the Constitution 
of the United States and of this State. But if by compromise is 
meant that 1 shall cease from that which duty requires of me, I 
cannot make it, and the reason is, that I fear God more than man. 
It is also a very different question, whether 1 shall, voluntarily or 
at the request of ray friends, yield up my position, or whether 
I shall forsake it at the hands of a mob. The former I am readv at 
all times to do when circumstances require it, as I will never put 
my personal wishes or interests in competition with the cause of 
that Master whose minister I am. But the latter, be assured I 
never will do. You have, as lawyers say, made a false issue. There 
are no two parties between whom there can be a compromise. I 
plant myself down on my unquestionable rights, and the ques- 
tion to be decided is, whether I shall be protected in those rights. 
You may hang me, as the mob hung the individuals at Vicksburg; 
3'ou may burn me at the stake, as they did old Mcintosh at St. 
Louis; or, you may tar and feather me, or throw me into the Mis- 
sissippi as you have threatened -to do; but you cannot disgrace me. 
I, and I alone, can disgrace myself; and the deepest of all disgrace 
would be at a time like this to deny my Maker by forsaking his 
cause. He died for me, and I were most unworthy to bear his 
name should I refuse, if need be, to die for him.''^ Not long 
afterward Mr. Lovejoy was shot. His brother Owen, being j)res- 
ent on the occasion, kneeled down on the spot beside the corpse, 
and sent up to God, in the hearing of that very mob, one of the 
most eloquent prayers ever listened to by mortal ear. He was bold 
enough to pray to God to take signal vengeance on the infernal 
institution of slavery, and lie then and there dedicated his life to 
the work of overthrowing it, and hoped to see the day when slavery 
existed no more in this nation. He died, March 24, 1864, nearly 
three months after the Emancipation Proclamation of President 
Lincoln took effect. Thus he lived to see his most earnest and 
devout prayer answered. But few men in the nation rendered bet- 
ter service in overthrowing the institution of slavery than Elijah 
P. and Owen Lov^ejoy. 


Thomas Carlin, Democrat, was elected Governor in 1838, over 
Cyrus Edwards, Whig. In 1842 Adam W. Snyder was nominated 


for Governor on the Democratic ticket, bnt died before election. 
Thomas Ford was placed in nomination, and was elected, ex-Gov- 
ernor Duncan being his opponent. 


The northern part of the State also had its mob experiences, but 
of an entirely different nature from the one just recounted. There 
has always hovered around the frontier of civilization bold, desper- 
ate men, who prey upon the unprotected settlers rather than gain 
a livelihood by honest toil. Theft, robber\" and mui'der were car- 
ried on by regularly organized bands in Ogle, Lee, Winnebago and 
DeKalb counties. The leaders of these gangs of cut-throats were 
among the first settbrs of that portion of the State, and conse- 
quently had the choice of location. Among the most prominent of 
the leaders were John Driscoll, William and David, his sons; John 
Brodie and three of his sons; Samuel Aikens and three of his sons; 
William K. BriJjre and Norton B. Bovce. 

These were the representative characters, those who planned 
and controlled the movements of the combination, concealed them 
when danger threatened, nursed them when sick, rested them when 
worn by fatigue and forced marches, furnished hiding places for 
their stolen booty, shared in the spoils, and, under cover of darkness 
and intricate and devious ways of travel, known onlj' to themselves 
and subordinates, transferred stolen horses from station to station; 
for it came to be known as a well-established fact that they had 
stations, and accents, and watchmen scattered throughout the conn- 
try at convenient distances, and signals and pass-words to assist 
and orovern them in all their nefarious transactions. 

Ogle county, particular!}-, seemed to be a favorite and chosen 
field for the operations of these outlaws, who could not be convicted 
for their crimes. By getting some of their number on the juries, 
by producing hosts of witnesses to sustain their defense by per- 
jured evidence, and by changing the venue from one county to 
another, and by continuances from term to term, they nearly always 
managed to be acquitted. At last these depredations became too 
common for longer endurance; patience ceased to be a virtue, and 
determined desperation seized the minds of honest men, and they 
resolved that if there were no statute laws that could protect them 


against the ravages of thieves, robbers and counterfeiters, they 
vt^ould protect themselves. It was a desperate resolve, and desper- 
ately and bloodily executed, 


At the Spring term of court, 1841, seven of the "Pirates of the 
Prairie," as they were called, were confined in the Ogle county jail 
to await trial. Preparatory to holding court, the judge and lawyers 
assembled at Oregon in their new court-house, which had just 
been completed. Near it stood the county jail in which were the 
prisoners. The "Pirates" assembled Sunday night and set the 
court-house on tire, in the hope that as the prisoners would have to 
be removed from the jail, they might, in the hurry and confusion 
of the people in attending to the fire, make their escape. The 
whole population were awakened that dark and stormy night, to 
see their new court editico enwrapped in flames. Although the 
building was entirely consumed, none of the prisoners escaped. 
Three of them were tried, convicted and sent to the penitentiary 
for a year. They had, however, contrived to get one of their num- 
ber on the jury, who would not agree to a verdict until threatened 
to be lynclied. The others obtained a change of venue and were 
not convicted, and finally they all broke jail and escaped. 

Thus it was that the law was inadequate to the protection of the 
people. The best citizens held a meeting and entered into a solemn 
compact with each other to rid the country of the desperadoes that 
infested it. They were regularly organized and known as " Regu- 
lators." They resolved to notify all suspected parties to leave the 
country within a given time; if they did not comply, they would 
be severely dealt with. Their first victim was a man named Hurl, 
who was suspected of having stolen his neighbor's horse. lie was 
ordered to strip, his hands were tied, when thirty-six lashes of a 
raw-hide were applied to his bare back. The next was a man 
named Daggett, formerly a Baptist preacher. He was sentenced 
to receive five hundred lashes on his bare back. He was stripped, 
and all was ready, when his beautiful daughter rushed into the 
midst of the men, begging for mercy for her father. Her appeals, 
with Daggett's promise to leave the country immediately, secured 
his release. That night, new crimes having been discovered, he 
was taken out and whipped, after which he left the country, never 
again to be heard from. 


The friends and comrades of the men who had heen whipped 
were fearfully enraged, and swore eternal and bloody vengeance. 
Eighty of them assembled one night soon alter, and laid plans to 
visit White Kock and murder every man, woman and child in that 
hamlet. They started on this bloody mission, but were ])revailed 
upon by one of their number to disband. Their coming, however, 
had been anticipated, and every man and boy in the town was 
armed to protect himself and his family. 


John Campbell, Captain of the '• Hegulators," received a letter 
from William Driscoll, filled with most direful threats, — not only 
threatening Camjjbeirs life, but the life of any one who should 
oppose their murderous, thieving operations. Soon after the re- 
ceipt of this letter, two hundred of the " Regulators" marched to 
DriscoU's and ordered him to leave the county within twenty days, 
but he refused to comply with the order. One Sunday evening, 
just after this, Campbell was shot down in his own door-yard by 
David Driscoll. He fell in the arms of his wife, at which time 
Taylor Driscoll raised his rifle and pointed it toward her, but low- 
ered it without firing. 

Xews of this terrible crime spread like wild-fire. The very air 
was filled with threats and vengeance, and nothing but the lives of 
the murderous gang would pay the penalty. Old John Driscoll 
was arrested, was told to bid his family good-bye, and then with 
his son went out to his death. The "Hegulators," numbering 111, 
formed a large circle, and gave the Driscolls a fair hearing. They 
were found guilty, and the " Regulators" divided into two ''death 
divisions," — one, consisting of fifty-six, with rifles dispatched the 
father, the other fifty-five riddled and shattered the body of the 
son with balls from as many guns. The measures thus inaugu- 
rated to free the country from the dominion of outlaws was a last 
desperate resort, and proved effectual. 


In April, 1840, the "Latter- Day Saints," or Mormons, came in 
large numbers to Illinois and purchased a tract of land on the east 
side of the Mississippi river, about ten miles above Keokuk. Here 
they commenced building the city of Xauvoo. A more picturesque 
or eligible site for a city could not have been selected. 


The origin, rapid development and prosperity of this religious 
sect are the most remarkable and instructive historical events of 
the present century. That an obscure individual, without money, 
education, or respectability, should persuade hundreds of thousands 
of people to believe him inspired of God, and cause a book, con- 
temptible as a literary production, to be received as a continuation 
of the sacred revelation, appears almost incredible; yet in less than 
half a century, the disciples of this obscure individual have in- 
creased to hundreds of thousands; have founded a State in the dis- 
tant wilderness, and compelled the Government of the United 
States to practically recognize them as an independent people, 


The founder of Mormonism was Joseph Smith, a native of Ver- 
mont, who emigrated while quite young with his father's family to 
western New York. Here his youth was spent in idle, vagabond 
life, roaming the woods, dreaming of buried treasures, and in en- 
deavoring to learn the art of finding them by the twisting of a 
forked stick in his hands, or by looking through enchanted stones. 
Both he and his father became famous as " water wizards," always 
ready to point out the spot where wells might be dug and water 
found. Such was the character of the young profligate when he 
made the acquaintance of Sidney Rigdon, a person of considerable 
talent and information, who had conceived the design of founding 
a new religion. A religious romance, written by Mr. Spaulding, a 
Presbyterian preacher of Ohio, then dead, suggested the idea, and 
finding in Smith the requisite duplicity and cunning to reduce it 
to practice, it was agreed that he should act as prophet; and the 
two devised a story that gold plates had been found buried in the 
earth containing a record inscribed on them in unknown characters, 
which, when deciphered by the power of inspiration, gave the his- 
tory of the ten lost tribes of Israel. 


After their settlement in and about Nauvoo, in Hancock county, 
great depredations were committed by them on the "Gentiles." 
The Mormons had been received from Missouri with great kind- 
ness by the people of this State, and every possible aid granted 
them. The depredations committed, however, soon made them 


odions, when the question of getting rid of them was agitated. In 
the fall of 18il, the Governor of Missouri made a demand on Gov. 
Carlin for the arrest and delivery of Joe Smith as a fugitive from 
justice. An executive warrant issued for that purpose was placed 
iu the hands of an a^ent to be executed, but was returned without 
being complied with. Soon afterward the Governor handed the 
same writ to his agent, who this time succeeded in arresting Joe 
Smith, lie was, however, discharged by Judge Douglas, upon the 
grounds that the writ upon which he had been arrested had been 
once returned before it was executed, and was functus officio. In 
184:2 Gov. Carlin aijain issued his writ, Joe Smith was arrested 
again, and again escaped. Thus it will be seen it was impossible 
to reach and punish the leader of this people, who had been driven 
from Missouri because of their stealing, murdering and unjust 
dealing, and came to Illinois but to continue their depredations. 
Emboldened by success, the Mormons became more arrogant and 
overbearing. Many people began to believe that they were about 
to set up a separate government for themselves in defiance of the 
laws of the State. Owners of property stolen in other counties 
made pursuit into Nauvoo, and were fined by the Mormon courts 
for daring to seek their property in the holy city. But that wliich 
made it more certain than anything else that the Mormons con- 
templated a separate government, was that about this time they 
petitioned Congress to establish a territorial government for them 
in Nauvoo. 


To crown the whole folly of the Mormons, in the Spring of 1844 
Joe Smith announced himself as a candidate for President of the 
United States, and many of his followers were confident he would 
be elected. He next caused himself to be anointed king and 
priest, and to give character to his pretensions, ho declared his 
lineage in an unbroken line from Joseph, the son of Jacob, and 
that of his wife from some other important personage of the ancient 
Hebrews. To strengthen his political power he also instituted a 
body of police styled the "Danite band," who were sworn to pro- 
tect his person and obey his orders as the commands of God. A 
female order previously existing in the church, called "Spiritual 
wives," was modified so as to suit the licentiousness of the prophet. 
A doctrine was revealed that it was impossible for a woman to get 


to heaven except as the wife of a Mormon elder; that each elder 
might raarrj as many women as he could maintain, and that any 
femrile might be sealed to eternal life by becoming their concubine. 
Tiiis licentiousness, the origin of polygamy in that churcii, they 
endeavored to justify by an appeal to Abraham, Jacob and other 
favorites of God in former ages of the world. 


Smith soon began to play the tyrant over his people. Among 
the Hrst acts of this sort was an attempt to take the wife of Wil- 
liam Law, one of his most talented disciples, and make her his 
spiritual wife. He established, without authority, a recorder's 
office, and an office to issue marriage licenses, lie proclaimed that 
none could deal in real estate or sell liquor but himself. lie 
ordered a printing office demolished, and in many ways controlled 
the freedom and business of the Mormons. Not only did he stir up 
some of the Mormons, but by his reckless disregard for the laws of 
the land raised up opposition on every hand. It was believed that 
he instructed the Danite band, which he had chosen as the ministers 
of his vengeance, that no blood, except that of the church, was to 
be regarded as sacred, if it contravened the accomplishment of his 
object. It was asserted that he inculcated the legality of perjury 
and other crimes, if committed to advance the cause of true believ- 
ers; that God had given the world and all it contained to his saints, 
and since they were kept out of their rightful inheritance by force, 
it was no moral offense to get possession of it by stealing. It was 
reported that an establishment existed in Nauvoo for the manufac- 
ture of counterfeit mono}', and that a set of outlaws was maintained 
for the purpose of putting it in circulation. Statements were cir- 
culated to the effect that a reward was offered for the destruction of 
the Warsaw Signal, an anti-Mormon paper, and that Mormons dis- 
persed over the country threatened all persons who offered to assist 
the constable in the execution of the law, with the destruction of 
their property and the murder of their families. There were rumors 
also afloat that an alliance had been formed with the Western 
Indians, and in case of war they would be nsed in murdering their 
enemies. In short, if only one-half of these reports were true the 
Mormons must have been the most infamous people that ever ex- 



William Law, one of the proprietors of the printing-press 
destroyed by Smitii, went to Carthage, the countj'-seat, and 
obtained warrants for the airest of Smith and tlie members of the 
City Council, and others connected with the destruction of the 
press. Some of the parties having been arrested, but discharged 
by the authorities in Nauvoo, a convention of citizens assembled at 
Carthage and appointed a committee to wait upon the Governor for 
the purpose of procuring military assistance to enforce the law. 
The Governor visited Carthage in person. Previous to his arrival 
the militia had been called out and armed forces commenced assem- 
blinir in Carthao-e and Warsaw to enforce the service of civil process. 
All of them, however, signified a willingness to co-operate M'itli the 
Governor in preserving order. A constable and ten men were then 
• sent to make the arrest. In the meantime, Smith declared martial 
law; his followers residing in the country were summoned to his 
assistance; the Legion was assembled and under arms, and the 
entire city was one great military encampment. 


The prophet, his brother Iliram, the members of the City Coun- 
cil and others, surrendered themselves at Carthage June 24, 1845, 
on the charge of riot. All entered into recognizance before a Jus- 
tice of the Peace to appear at court, and were discharged. A new 
writ, however, was immediately issued and served on the two 
Smiths, and both were arrested and thrown into prison. The 
citizens had assembled from Hancock, Schuj-ler and McDonough 
counties, armed and ready to avenge the outrages that had been 
committed by the Mormons. Great excitement prevailed at Car- 
thage. The force assembled at that place amounted to 1,200 njen, 
and about 500 assembled at Warsaw. Nearly all were anxious to 
march into Nauvoo. This measure was supposed to be necessary 
to search for counterfeit money and the apparatus to make it, and 
also to strike a salutary terror into the Mormon people by an exhi- 
bition of the force of the State, and thereby prevent future out- 
rages, murders, robberies, burnings, and the like. Tlie 27th of 
June was appointed for the march; but Gov. Ford, who at the 
time was in Carthage, apprehended trouble if the militia should 
attempt to invade Nauvoo, disbanded the troops, retaining only a 
guard to the jail. / 



Gov. Ford went to Nauvuo on the 27th. The same morning 
about 200 men from Warsaw, manj? being disguised, hastened to 
Cartilage. On learning that one of the companies left as a guard 
had disbanded, and the other stationed 150 yards from the jail while 
eight men were left to guard the prisoners, a communication was 
soon established between the Warsaw troops and the guard; and it 
was arranged that the guard should have their guns charged with 
blank cartridges and lire at the assailants when they attempted to 
enter the jail. The conspirators came up, jumped the fence around 
the jail, were fired upon bj the guard, which, according to arrange- 
ment, was overpowered, and the assailants entered the prison, to 
the door of the room where the two prisoners were confined. An 
attempt was made to break open the door; but Joe Smith, being 
armed with a pistol, fired several times as the door was bursted 
open, and three of the assailants were wounded. At the same time 
several shots were fired into the room, by some of which John 
Taylor, a friend of the Smiths, received four wounds, and Hiram 
Smith was instantlj^ killed. Joe Smith, severely wounded, attempt- 
ed to escape by jumping out of a second-story window, but was so 
stunned by the fall that he was unable to rise. In this position he 
was dispatched by balls shot through his body. Thus fell Joe 
Smith, the most successful imposter of modern times. Totally ignor- 
ant of almost every fact in science, as well as in law, he made up in 
constructiveness and natural cunning whatever in him was want- 
ing of instruction. 


Great consternation prevailed among the anti-Mormons at 
Carthage, after the killing of the Smiths. They expected the Mor- 
mons would be so enraged on hearing of the death of their leaders 
that they would come down in a body, armed and equipped, to 
seek revenge upon the populace at Carthage, Messengers were 
dispatched to various places for help in case of an attack. The 
women and children were moved across the river for safety, A 
committee was sent to Quincy and early the following morning, 
at the ringing of the bells, a large concourse of people assembled 
to devise means of defense. At this meeting, it was reported that 
the Mormons attempted to rescue the Smiths; that a party of Mis- 
sourians and others had killed them to prevent their escape; that 


the Governor and his party were at JNaiivoo at the time when intel- 
liu^ence of the fact was brought there; that they had been attacked 
by the Nauvoo Legion, and had retreated to a house where they 
were closely besieged; that the Governor had sent out word that 
he could maintain his position for two days, and would be certain 
to be massacred if assistance did not arrive by that time. It is 
unnecessary to say that this entire story was fabricated. It was 
put in circiilatioi), as were many other stories, by the anti-Mormons, 
to influence the public mind and create a hatred for tlie Mormons. 
The effect of it, however, was that by 10 o'clock on the 2Sth, 
between two and three hundred men from Quincy, under command 
of Maj. Flood, went on board a steamboat for Nauvoo, to assist in 
raising the siege, as they honestly believed. 


It was thought by many, and indeed the circitmstances seem to war- 
rant the conclusion, that the assassins of Smith had arranged that the 
murder should occur while the Governor was in Nauvoo; that the 
Mormons would naturally suppose he planned it, and in the first out- 
pouring of their indignation put him to death, as a means of retalia- 
tion. They thought that if they could have the Governor of the State 
assassinated by Mormons, the public excitement would be greatly 
increased against that people, and would cause their extermination, 
or at least their expulsion from the State. That it was a brutal and 
premeditated murder cannot be and is not denied at this day; but 
the desired effect of the murder was not attained, as the Mormons 
did not evacuate Nauvoo for two years afterward. In the meantime, 
the excitement and prejudice against this people were not allowed 
to die out. Horse-stealing was quite common, and every case that 
occurred was charged to the Mormons. That they were guilty of 
Buch thefts cannot be denied, but a great deal of this work done at 
that time was by organized bands of thieves, who knew they could 
carry on their nefarious business with more safety, as long as sus- 
picion could be placed upon the Mormons. In the summer and 
fall of 1845 were several occurrences of a nature to increase the 
irritation existing between the Mormons and their neighbors. A 
suit was instituted in the United States Circuit Court against one 
of the apostles, to recover a note, and a marshal sent to summons 

Of THE • 
\imvujy Cf ILLINOIS, 


the defendant, who refused to be served with the process. Indig- 
nation meetings were held by the saints, and the marshal threat- 
ened for attempting to serve the writ. About this time, General 
Denning, sheriff, was assaulted by an anti-Mormon, whom he killed. 
Denning was friendly to the Mormons, and a great outburst of 
passion was occasioned among the friends of the dead man. 


It was also discovered, in trying the rights of property at Lima, 
Adams county, that tlie Mormons had an institution connected 
with their church to secure their effects from execution. Incensed 
at this and other actions, the anti-Mormons of Lima and Green 
Plains, held a meeting to devise means for the expulsion of the 
Mormons from that part of the country. It was arranged that a 
number of their own party should fire on the building in which 
they were assembled, in such a manner as not to injure anj'one, 
and then report that the Mormons had commenced the work of 
plunder and death. This plot was duly executed, and the startling 
intelligence soon called together a Vn(3b,'whicli threatened the Mor- 
mons with fire and sword if they dfdiiot^ immediately leave. The 
Mormons refusing to depart, the mob at once executed their threats 
by burning 125 houses and forcing the inmates to flee for their 
lives. The sheriff of Hancock county, a prominent Mormon 
armed several hundred Mormons and scoured the country, in search 
of the incendiaries, but they had fled to neighboring counties, and 
he was unable either to bring them to battle or make any arrests. 
One man, however, was killed without provocation; another 
attempting to escaj^e was shot and afterwards hacked and muti- 
lated; and Franklin A. Worrell, who had charge of the jail when 
the Smiths were killed, was shot by some unknown person con- 
cealed in a thicket. The anti-Mormons committed one murder. 
A party of them set fire to a pile of straw, near the barn of an old 
Mormon, nearly ninety years of age, and when he appeared to ex- 
tinguish the flames, he was sliot and killed. 

The anti Mormons left their property exposed in their hurried 
retreat, after having burned the houses of the Mormons. Those 
who had been burned out sallied forth from JSTauvooand plundered 
the whole country, taking whatever they could carry or drive 
away. By order of the Governor, Gen. Hardin raised a force of 
350 men, checked the Mormon ravages, and recalled the fugitive 
anti-Mormons home. 



At this time a couveutioii, coiibi&tinu: of deleijates from ei^ht of 
the adjoining counties, assembled to concert measures fur the expul- 
sion of the Mormons from the State. The Mormons seriously c n- 
templated emmigration w^estward, believing the times forboded 
evil for them. Accordingly, during the winter of ISio-'-lO, the 
most stupendous preparations were made by the Mormons for 
removal. All the principal dwellings, and even th(3 temple, were 
converted into work-shops, and before spring, 12,000 wagons were 
in readiness; and by the middle of February the leaders, with 2,000 
of their followers, had crossed the Mississippi on the ice. 

Before the spring of 1846 the majority of the Mormons had left 
Nauvoo, but still a large number remained. 


In September a writ was issued against several prominent Mor- 
mons, and placed in the hands of John Carlin, of Carthage, for 
execution. Carlin called out a posse to help make tlie arrest, which 
brought together quite a large force in the neighborhood of Xauvoo. 
Carlin, not being a military man, placed in command of the posse, 
first, Gen. Singleton, and afterward Col. Brockman, who proceeded 
to invest the city, erecting breastworks, and taking other means for 
defensive as well as offensive operations. What was then termed a 
battle next took place, resulting in the death of one Mormon and 
the wounding of several others, and loss to the anti-Mormons of 
three killed and four wounded. At last, through the intervention 
of an anti-Mormon committee of one hundred, from Quincy, the 
Mormons and their allies were induced to submit to such terms as 
the posse chose to dictate, which were that the Mormons should 
immediately give np their arms to the Quincy committee, and re- 
move from the State. The trustees of the church and five of their 
clerks were permitted to remain for the sale of Mormon property, 
and the posse were to march in unmolested, and leave a sufficient 
force to guarantee the performance of their stipulations. Accord - 
ingh', the constable's posse marched in with Brockman at their 
liead. It consisted of about 800 armed men and 600 or TOc 
unarmed, who had assembled from all the country around, through 
motives of curiosity, to see the once proud city of J^auvoo hum- 
bled and delivered up to its enemies. They proceeded into the 


liMVE;^OiTY OF \- 



city slowly and carefully, examining the way for fear of the explo- 
sion of a mine, many of which had been made by the Mormons, 
by burying kegs of powder in the ground, with a man stationed at 
a distance to pull a string communicating with the trigger of a 
percussion lock athxed to the keg. This kind of a contrivance was 
called by the Mormons " hell's half-acre." When the posse 
arrived in the city, the leaders of it erected themselves into a tri- 
bunal to decide who should be forced away and who remain. 
Parties were dispatched to hunt for fire-arms, and for Mormons, and 
to bring them to judgment. When brought, they received their 
doom from the mouth of Brockman, who sat a grim and unawed 
tyrant for the time. As a general rule, the Mormons were ordered 
to leave within an hour or two; and by rare grace some of them 
were allowed until next day, and in a few cases longer time was 
granted. ; ,k. .-,, . 


■■■ ' '■■■■■'■ r I ;t:-: ;• . . . ,, 
Kothing was said in the treaty in regard to the new citizens, who 

had with the Mormons defended the city; but the posse no sooner 

had obtained possession than they commenced expelling them. 

Some of them were ducked in the river, and were in one or two 

instances actuallv baotized in the name of some of the leaders 

of the mob; others were forcibly driven into the ferry-boats to be 

taken over the river before the bayonets of armed ruffians. Many 

of these new settlers were strangers in the country from various 

parts of the United States, who were attracted there by the low 

price of property; and they knew but little of previous difficulties 

or the merits of the quarrel. They saw with their own eyes that 

the Mormons were industriously preparing to go awaj^, and they 

knew "of their own knowledge " that any effort to expel them by 

force was gratuitous and unnecessary cruelty. They had been trained, 

by the States whence they came, to abhor mobs and to obey the law, 

and they volunteered their services under executive authority to 

defend their town and their property against mob violence, and, as 

they honestly believed, from destruction; but in this they were partly 

mistaken; for although the mob leaders in the exercise of unbridled 

power were guilty of many injuries to the persons of individuals, 

although much personal* property was stolen, yet they abstained 

from materially injuring houses and buildings. 



The fugitives proceeded west^vard, takino^ the road through Mis- 
souri, but were forcibly ejected from that State and compelled to 
move indirectly through Iowa. After innumerable hal•d^hips the 
advance guard reached the Missouri river at Council Bluff?, when 
a United States officer presented a requisition for 5U0 men to 
serve in the war with Mexico. Compliance with this order so di- 
minished their number of effective men, that the expedition was 
again delayed and the remainder, consisting mostly of old men, 
women and children, hastily prepared habitations for winter. 
Their rudely constructed tents were hardly completed before winter 
set in with great severity, the bleak prairies being incessantly swept 
by piercing winds. While here cholera, fever and other diseases, 
aggravated by the previous hardships, the want of comfortable 
quarters and medical treatment, hurried many of them to prema- 
ture graves, yet, under the influence of religious fervor and fanati- 
cism, they looked death in the face with resignation and cheerful- 
ness, and even exhibited a gayety which manifested itself in music 
and dancing during the saddest hours of this sad winter. 

At length welcome spring made its appeai'ance, and by April 
they were again organized for the journey; a pioneer party, con- 
sisting of Brigham Young and 140 others, was sent in advance to 
locate a home for the colonists. On the 21 of July, 1847, a day 
memorable in Mormon annals, the vanguard reached the valley of 
the Great Salt Lake, having been directed thither, accjrding to 
their accounts, by the hand of the Almighty. Here in a distant wil- 
derness, midway between the settlements of the East and the Pacific, 
and at that time a thousand miles from the utmost verge of civili- 
zation, they commenced preparations for founding a colony, which 
has since grown into a mighty empire. 


During the month of May. 1846. the President called for four 
regiments of volunteers from Illinois for the Mexican war. This 
was no sooner known in the State than nine regiments, numbering 
8,370 men. answered the call, thouo-h onlv four of them, amounting 
to 3,720 men, could be taken. These regiments, as well as their 
officers, were everywhere foremost in the American ranks, and dis- 


tingiiislied themselves by their matchless valor in the bloodiest 
battles of the war. Veterans never fought more nobly and effect- 
ively than did the volunteers from Illinois. At "the bloody battle of 
Buena Vista they crowned their lives — many their death — with the 
laurels of war. Never did armies contend more bravelj', determinedly 
and stubbornly than the American and Mexican forces at this famous 
battle; and as Illinois troops were ever in the van and on the blood- 
iest portions of the field, we believe a short sketch of the part they 
took in the fierce contest is due them, and will be read with no lit- 
tle interest. 


General Santa Anna, with his army of 20,000, poured into the 
valley of Aqua Nueva early on the morning of the 22d of February, 
hoping to surprise our army, consisting of about 5,000 men, under 
Gen. Taylor and which had retreated to the ''Narrows." They 
were hotly pursued by the Mexicans who, before attacking, sent 
Gen. Taylor a flag of truce demanding a surrender, and assuring 
him that if he refused he would be cut to pieces; but the demand 
was promptly refused. At this the enemy opened fire, and the con- 
flict began. In honor of the day the watchword with our soldiers 
was, " The memory of Washington." An irregular fire was kept up 
all day, and at night both armies bivouacked on the field, resting on 
their arms. Santa Anna that night made a spirited address to his 
men, and the stirring strains of his own band till late in the night 
were distinctly heard by our troops; but at last silence fell over the 
hosts that were to contend unto death in that narrow pass on the 

Early on the following morning the battle was resumed, and con- 
tinued without intermission until nightfall. The solid columns of 
the enemy were hurled against our forces all day long, but were 
met and lield in check b}^ the unerring fire of our musketry and ar- 
tillery. A portion of Gen. Lane's division was driven back by the 
enemy under Gen. Lombardini, who, joined by Gen. Pacheco's divis- 
ion, poured upon the main plateau in so formidable numbers as 
to appear irresistible. 


At this time the 2d Illinois, under Col. Bissell, with a squadron 
of cavalry and a few pieces of artillery came handsomely into action 


and gallantly received the concentrated fire of the enemy, which 
they returned with deliberate aim and terrible efi'ect; every dis- 
charge of the artillery seemed to tear a bloody path through the 
heavy columns of enemy. Saj^s a writer: "The rapid mus- 
ketry of the gallant troops from Illinois poured a storm of lead 
into their serried ranks, which literally strewed the ground with 
the dead and dying." But, notwithstanding his losses, the enemy 
steadily advanced until our gallant regiment received fire from 
three sides. Still they maintained their position for a time with 
unflinching firmness Mgainst that immense liost. At length, per- 
ceiving the danger of being entirely surrounded, it was determined 
to fall back to a ravine. Col. Bissel, with the coolness of ordinary 
drill, ordered the signal "cease firing" to be made; he then with 
the same deliberation gave the command, "Face to the rear, Bat- 
talion, about face; forward march," which was executed with the 
regularity of veterans to a point beyond the peril of being out- 
flanked. Again, in obedience to command these brave men halted- 
faced about, and under a murderous tempest of bullets from the foe, 
resumed their well-directed fire. The conduct of no troops could 
have been more admirable; and, too, until that day they had nevei* 
been under fire, when, within less than half an hour eighty of their 
comrades dropped by their sides. How different from the Arkansas 
regiment, which were ordered to the plateau, but after delivering 
their first volley gave way and dispersed. 


But now we have to relate the saddest, and, for Illinois, the most 
mournful, event of that battle- worn day. We take the account 
from Col ton's History of the battle of Buena Yista. "As the enemy 
on our left was moving in retreat along the head of the Plateau, 
our artillery was advanced until within range, and opened a heavy 
fire upon him, while Cols. Hardin, Bissell and Mclvee, with their 
Illinois and Kentucky troops, dashed gallantly forward in hot pur- 
suit. A powerful reserve of the Mexican army was then just 
emerging from the ravine, where it had been organized, and 
advanced on the plateau, opposite the head of the southernmost 
gorge. Those who were giving way rallied quickly upon it; when 
the whole force, thus increased to over 12,000 men, came forward 
in a perfect blaze of fire. It was a single column, composed of the 
best soldiers of the republic, having for its advanced battalions the 




veteran regiments. The Kentucky and Illinois troops were soon 
oblio-ed to irive ground before it and seek the shelter of the second 
gorge. The enemy pressed on, arriving opposite the head of the 
second gorge. One-half of the column suddenly enveloped it, while 
the other half pressed on across the plateau, having for the moment 
nothing to resist them but the three guns in their front. The por- 
tion that was immediately opposed to the Kentucky and Illinois 
troops, ran down along each side of the gorge, in which they had 
sought shelter, and also circled around its head, leaving no possible 
way of escape for them except by its mouth, which opened 
upon the road. Its sides, which were steep, — at least an angle of 
45 degrees, — were covered with loose pebbles and stones, and con- 
verged to a point at the bottom. Down there were our poor fel- 
lows, nearly three regiments of them (1st and 2d Illinois and 2d 
Kentucky), with but little opportunity to load or fire a gun, being 
hardly able to keep their feet. ' iVbove the whole edge of the 
gorge, all the way around, was darkened by the serried masses of 
the enemy, and was bristling with muskets directed on the crowd 
beneath. It was no time to pause. Those who were not immedi- 
ately shot down rushed on toward the road, their number growing 
less and less as they went, Kentuckians and lUinoisans, officers and 
men, all mixed up in confusion, and all pressing on over the loose 
pebbles and rolling stones of those shelving, precipitous banks, 
and having lines and lines of the enemy firing down from each 
side and rear as they went. Just then the enemy's cavalry, which 
had o-one to the left of the reserve, had come over the spur that 
divides the mouth of the second gorge from that of the third, and 
were now closing up the only door through which there was the 
least shadow of a chance for their lives. Many of those ahead 
endeavored to force their way out, but few succeeded. The lancers 
were fully six to one, and their long weapons were already reeking 
with blood. It was at this time that those who were still back in 
that dreadful gorge heard, above the din of the musketry and the 
shouts of the enemy around them, the roar of Washington's Bat- 
tery. No music could have been more grateful to their ears. A 
moment only, and the whole opening, where the lancers were busy, 
rang with the repeated explosions of spherical-case shot. They 
gave way. The gate, as it were, was clear, and out upon the road 
a stream of our poor fellows issued. They ran panting down 


toward the batteiy, and directlj under the flght of iron then pas- 
sing over their heads, into tlie rctreatinsj cavahy. Ilardin, McKee, 
Clay. Willis, Zabriskie, Houghton — but why go on? It would be 
a sad task indeed to name over all who fell during this twenty 
minutes' slaughter. The whole gorge, from the plateau to its 
mouth, was strewed with our dead. All dead! No wounded there 
— not a man; for the infantry had rushed down the sides and com- 
pleted the work with the bayonet." 


The artillery on the plateau stubbornly maintained its position, 
The remnants of the 1st and 2d Illinois regiments, after issuing 
from the fated gorge, were formed and again brought into action, 
the former, after the fall of the noble Ilardin, under Lieut. Cul. 
Weatherford, the latter under Bissell. The enemy brought forth 
reinforcements and a brisk artillery duel was kept up; but gradually, 
as the shades of night began to cover the earth, the rattle of mus- 
ketry slackened, and when thfe pall of night was thrown over that 
bloody field it ceased altogether. Each army, after the fierce and 
long struggle, occupied much the same position as it did in the 
morning. However, early on the following morning, the glad 
tidings were heralded amidst our army that the enemy had retreated, 
thus again crowning the American banners with victory. 


Other bright names from Illinois that shine as stars in this 
war ai'te those of Shields, Baker, Harris and Cuflfee, which are 
indissolubly connected with the glorious capture of Vera Cruz 
and the not less famous storming of Cerro Gordo. In this latter 
action, when, after the valiant Gen. Shields had been placed ho7's 
do combat.) the command of his force, consisting of three regiments, 
devoled upon Col. Baker. This ofiicer, with his men, stormed with 
unheard-of prowess the last stronghold of the Mexicans, sweeping 
everything before them. Such indeed were the intrepid valor and 
darinof couraire exhibited bv Illinois volunteers durinof the Mexican 
war that their deeds should live in the memory of their countrymen 
until those latest times when the very name of America shall have 
been forgotten. 



On the fourth day of March, 1861, after the most exciting and 
momentous political campaign known in the history of this country, 
Abraham Lincoln — Anxerica's martyred President — was inaugu- 
rated Chief Magistrate of the United States. This fierce contest 
was principally sectional, and as the announcement was flashed ov^er 
the telegraph wires that the Republican Presidential candidate had 
been elected, it was hailed by the South as a justifiable pretext for 
dissolving the Union. Said Jefferson Davis in a speech at Jackson, 
Miss., prior to the election, "If an abolitionist be chosen Presi- 
dent of the United States you will have presented to you the 
question whether you will permit the government to pass into 
the handa^ of your avowed and implacable enemies. Without 
pausing for an answer, I will state ray own position to be that 
such a result would be a species of revolution by which the 
purpose of the Government would be destroyed, and the obser- 
vances of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In that event, 
in such manner as should be most expedient, I should deem it 
your duty to provide for your safety outside of the Union." Said 
another Southern politician, when speaking on the same sub- 
ject, " We shall fire the Southern heart, instruct the Southern 
mind, give courage to each, and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concerted action, we can precipitate the Cotton States 
into a revolution." To disrupt the Union and form a government 
which recognized the absolute supremacy of the white population 
and the perpetual bondage of the black was what they deemed 
freedom from the galling yoke of a Republican administration. 


Hon. R. W. Miles, of Knox county, sat on the floor by the side 
of Abraham Lincoln in the Library room of the Capitol, in Spring- 
field, at the secret caucus meeting, held in January, 1859, when 
Mr. Lincoln's name was first spoken of in caucus as candidate for 
President. When a gentleman, in making a short speech, said, 
" We are going to bring Abraham Lincoln out as a candidate for 
President," Mr. Lincoln at once arose to his feet, and exclaimed, 
"For God's sake, let me alone! I have suffered enough!" This 
was soon after he had been defeated in the Legislature for United 
States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, and only those who are 


intimate wiLn tiial iniportunt iiud unparalleled contest can appre- 
ciate the full Ibice and meaning of these expressive words of the 
martyred President. They were spontaneous, and prove beyond a 
shadow of doubt that Abraham Lincoln did not seek the high posi- 
tion of President. Nor did he use any trickery or chic-anery to 
obtain it. But his expressed wish w^as not to be complied with; 
our beloved country needed a savior and a martyr, and Fate had 
decreed that he should be the victim. After Mr. Lincoln was 
elected President, Mr, Miles sent him an eagle's quill, with wdnch 
the chief magistrate wrote his Urst inaugural address. The letter 
written by Mr. Miles to the President, and sent with the quill, 
which was t\^o feet in length, is such a jewel of eloquence and 
prophecy that it should l)e given a place in history: 

Persifeu, December 21, 18(50. 
Hon. a. Lincoln : 

Dear Sir : — PIe:ise accept the eajile quill I premised you, by the hand of our 
Representative, A. A. Smith. The bird from whose wiug the quill was taken, was 
shot by John F Dillon, in Persifer township, Knox Co., Ills., in Feb., 1857 Hay- 
ing heard that James Buchanan was furnished with an eagle quili to write his 
Inaugural with, and believing that in IWiO, a Republican would be elected to take 
his place, I determined to savethis ((uili and present it to tlie fortunate man, who- 
ever he might be. Reports tell us that the bird which furnishetl Buchanan's quill 
was a captured bird, — fii eml)lem of the man that used it ; i)ut the bird from 
which this quill was taken, yielded the quill only with his life, — rit emblem of tiie 
man who is expected to use it, for true Republicans believe that you would not 
think lile worth the keeping after the surrender of principle. Great difficulties 
surround you ; traitors to their country have threatened your life ; and should 
3'ou be called upon to surrender it at the post of duty, your memory will live for- 
ever in the heart of every freeman ; and that is a grander monument than can be 
built of brick or marble. 

"For if hearts may not our memories keep, 
Obliviou haste each ve8ti<:;e sweep, 
And let our memoricN end.''' 

Vours Truly, 

R. W. Miles. 


At the time of President Lincoln's accession to power, several 
members of tlie L'nion claimed they had withdrawn from it, and 
styling themselves the "Confederate States of America," organ- 
ized a separate government. The house was indeed divided 
against itself, but it should not fall, nor should it long continue 
divided, was the hearty, determined response of every loyal heart 
in the nation. The accursed institution of human slavery was 
the primary cause for this dissolution of the American Union. 
Doubtless other agencies served to intensify the hostile feel- 
ings which existed between the Northern and Southern portions 


of our country, but their remote origin could be traced to this great 
national evil. Had Lincoln's predecessor put forth a timely, ener- 
getic effort, he might have prevented tlie bloody war our nation 
was called to pass through. On the other hand every aid was given 
the rebels; every advantage and all the power of the Government 
was placed at their disposal, and when Illinois' honest son took the 
reins of the Republic he found Buclianan had been a traitor to his 
trust, and given over to the South all available means of war. 


On the 12th day of April, 1861, the rebels, who for weeks had 
been erecting their batteries upon the shore, after demanding of 
Major Anderson a surrender, opened Hre upon Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours an incessant cannonading was continued; the fort 
was being seriously injured; provisions were almost gone, and Major 
Anderson was compelled to haul down the stars and stripes. That 
dear old flag which had seldom been lowered to a foreign foe by 
rebel hands was now trailed in the dust. The first blow of the 
terrible conflict which summoned vast armies into tlie field, and 
moistened the soil of a nation in fraternal blood and tears, had 
been struck. Tlie gauntlet thus thrown down by the attack on 
Sumter by the traitors of the South was accepted — not, however, 
in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with a firm, 
determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of 
the President was plain under the constitution and the laws, and 
above and beyond all, the people from whom all political power is 
derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready 
to sustain the authority of their representative and executive 
officers. Promptly did the new President issue a proclamation 
calling for his countrymen to join with him to defend their homes 
and their countrj^, and vindicate her honor. This call was made 
April 14, two days after Sumter was ^rst fired upon, and was for 
75,000 men. On the 15th, the same day he was notified. Gov. 
Yates issued his Droclamation conveninar the Leo^islature. He also 
ordered the organization of six regiments. Troops were in abund- 
ance, and the call was no sooner made than filled. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling offered its best men, their lives and 
their fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 


Bitter words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten 
and forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, thej repeated 
the oath of America's soldier-statesman : " By the Great Eternal^ 
the Union must and shall he preserved^ The honor, the very 
life and glory of the nation was committed to the stern arbitrament 
of the sword, and soon the tramp of armed men, the clash of 
musketry and the heavy boom of artillery reverberated throughout 
the continent; rivers of blood saddened by tears of mothers, wives, 
sisters, daughters and sweethearts flowed from the lakes to the 
gulf, but a nation was saved. The sacrifice was great, but the 
Onion was preserved. 


Simultaneously with the call for troops by the President, enlist- 
ments commenced in this State, and within ten days 10,000 
volunteers offered service, and the sum of $1,000,000 was tendered 
by patriotic citizens. Of the volunteers who offered their services, 
only six regiments could be accepted under the quota of the State. 
But the time soon came vrhen there was a place and a musket for 
every man. The six regiments raised were designated by numbers 
commencing with seven, as a mark of respect for the six regiments 
which had served in the Mexican war. Another call was antici- 
pated, and the Legislature authorized ten additional regiments to 
be organized. Over two hundred companies were immediately 
raised from which were selected the required number. Xo sooner 
was this done than the President made another call for troops, six 
regiments were again our proportion, although by earnest solicita- 
tion the remaining four were accepted. There were a large number 
of men with a patriotic desire to enter the service who were denied 
this privilege. Many of them wept, M'hile others joined regiments 
from other States. In May, June and July seventeen regiments 
of infantry and five of cavall-y were raised, and in the latter month, 
when the President issued his first call for 500,000 volunteers, 
Illinois tendered thirteen regiments of infantry and three of cavalry, 
and so anxious were her sons to have the Pebellion crushed that 
the number could have been increased by thousands. At the 
close of 1S61 Illinois had sent to the field nearly 50,000 men, and 
had 17,000 in camp awaiting marching orders, thus exceeding her 
full quota by 15,000. 



In July and August of 1802 the Presi'dent called for 600,000 
men — our quota of which was 52,296 — and gave until August 18 as 
the limits in which the number might be raised by volunteering, 
after which a draft would be ordered. The State had already fur- 
nished 17,000 in excess of her quota, and it was first thought this 
number would be deducted from the present requisition, but that 
could not be done. But thirteen days were granted to enlist this 
vast army, which had to come from tlie farmers and mechanics. 
The former were in the midst of harvest, but, inspired by love of 
country, over 50,000 of them left their harvests ungatliered, their 
tools and their benches, the plows in their furrows, turning their 
backs on their homes, and belbre eleven days had expired the 
demands of the Government were met and both quotas filled. 

The war went on, and call followed call, until it began to look as 
if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush 
out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. But 
to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, 
patriotic enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their 
country's altar. On the 21st of December, 1864, the last call for 
troops was made. It was for 300,000. In consequence of an im- 
perfect enrollment of the men subject to military dut}^, it became 
evident, ere this call was made, that Illinois was furnishing thous- 
ands of men more than what her quota would have been, had it 
been correct. So glaring had this disproportion become, that 
under this call the quota of some districts exceeded the number of 
able-bodied men in them. 


Following this sketch we give a schedule of all the volunteer 
troops organized from this State, from the commencement to the 
close of the war. It is taken from the Adjutant General's report. 
The number of the regiment, name of original Colonel, call under 
which recruited, date of organization and muster into the United 
States' service, place of muster, and aggregate strength of each 
organization, from which we find that Illinois put into her one hun- 
dred and eighty regiments 256,000 men, and into the United States 


army, through other States, enough to swell the number to 290,000. 
This far exceeds all the- soldiers of the Federal Government in all 
the war of the Revolution. Her total years of service were over 
600,000. She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five years of age, 
when the law of Congress in 1S6J: — the test time — only asked for 
those from twenty to forty-five. Her enrollments were otherwise 
excessive. Her people wanted to go, and did not take the pains to 
correct the enrollment; thus the basis of fixing the quota was too 
great, and the quota itself, at least in the trying time, was far above 
any other State. The demand on some counties, as Monroe, for 
example, took every able-bodied man in the county, and then did 
not have enough to fill the quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 
men for one hundred days, for whom no credit was asked. She 
gave to the country 73.000 years of service above all calls. With 
one-thirteenth of the population of the loyal States, she sent regu- 
larly one-tenth of all the soldiers, and in the perils of the closing 
calls, when patriots were few and weary, she sent one-eighth of all 
that were called for by her lov^d and honored son in the White 
House. Of the brave boys Illinois sent to the front, there were 
killed in action, 5,888; died of wounds, 3,032; of disease,* 19,496; 
in prison, 967; lost at sea, 205; aggregate, 29,588. As upon every 
field and upon every page of the history of this war, Illinois bore 
her part of the suffering in the prison-pens of the South. More 
than 800 names make up the awful column of Illinois' brave sons 
who died in the rebel prison of Andersonville, (la. Who can 
measure or imagine the atrocities which would be laid before the 
world were the panorama of sufferings and terrible trials of these 
gallant men but half unfolded to view? But this can never be 
done until new words of horror are invented, and new arts dis- 
covered by which demoniacal fiendishness can be portrayed, and 
the intensest anguish of the human soul in ten thousand forms be 

No troops ever fought more heroically, stubbornly, and with bet- 
ter effect, than did the boys from the "Prairie State." At Pea 
Ridge, Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, luka, Corinth, Stone River, 
Holly Springs, Jackson, Vicksburg, Chicamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain, Murfreesboro, Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville, Chattanooga, and 
on every other field where the clash of arms was heard, her sons 
were foremost. 



Illinois was almost destitute of firearms at the beginning of the 
conflict, and none could be procured in the East. The traitorous 
Floyd had turned over to the South 300,000 arms, leaving most 
arsenals in the North empty. Gov. Yates, however, received an 
order on the St. Louis arsenal for 10,000 muskets, which he put in 
the hands of Captain Stokes, of Chicago. Several unsuccessful 
attempts were made by the Captain to pass through the large crowd 
of rebels which had gathered around the arsenal, suspecting an 
attempt to move the arms would be made. He at last succeeded 
in gaining admission to the arsenal, but was informed by the com- 
mander that the slightest attempt to move the arms would be dis- 
covered and bring an infuriated mob upon the garrison. This fear 
was well founded, for the following day Gov. Jackson ordered 2,000 
armed men from Jefferson City down to capture the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes telegraphed to Alton for a steamer to descend the river, and 
about midnight land opposite the arsenal, and proceeding to the 
same place with 700 men of the 7th Illinois, commenced loading 
the vessel. To divert attention from his real purpose, he had 500 
guns placed upon a different boat. As designed, this movement 
was discovered by the rabble, and the shouts and excitement upon 
their seizure drew most of the crowd from the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes not only took all the guns his requisition called for, but 
emptied the arsenal. When all was ready, and the signal given to 
start, it was found that the immense weight had bound the bow of 
the boat to a rock, but after a few moments' delay the boat fell away 
from the shore and floated into deep water. 

"Which way?" said Capt. Mitchell, of the steamer. ''Straight 
in t\e regular channel to Alton," replied Capt. Siokes. "What if 
we are attacked?" said Capt. Mitchell. ".Then we will fight," was 
the reply of Capt. Stokes. "What if we are overpowered?" said 
Mitcliell. " Run the boat to the deepest part of the river and sink 
her," replied Stokes. "I'll do it," was the heroic answer of 
Mitchell, and away they went past the secession battery, past the 
St. Louis levee, and in the regular channel on to Alton. When 
they touched the landing, Capt. Stokes, fearing pursuit, ran to the 
market house and rang the fire bell. The citizens came flocking 
pell-mell to the river, and soon men, women and children were 
tuggina: away at that vessel load of arras, which they soon had 
deposited in freight cars and ofi" to Springfield. 



The people were liberal as well as patriotic; and while the men 
were busy enlisting, organizing and equipping companies, tlie ladies 
were no less active, and the noble, generous work performed bj 
their tender, loving hands deserves mention along with the bravery, 
devotion and patriotism of their brothers upon the Southern fields 
of carnao;e. 

The continued need of money to obtain the comforts and neces- 
saries for the sick and wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 
women of the North many and various devices for the raising of 
funds. Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, 
excursion, concert, which netted more or less to the cause of 
hospital relief, according to the population of the place and the 
amount of energy and patriotism displayed on such occasions. 
Especially was this characteristic of our own fair State, and scarcely 
a hamlet within its borders which did not send something from its 
stores to hospital or battlefield, and in the larger towns and cities 
were well-organized soldiers' aid societies, working systematically 
and continuously from the beginning of the war till its close. The 
great State Fair held in Chicago in May, 186.5, netted $250,000. 
Houfles for travelino; soldiers were established all over the State, in 
which were furnished lodging for 600.000 men, and meals valued 
at $2,500,000. Food, clothing, medicine, hospital delicacies, 
reading matter, and thousands of other articles, were sent to the 
boys at the front. 


Letters, messages of love and encouragement, were sent by 
noble women from many countres of the State to encourage the 
brave sons and brothers in the South. Below we give a copy of a 
printed letter sent from Knox county to the "boys in blue," as 
showinor the feeling's of the women of tlie North. It was headed, 
" From the Women of Knox County to Their Brothers in the 
Field." It was a noble, soul -inspiring message, and kindled anew 
the intensest love for home, country, and a determination to crown 
the stars and stripes with victory: 

"You have gone out from our homes, but not from our hearts. 
Never for one moment are you forgotten. Through weary march 
and deadly conflict our prayers have ever followed you; your 
sufferings are our sufferings, your victories our great joy. 


" If there be one of you who knows not the dear home ties, for 
whom no mother prays, no sister watches, to him especially we 
speak. Let him feel that thou^^h he may not have one mother he 
has many; he is the adopted child and brother of all our hearts. 
N'ot one of you is beyond the reach of our sympathies; no picket- 
station so lonely that it is not enveloped in the halo of our 

" During all the long, dark months since our country called you 
from us, your courage, your patient endurance, your fidelity, have 
awakened our keenest interest, and we have longed to give you an 
expression of that interest. 

"By the alacrity with which you sprang to arms, by the valor 
with which those arms have been wielded, you have placed our 
State in the front ranks; yon have made her worthy to be the home 
of our noble President. For thus sustaining the honor of our 
State, dear to us as life, we thank you. 

'' Of your courage we need not speak. Fort Donelson, Pea 
Ridge, SJiiloh, Stone River, Vicksburg, speak with blood-bathed 
lips of your heroism. The Army of the Southwest fights beneath 
no defeat-shadowed banner; to it, under God, the nation looks for 

"But we, as women, have other cause for thanks. "We will not 
speak of the debt we owe the defenders of our Government; that 
blood-sealed bond no words can cancel. But vvc are your debtors 
in a way not often recognized. You have aroused us from the 
aimlessness into which too many of our lives had drifted, and have 
infused into those lives a noble pathos. "We could not dream our 
time away while our brothers were dying for us. Even your suffer- 
ings have worked together for our good, by inciting us to labor for 
their alleviation, thus giving us a work worthy of our womanhood. 
Everything that we have been permitted to do for your comfort 
has filled our lives so much the fuller of all that makes life valua- 
ble. You have thus been the means of developing in us a nobler 
type of womanhood than without the example of your heroism we 
could ever have attained. For this our wliole lives, made purer 
and nobler by the discipline, will thank you. 

"This war will leave none of us as it found us. "We cannot 
bufiet the raging wave and escape all trace of the salt sea's foam. 
Toward better or toward worse we are hurried with fearful 


haste. If we at home feel this, what must it be to you! Our 
hearts throb with agony when we think of you wounded, suffering, 
dying; but the thought of no physical pain touches us half so 
deeply as the thought of the temptations which surround you. 
We could better give you up to die on the battle-field, true to your 
God and to your country, than to have you return to us with 
blasted, blackened souls. When temptations assail fiercel}', you 
must let the thought that your mothers are praying for strength 
enable you to overcome them. But fighting for a worthy cause 
worthily ennobles one; herein is our confidence that you will 
return better men than you went away. 

"By all that is noble in your manhood; by all that is true in 
our womanhood; by all that is grand in patriotism; by all that is 
sacred in religion, we adjure you to be faithful to yourselves, to us, 
to your country, and to your God. JSTever were men permitted to 
fight in a cause more worthy of their blood. Were you fighting 
for mere conquest, or glory, we could not give you up; but to sus- 
tain a principle, the greatest to which human lips have ever given 
utterance, even your dear lives are not too costly a sacrifice. Let 
that principle, the corner-stone of our independence, be crushed, 
and we are all slaves. Like the Suliote mothers, we might well 
clasp our children in our arms and leap down to death. 

"To the stern arbitrament of the sword is now committed the 
honor, the very life of this nation. You fight not for yourselves 
alone; the eyes of the whole world are on you; and if you fail our 
jSTation's death-wail will echo throuofh all cominc^ ae^es, moanino- a 
requiem over the lost hopes of oppressed humanity. But you will 
not fail, so sure as there is a God in Heaven. He never meant 
this richest argosy of the nations, freighted with the fears of all 
the world's tyrants, with the hopes of all its oppressed ones, to 
flounder in darkness and death. Disasters may come, as they have 
come, but they will only be, as they have been, ministers of good. 
Each one has led the nation upward to a higher plane, from whence 
it has seen with a clearer eye. Success could not attend us at the 
West so long as we scorned the help of the black hand, which 
alone had power to open the gate of redemption; the God of 
battles would not vouchsafe a victory at the East till the very foot- 
prints of a McClellan were washed out in blood. 

"But now all things seem ready; we have accepted the aid of 


that hand; those footsteps are obliterated. In his own good time 
we feel that God will give us the victory. Till that hour comes we 
bid you fight on. Though we have not attained that heroism, or 
decision, which enables us to give you up without a struggle, which 
can prevent our giving tears for your hlood, though many of us 
must own our hearts desolate till you return, still we bid you stay 
and fight for our country, till from this fierce baptism of blood she 
shall be raised complete; the dust shaken from her garments puri- 
fied, a new Memnon singing in the great Godlight." 

Sherman's march to the sea. 

On the 15th of November, 1864, after the destruction of Atlanta, 
and the railroads behind him, Sherman, with his army, began his 
march to the sea-coast. The almost breathless anxiety with which 
his progress was watched by the loyal hearts of the nation, and the 
trembling apprehension with which it was regarded by all who 
hoped for rebel success, indicated this as one of the most remark- 
able events of the war; and so it proved. Of Sherman's army, 45 
regiments of infantry, three companies of artillery, and one of 
cavalry were from this State. Lincoln answered all rumors of 
Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible; there is a mighty sight 
of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers brought home 
300 battle flags. The first United States flag that floated over 
Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital to care for her sick and wounded sons. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war, U. S. 

character of ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed 
in all hearts, that must have the supreme place in this sketch of 
our iJ^lorv and of our nation's 'honor: that name is Abraham 
Lincoln. The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difiicult on 
account of its symmetry. In this age we look with admiration at 
his uncompromising honesty; and well we may, for this saved us. 
Thousands throughout the length and breadth of our country, who 
knew him only as "Honest Old Abe," voted for him on that 
account; and wisely did they choose, for no other man could have 
carried us through the fearful night of war. "When his plans were 
too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause too sub- 


lime for onr participation; wlien it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us; when not one 
ray shone upon our cause; when traitors were haughty and exult- 
ant at the South, and fierce and blasphemous at the Xortli; when 
the loyal men seemed almost in the minority; when the stoutest 
heart quailed, the bravest cheek paled; when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractois were leeching out the very 
heart's blood of the republic; when everything else had failed us, 
we looked at this calm, patient man standing like a rock in the 
storm, and said, " Mr. Lincoln is honest, and we can trust him still." 
Holding to this single point with the energy of faith and despair, 
we held together, and under God he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With 
such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate 
effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 
He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory will shed 
a glory upon this age that will fill the eyes of men as they look 
into histor}'. Other men have excelled him in some points; but, 
taken at all points, he stands head and shoulders above every other 
man of 6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the 
perils of unparalleled civil war; a statesman, he justified his 
measures by their success; a philanthropist, he gave liberty to one 
race and salvation to another; a moralist, he bowed from the sum- 
mit of human power to the foot of the cross; a mediator, he exer- 
cised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law; a leader, 
he was no partisan; a commander, he was untainted with blood; a 
ruler in desperate times, he was unsullied with crime; a man, he 
has left no word of passion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, 
no act of jealousy, no purpose of selfish amljition. Thus perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into these 
troubled years to adorn and embellish all that is good and all that 
is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming time the 
representative of the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the republic 
has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when the great war 
itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the 
horizon; when the Anglo-Saxon shall be spoken only by the tongue 
of the stranger, then the generations looking this way shall see 
the great President as the supreme figure in this vortex of history. 




The rebellion was ended with the surrender of Lee and his army, 
and Johnson and his command in April, 1SG5. Our armies at the 
time were up to their maximum strength, never so formidable, 
never so invincible; and, until recruiting ceased by order of Sec- 
retary Stanton, were daily strengthening. The necessity, however, 


for SO vast and formidable numbers ceased with the disbanding of 
the rebel forces, which had for more than four years disputed the 
supremacy of the Government over its domain. And now the 
joyful and welcome news was to be borne to tlie victorious legions 
tliat their work was ended in triumph, and they were to be per- 
mitted "to see homes and friends once more." 



ScHEDUT-E — Showing statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, commencing April, 1801. and ending December 31, 1865. with number of regimerft, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and muster into United States' service, 
piace of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 


Commanding officer at organiza 

7 Col. John Cook. 

21 ! 
24 1 

Richard J. Oglesby. 
Kleazer A. Paine. . . 

Jas. D. Morgan 

W. H. L. Wallace... 

John McArthur 

John B. Wyman 

John M. Pa'mer 

Thos. J. Turner 

Robert F. Smith.... 

Leonard F. Ross 

Michael K. Lawler.., 
John B. Turchin — 

Chas. C. Marsh 

Uiypses S.Grant 

Henry Dougherty — 

Jas. A. Mulligan 

Frederick Hecker. . . 

Wm. N. Coler 

John M. Loomis 

Kap. B. Btiford 

A. K. Johnson 

Jas. S. Rearden 

Philip B. Fouke 

John A. Logan. . . . 

John Logan 

Cha.''. E. Hovev 

" Edward N. Kirk 

" Gus. A. Smith 

" Nich. Giciisel 

" Julius White 

" Wm. P. Carlin 

" Austin Li -ht 

" Stcph. G. Hicks 

" Isaac C. Piigh 

" Wm.A. Webb 

" Julius Raith 

" Chas. Noblesdorff .. . 

" John E. Smith 

" John A. Davis 

" John Brvuer 

" Isham N. Haynie 

" Wm. R.Morrison... 

" Moses M. Bane 

'• G. W. Ciiinming. . . . 

" Isaac G. Wilson 

•' W. H. W. Ciisbman. 

" Thos. W. Harris... . 

" David Stnart 

" Robert Kirkham 

" Silas D. Baldwin.... 

" Wm. P Lvnch 

•' P. Sidney Post 

" Silas C. Toler 

" Jacob Fry 

" James M. True 

" Franc's Mora 

Lt. Col. D. D. Williams.. 
Col. Daniel Cameron ... . 

" Patrick E. Burke 

" Rose 1 M. Hough 

•' Elias Stuart 

'• Jos. H. Tucker 

" O.T.Reeves 

" Othniel Gilbert 

Date of organization and Place where mustered! 
muster into the United! into the United States 
States service. service. 

July 25. 1861 . 

May 2i, 1861. 
May 25, 1801. 
May 24, 1861. 

May 28, 1861.. 

June V\ 1861. 
June 15, 18'il. 
June 25, 1861. 
Juno 18, 1801. 
July 8, 1801. 

[Oct. 31, 1801. 

Aug. 3, 1861 . 
July 27, 1861. 
Sept. 30, 1861. 
Sept. 8, 1861.. 
Dec. 31, 1861 
Aug. 15, 1861. 
Sept. 7, 18ol. 

Sept. 2^, 1801 

Sept. 18, 13C1 

Aug. l.MS'Ji. .. 
December. 1861.. 

Aug 10, ISO I 

Aug, 9, 1801 

Sept. 17, 1801 

Dec. 16,1801 

Sept. 13, 1861.... 
Dec. 20. 1 61 . ... 

Dec. 2S. 1861 

Oct. 1 1861 

Nov. 18,1801 

Dec. 31. 1361 

Sept. 12. 1801 .. 
Doc. '61, Fpb. '62. 

Nov. 19. 1801 

March. 1802 

Feb. 18.1862 

Oct. 31,1811 

Feb. 27. l-<62 

Dec. 26, 1801 

Dec. 24. 1861 

Augnsi. ISOl 

Feb. IT. lS'i2 

March 7, IS'ia.... 
April 10, 1862 

iDec. 31, 1862. 
i Mavis, 1862. 
I April. 1P62... 
iJuno 13, 1862. 
June 20, 1802. 
June 14, \9-<S% 
Julv4. 1802 . 
Jul V 26. 1802. 

Cairo, Illinois. 







Joliet . . . 
Chicago.. . 

Camp But'er. 





Camp Butler.. . 





Camp Butler. . . 



Camp Bntler. .. 


Camp Butler. . . 
Camp Butler. . 


Camp "Douglas. 

Geneva.. . . 



Camp Doufflae 
Shawncctown .. 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Douglas 
«t Louis, Mo.. 

Anna . 




Camp Butler. . . 
Camn Douglas. 
St. Lou'«. Mo. . 
Camp DoTglas. 
Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Donclas. 
Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Douglas. 



14 4 

















ScnEDULE — Showing statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, conimouciu!:; April, 1861, and ending December 31, 18()5, wth iminher of regiment, name 
of original commanding citHcer, date of organization and muster into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization, 




















Commanding officer at organiza-Date of organization and Place where mustered 
tion. muster into the United into the United State- 

States Bervice. 

Col. Fredericli A. Starring 

" Jas. F. Jaquess. 

" Jason Marsh 

" George Ryan 

" Alouzo W. Mack 

■' David P. Grier 

"■ W. H. Bennison 

'■ Lyman Guinuip 

" Thos.G. Olen 

" Jas. J. Do.lins 

'• Frederick Hecker 

'^ AhuerC. Harding 

" Louis H. Waters 

" Roberts. Moore 

" David D. Irons 

" John E. Whiting 

" F. T. Sherman. 

■' John Christopher 

" Timothy O'Mera 

'■ Henry M. Day 

•' Smith D. Atkins 

'■ Holden Putnam 

'• Wm. vV. Orme ... 

' ■ Lavvr'n S. Church 

" Thos. E. Champion 

" P.S.Rutherford 

'• J.J. Funkhouser 

" G. W. K. Biiiley 

'• Fred. A. Bartlesou 

" Chas. H. Fox 

" Wm. McMurtry -. . 

" Amos C. Babcock A 

" Absalom R. Moore .., 

" Daniel Diistin 

'' Robert B. Latham 

" Thomas Snell 

" John Warner 

" Alex. J. Nimmo 

'• Thos. S. Casey 

•' James S. Martin 

'" T. J. Henderson 

'• Geo. B. Hoge 

•' James W. Judy 

" Jesse H. Moore 

" Nathan H. Tupper 

•' Risden M. Moore 

•' John G. Fonda.. 

" Thos. J. Kenney 

'■ George W. McKeaig 

Never organized 

Col. John I. Riuaker 

James Moore 

Thomas J. Sloan 

Oscar F. Harmon 

Jonathan Richmond 

John VanArmau 

Robert M. Hudley 

George P. Smith 

Nathaniel Niles 

George W. Neeley 

Thomas C. Pickett 

Thad. Phillips 

W. W MeChesney 

John S.Wolfe 

Aug. 31, 1862., 

Sept. 4. 1862... 
;5ept. 2. 1862.. 
'Ug 22,1862. 
*Sept. 3. l-i6i. 
Sept. 1. 18ti2.. 
Aug. 28, 862. . 
Aug. 25, 1862... 
Aug. 2b, 1862.. 

Aug. 21, 1862.. 
Sept. 1, 1862. . 
Aug. 27, 1862 

Sept. 22, 1862. . 
Aug. 27, 1862... 
*Aug 25, 18(i ;. 
Nov. 22, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 1862... 
Sept. 4,1862... 
Oct. 13,1862.... 
Aug. 20,1862... 
Sept. 4, I8ii2... 
Sept. 6, 1862... 
Sept. 8, 18!J2.. 
Sept. 3, 1H62 .. 
Aug. 26, 1862. . 
Aug. 30, 1862. 
Sept. 2, 1862... 

Oct, 2, 1862. . . 
Aug. 27, 1862. 
Sept. 2, 1862. 
Sept. 17, 1862. 
Sept. 4,1862.. 
Aug. 28, 1862. 
Sept. 11, 1861. 

Sept. IS, 1862. 
Sept. 12. 1862. . 
Oct. 1. 1862. . . . 
Sept. 18, 1862.. 
Sept. 13, 1S62.. 
Sept. 30 1862.. 
Sept. 19, 1862.. 
Nov 29. 1S62. 
Oct. 7, 18G2... 
Oct. 29, 1862... 

Sept. 4,1862.. 
Sept. 6 1S62 . 
Sept. 10. 1862. 
Sept. 4, 1863.. 

*Sept. 5, 1862. 
Dec 18, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 1862.. 
Oct. 25.1865.. 
Nov. 13,1862.. 
Junel, 1864.. 
May 31,1864.. 

June 6, 1864. 


Camp Douglas 

Camp tiutler 









Camp Butler 






(.^amp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 

Rockford ... . 

Princeton and Chicago. 




Camp Butler 

Centralia , 

Florence, Pike Co., 








Camp Butler 




Sa em. .- 


Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 


Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 





Camp Butler... 



Camp^Douglas . 
Camp Butler... 


Camp Butter... 
Camp Massac. 

Camp Fry 

Camp Butler. 

Camp Fry 



N cnftQ 

rt- ^ T 

c n> 

D 1) 

• o :? 

P ^ 


































































ScHEDCLE— Showing statement of volunteer troop? organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, commencini: April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865. with numher of regiment, name 
of original commaiidin-^ officer, date of organization and mnster into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strengih'of each orgauizaiiou. 


Commanding officer at organiza- iDate of organization and Place where mustered 























Col. Fred. A. Johns.. .. 

'• Jehu Wood 

" J. W. Goodwin 

" Priier Davidson 

•• L. H. v\ hituey 

"• Stephen Brouson.. 

*• RoUiu V. Aiiliuey. 

'• Dudley C. Smith... 

'• Oyrus'llall.. 

" Georiie W. Lackey 

" Henry H. Dean 

•• lliram F. bick'es. . 

" Horace II. Wilsie. . 

" Wm. (". KuefTner. . 

" George ^v. Keener. 

" French B. ^Voodall 

" F. D. Stephenson. . 

" Stephen Brouson. . 

" McLean F. Wood. . 

" Gnstavus A. Smith 

" Alfred F. Smith... 

" J. W. Vipon 

" John A. Bross 

iCapt. . I ohn Curtis 

I '• Simon J. Stookey. 

" James Stecic 

muster into the Uniiedi 
States service. 

into the United States 


;une 1. 1864... 
June 5. 1864.. 
June 21. 1864. 
June 1. 1864.. 
June 18, l!r64. 
June 36, 1864. 
June 18, 1864. 
Jquc ll,lfc64. 
Oct. 21,1864.. 
Iunc9. 1864.. 
Sept. 20, ]?64. 
Feb. 18, 1865.. 

Feb. 11, 1863. . 
Feb. 14, 1863 
Feb. 25, 1865.. 
Feb. 18, 1865.. 
Feb. 27, 18o5. . 
Feb. 22. 1865. 
Fob. 28. 1865 . 
March 9. 1865. 
Dec. 1, 1861 . 

June '21, 1864.. 

June 15, 1S64. 





Camp Butler.. 


Caiup Butler.. 


A ton. Ills 

Camp Butler.. 
Camp Butler.. 



CampButlcr. . 
Camp Butler.. 


CimpButler. . 


Camp^Butler. . 
Camp Butler.. 



( .nmpBntler. . 
Camp Butler.. 


















Cot. Thomas A. Marshall. . . . 

'• Silas Nob'e 

" Eugene A . Carr 

" T.Lyle Dickey 

" John J. Updegraff 

" Thomas U. Cavanaugh. 

" Wm. Pitt Ke'logg . .... 

" John F. Farnsworth.. .. 

" Albert G. Brackett 

" James A. Barrett 

" Roberto. IngersoU. . .. 

'• Arno Vo*s 

" Joseph W.Bell 

*' Horace Capron 

" ^ arreu Stewart 

•' Christian Thielman 

" John L. Beveridge 


June. 1861.... 
Aug. 24. " . . 
Sept. 21, •' .. 
Sept. 30. " ... 
December " . 
Nov., '61, Jan 

August, "61.. ■ 

-ept. 18. '61 

Oct. 26, '61 

Nov. 25. 61 

Dec. ax "61 

Dec, -61. Feb.. "62, 

Jan. 7, '63 

Organized Dec. 25, '63. 
Jan. and April, "fri. . . . 
Jan. 28, '64 

'Camp Butler .. 
(Camp Butler... 

I Ottawa 

jCamp BiU'er. .. 
Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler. . . 
St. t harles. . .. 
Camp Douglas. 
C.imp Butler... 


Cfimp Butler. . 
Camp Douglas. 


Camp Bnt'er. . . 
Camp Butler... 
St. Charles 



Co Field and Staff 


C. M.Willard 

Ezra Taylor 

C. Haughtalins 

Edward Mc.Mlister. 
A. C. Waterhouse.. 
John T. Cheney .. . 

Arthur O'Leary 

Axel Si'versparr 

Edward Bouton. . . 

A. Franklin 

John Ronrke 

John B.Miller 


Oct. 31,1P61 

•Tan. 14. "62 

Dec. 19, 'Ki 

Feb. 2.3, ■6> 

Feb. 28 "62 ^Cairn . 

Feh. 20. '62 'Chicago 

Feb. 15, ■6-> iChicago 

Ian. 9, ■(i2 '^ji^^^nectown 


Chicago . ... 


Plaiufield .... 
Chicago . ... 
Camp Butler. 

Feb. 22, "62. 
Aug. 12, '62 

Chicaeo . 
(- hicago . 




ScjHEDULE— Showing statement of volunteer troops organized witWn the State, and sent to the 
field commencinL: April, 18G1, and ending Decembcr"3l, 1865, witli number of regiment, name 
of original commnndinij officer, date of organization and muster into United States service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 



Commanding officer at organiza- 

Date of organization and 
muster into the United 
States service. 

Place where mustered 
into the United States 







Peter Davidson 

Riley Madison 

Caleb Hopkins 

Jasper Al. Dresser 

Adolph Schwartz 

John W. Powell .. 

Chiirles J. Stolbrand.. 

Andrew Steinbeck — 

Charles W. Keith. ... 

Benjamin F. Rogers.. 

William H Bolton.... 

John C. Phillips June 6, '63. 

Field and Staff 


Aug. U, 1661 Peoria. 

June 20, '61 ; Spri ngfield 

Aug. 5, '61 Cairo 

Dec. 17, '61 ICairo 

Feb. 1, "62 'Cairo. 

Dec. 11, '61. 
Dec. 31, '61. 

Feb. 28, '62. 

Cape Girardeau, Mo... 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 






Board of Trade 


Mercantile — 


Henshaw's — 




Capt. James S. Stokes 

Thomas F. Vaughn.. 
" Charles G. Cooley.. . 
" George W. Reuwick. 
" WiMam Coggswell.. 

" Ed. (\ Heushftw 

" Lvman Bridges 

" JohnH. Colvin 

July 31, 1862 IChicago 

Aug. 'VI, "62 iCamp Butler. . 

Aug. 29. '63 iChicago 

Nov. 1.", '62 Elgin 

Sept 23, '61 ..Camp Douglas. 

Oct. 15. '62 Ottawa 

•Ian. 1. 62 Chicago 

Oct. 10, '63 Chicago 




I^f^ntry 185,941 

Cavalry 3i 083 

Artillery 7.277 


The code of chivalry so common among Southern gentlemen 
and so frequently brought into nse in settling personal differences 
has also been called to settle the " affiiirs of honor " in our own 
State, however, but few times, and those in the earlier days. 
Several attempts at duels have occurred; before the disputants met 
in mortal combat the differences were amicably and satisfactorily 
settled; honor was maintained without the sacrifice of life. In 
1810 a law was adopted to suppress the practice of dueling. This 
law held the fatal result of dueling to be murder, and, as it was 
intended, had the effect of making it odious and' dishonorable. 
Prior to the constitution of 1848, parties w-ould evade the law by 


going beyond the jurisdiction of the State to engage in their con- 
tests of honor. At that time they incorporated in the Constitution 
an oath of (jffice, which was so broad as to cover the whole world. 
Any person who had ever fought a duel, ever sent or accepted a 
challenge or acted the part of second was disfranchised from holding 
office, even of minor importance. After this went into eifect, no 
other duel or attempt at a duel has been engaged in within the 
State of Illinois, save those fought by parties living outside of 
the State, who came here to settle their personal differences. 


The first duel fought within the boundaries of this great State 
was between two young military officers, one of the French and 
the other of the English army, in the year 1765. It was at the 
time the British troops came to take possession of Fort Chartres, 
and a woman was the cause of it. The affair occurred early 
Sunday morning, near the old fort. They fought with swords, and 
in the combat one sacrificed his life. 


In 1809 the next duel occurred and was bloodless of itself, but out 
of it grew a quarrel which resulted in the assassination of one of 
the contestants. The principals wei-e Shadrach Bond, the first 
Governor, and Rice Jones, a bright young lawyer, who became quite 
a politician and the leader of his party. A personal difference arose 
between the two, which to settle, the parties met for mortal combat 
on an island in the Mississippi. The weapons selected were hair- 
trigger pistols. After taking their position Jones' weapon was 
prematurely discharged. Bond's second, Dunlap, now claimed that 
according to tlie code Bond had the right to the next fire. But 
Bond would not take so great advantage of his opponent, and said 
it was an accident and would not fire. Such noble conduct 
touched the generous nature of Jones, and the difficulty was at 
once amicably settled. Dunlap, however, bore a deadly hatred for 
Jones, and one day while he was standing in the street in Kaskaskia, 
conversing with a lady, lie crept up behind him and shot him dead 
in his tracks. Dunlap successfully escaj^ed to Texas. 


in 1812 the bloody code again brought two young men to the 
field of honor. They were Thomas Eector, a son of Capt. Stephen 

IIHliii.'lPlii. rjlilfSl 

f fiMilnliiif'iN 

'■ill'; I 



I— ( 

? < 







Of 'I HE 
MlVrft'ollV Cf ILLINOIS 


Rector who bore such a noble part in the war of 1812, and Joshua 
Barton. Thej liad espoused the quarrel of older brothers. The 
affair occurred on Bloody Island, in the Mississippi, but in the 
limits of Illinois. This place was frequented so often by Missou- 
rians to settle personal difficulties, that it received the name of 
Bloody Island. Barton fell in this conflict. 


In 1819 occurred the first duel fought after the admission of the 
State into the Union. This took place in St. Clair county between 
Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett. It was intended to be a 
sham duel, to turn ridicule against Bennett, the challenging party- 
Stewart was in the secret but Bennett was left to believe it a 
reality. Their guns were loaded with blank cartridges. Bennett, 
suspecting a trick, put a ball into his gun without the knowledge 
of his seconds. The word "fire" \yas^ .given, and Stewart fell 
mortally wounded. Bennett made, his escfape, but was subsequently 
captured, convicted of murder and suffei'Cd' the penalty of the law 
by hanging. 


In 1840 a personal difference arose between two State Senators, 
Judge Pearson and E. D. Baker. The latter, smarting under the 
epithet of " falsehood," threatened to chastise Pearson in the public 
streets, by a " fist fight." Pearson declined making a "blackguard'' 
of himself but intimated a readiness to fight as gentlemen, accord- 
ing to the code of honor. The affair, however, was carried no 


The exciting debates in the Legislature in 1840-'41 were often 
bitter in personal "slings," and threats of combats were not 
infrequent. During these debates, in one of the speeches by the 
Hon. J. J. Hardin, Hon. A. E. Dodge thought he discovered a 
personal insult, took exceptions, and an " affair " seemed imminent. 
The controversy was referred to friends, however, and amicably 

m'clernand and smith. 

Hon. John A. McClernand, a member of the House, in a speech 
delivered during the same session made charges against the Whig 
Judges of the Supreme Court. This brought a note from Judge 


T. "W. Smith, bv the hands of his " friend '' Dr. Merriman, to 
MeClernand. This was construed as a challenge, and promptly 
accepted, naming the place of meeting to be Missouri; time, early; 
the weapons, rifles; and distance, 40 paces. At this critical junc- 
ture, the Attorney General had a warrant issued against the Judge, 
whereupon he was arrested and placed under bonds to keep the 
peace. Thus ended this attempt to vindicate injured honor. 


During the hard times subsequent to the failure of the State and 
Other banks, in 1S4'2, specie became scarce while State money was 
plentiful, but worthless. The State officers thereupon demanded 
specie payment for taxes. This was bitterly op]xised, and so fiercely 
contested that the collection of tiixes was suspended. 

Daring the period of the greatest indignation toward the State 
officials, under the nom de plume of "Rebecca,"' Abraham Lincoln 
had an article published in the San^anw Journal, entitled " Lost 
Township.'* In this article, written in the form of a dialogue, the 
officers of the State were roughly handled, and especially Auditor 
Shields. The name of the author was demaded from the editor by 
Mr. Shields, who was very indignant over the manner in which he 
was treated. The name of Abraham Lincoln was given as the 
author. It is claimed by some of his biographers, however, that 
the article was prepared by a lady, and that when the name of the 
author was demanded, in a spirit of gallantry, Mr. Lincoln gave 
his name. In company with Gen. Whiteside, Gen. Shields pur- 
sued Lincoln to Tremont, Tazewell county, where he was in attend- 
ance upon the court, and immediately sent him a note "requiring 
a full, positive and absolute retraction of all offensive allusions'' 
made to him in relation to his "private character and standing as 
a man, or an apology for the insult conveyed." Lincoln bad been 
forewarned, however, for William Butler and Dr. Merriman. of 
Springfield, had become acquainted with Shields' intentions and by 
riding all night arrived at Tremont ahead of Shields and informed 
Lincoln what he might expect Lincoln answered Shields' note, 
refusing to offer any explanation, on the grounds that Shields' note 
assumed the fact of his (Lincoln's) authorship of the article, and 
not pointing out what the offensive part was. and accompanying the 
same with threats as to consequences. Mr. Shields answered this, 
disavowing all intention to menace: inquired if he was the author. 


HHlccd a retraction of that portion relating to his private cliaracter. 
Mr. Liacohi, still technical, returned this note with the verbal 
statement " that tliere could be no further negotiations until the 
first note was withdrawn." At this Shields named Gen. White- 
side as his " friend," when Lincoln reported Dr. Merriman as his 
"friend." These gentlemen secretly pledged themselves to ao'ree 
upon some amicable terras, and compel their principals to accept 
them. The four went to Springfield, when Lincoln left for Jack- 
sonville, leaving the following instructions to guide his friend, Dr. 

" In case Whiteside shall signify a wish to adjust this affair with- 
out further difficulty, let him know that if the present papers be 
withdrawn and a note from Mr. Shields, asking to know if I am the 
author of the articles of which he complains, and asking that I shall 
make him gentlemanly satisfaction, if I am the author, and this 
without menace or dictation as to what that satisfaction shall be, a 
pledge is made that the following answer shall be given: 

I did write the "Lost Township " letter which appeared in the Journal of the 
2d Inst., l)ut had no participation, in any form, in any other article alluding to 
you. I wrote that wholly for political effect. I had no intention of injuring 
your personal or private character or standing, as a man or gentleman ; and I did 
not then think, and do not now thiuk, that that article could produce or has pro- 
duced that effect against you; and, had I anticipated such an effect, would hive 
foreborne to write it. And I will add thit your conduct toward me, so far a3 I 
know, had always been gentlemanly, and that I had no personal pique against 
you, and no cause for any. _ 

" If this should be done, I leave it to you to manage what shall 
and what shall not be published. If nothing like this is done, the 
preliminaries of the fight are to be: 

" 1st. Weapons. — Cavalry broad swords of the largest size, pre- 
cisely equal in all respects, and such as are now used by the cavalry 
company at Jacksonville. 

" 2d. Position. — A plank ten feet long and from nine to twelve 
inches broad, to be firmly fixed on edge, on the ground, as a line 
between us which neither is to pass his foot over on forfeit of his 
life. Next a line drawn on the ground on either side of said plank, 
and parallel with it, each at the distance of the whole length of the 
sword, and three feet additional from the plank; and the passing of 
his own such line by either party during the fight, shall be deemed 
a surrender of the contest. 


"3d. Time. — On Thursday evening at 5 o'clock, if you can p;et 
it so; but in no case to be at a greater distance of time than Friday 
evening at 5 o'clock. 

"4tli. Place. — Within three miles of Alton, on the opposite 
side of the river, the particular spot to be agreed on by you. 

" Any preliminary details coming within the above rules, you are 
at liberty to make at your discretion, but you are in no case to 
swerve from these rules, or pass beyond their limits." 

The position of the contestants, as prescribed by Lincoln, seems 
to have been such as both would have been free from comino^ in 
contact with the sword of the other, and the first impression is that 
it is nothing more than one of Lincoln's jokes, tie possessed very 
long arms, however, and could reach his adversary at the stipulated 

Not being amicably arranged, all parties repaired to the field of 
combat in Missouri. Gen. Hardin and Dr. English, as mutual 
friends of both Lincoln and Shields, arrived in the meantime, and 
after much correspondence at their earnest solicitation the affair 
was satisfactorily arranged, Lincoln making a statement similar to 
the one above referred to. 


William Butler, one of Lincoln's seconds, was dissatisfied with 
the bloodless termination of the Lincoln-Shields afiair, and wrote an 
account of it for the Sangamo Journal. This article reflected dis- 
creditably upon both the principals engaged in that controversy. 
Shields replied by the hands of his friend Gen. Whiteside, in a 
curt, menacing note, which was promptly accepted as a challenge 
by Butler, and the inevitable Dr. Merriman named as his friend, 
who submitted the following as preliminaries of the fight: 

Time. — Sunrise on the following morning. 

Place. — Col. Allen's farm (about one mile north of State House.) 
Weapons. — Bifles. 

Distance'. — One hundred yards. 

The parties to stand with their right sides toward each other — 
the rifles to be held in both hands horizontally and cocked, arras 
extended downwards. Neither pai'ty to move his person or his 
rifle after being placed, before the word fire. The signal to be: 
"Are you ready? Fire! one — two— three!" about a second of 


time intervening between each word. Neither party to fire before 
the word " fire," nor after the word " three." 

Gen. Whiteside, in language curt and abrupt, addressed a note to 
Dr. Merriman declining to accept the terms. Gen. Sliields, how- 
ever, addressed anotlier note to Butler, explaining the feelings of 
his second, and ofi*ering to go out to a lonely place on the prairie to 
figlit, where there would be no danger of being interrupted; or, if 
that did not suit, he would meet him on his own conditions, when 
and where he pleased. Butler claimed the affair was closed and 
declined the proposition. 


Now Gen. Whiteside and Dr. Merriman, who several times had 
acted in the capacity of friends or seconds, were to handle the 
deadly weapons as principals. While second in the Shields-Butler 
Jlasco, Wluteiide declined the terms proposed by Butler, in curt 
and abrupt language, stating that tlie place of combat could not be 
dictated to him, for it was as much his right as Merriman's, who, 
if he was a gentleman, would recognize and concede it. To this 
Merriman replied by the hands of Capt. Lincoln. It will be 
remembered that Merriman had acted in the same capacity for Lin- 
coln. Whiteside then wrote to Merriman, asking to meet him at 
St. Louis, when he would hear from him further. To this Merri- 
man replied, denying his right to name place, but offered to meet 
in Louisiana, Mo. This Whiteside would not agree to, but later 
signified his desire to meet him there, but the affair being closed, 
the doctor declined to re-open it. 


These two gentlemen were members of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1847, and both from Jo Davies county. A dispute arose 
which ended in a challenge to meet on the field of honor. They 
both repaired to St. Louis, but the authorities gaining knowledge 
of their bloody intentions, had both parties arrested, w^iich ended 
this " affair." 


The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon their 
conditions and limitations that in order better to show the circum- 
stances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a short 


exposition of the manner of life of our Illinois people at different 
epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charlevoix with 
bein^ " very laborious," — raising poultry, spinning the wool of the 
buffalo and manufacturing garments therefrom. These must have 
been, however, more than usually favorable representatives of their 

" The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Reynolds, "was simple and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley (the Old Ranger was not always exact in his 
quotations), — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, but 
purchased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, known 
as the capot, was the universal and eternal coat for the winter with 
the masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over the 
head in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to 
the blanket coat. The reason that I know these coats so well is, 
that I have worn many in my youth, and a working man never wore 
a better garment. Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were worn 
commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The blue handkerchief 
and the deer-skin moccasins covered the head' and feet generally of 
the French Creoles. In 1800, scarcely a man thought himself clothed 
unless he iiad a belt tied around his blanket coat, and on one side 
was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat, tilled with tobacco, pipe, 
flint and steel. On the other side was fastened, under the belt, the 
the butcher-knife. A Creole in this dress felt like Tarn O'Shanter 
tilled with usquebaugh; he could face the devil. Checked calico 
shirts were then common, bul in winter flannel was frequently 
worn. In the summer the laboring men and the voyagers often 
took their shirts off in hard work and hot weather, and turned out 
the naked back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Americans," he adds, " home-made wool hats were 
the common wear. Fur hats were not feommon, and scarcely a boot 
was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly moccasins 
made of deer-skins, and shoe packs of tanned leather. Some wore 
shoes, but not common in very early times. In the summer the 
greater portion of the young people, male and female, and many of 
the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal outside wear 
was the blue linsey hunting-shirt. This is an excellent garment, 
and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I laid it off. It is 

! »■ I ' 




made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size so as to envelop 
the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had a large cape, 
which answers well to save the shoulders from the rain. A belt is 
mostly used to keep the garment close around the person, and, 
nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper the body. 
It is often fringed, and at times the fringe is composed of red, and 
other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to the hunting-shirt. 
The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The colors were made 
often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled with the bark of trees, 
in such a manner and proportions as the old ladies prescribed. The 
pantaloons of the masses were generally made of deer-skin and 
linsey. Course blue cloth was sometimes made into pantaloons. 

" Linsey, neat and fine, manufactured at home, composed generally 
the outside garments of the females as well as the males. The 
ladies had linsey colored and woven to suit their faiicy. A bonnet, 
composed of calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the head when 
they were in the open air. Jewek-y- on the pioneer ladies was 
uncommon; a gold ring wa^.g^n oniameVit not often seen." 

In 1820 a change of dress began "to take place, and before 1830, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer costume had disappeared. 
"The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cloth coat. [Jeans would be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes had 
supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and the leather breeches, strapped 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex had made still greater pro. 
gress in dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made with their own fair hands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and turkey red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state of nudity, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotto.i handkerchief, now displayed the charms 
of the female face under many forms of bonnets of straw, silk and 
leghorn. The young ladies, instead of walking a mile or. two to 
church on Sunday, carrying their shoes and stockings in their hands 
until within a hundred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, 
now came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress, mounted 
on fine horses and attended by their male admirers." 


The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth by our Illinois historian. The chronicler 
of to day, looking back to the golden days of 1830 to 1840, and 
comparing them with the present, must be struck with the tendency 
of an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that 
comes from the easy inter communication afforded by steamer, rail- 
way, telegraph and newspaper. Home manufacturers have been 
driven from the household by the lower-priced fabrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of 
home manufacture, so familiar a few years ago, have given place to 
the cassi meres and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made- 
clothing stores, like a touch of nature, made the whole world kin- 
and may drape the charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe 
hat. The prints and silks of England and France give a variety of 
choice, and an assortment of colors and shades such as the pioneer 
women could hardly have dreamed of. Godey, and Demorest, and 
Harper's Bazar are found in our modern farm-houses, and the latest 
fashions of Paris are not uncommon. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is 
about 150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude 
from Maine to Xorth Carolina. The climate varies from Portland 
to Richmond. It favors every product of the continent, including 
the tropics, with less than half a dozen exceptions. It produces 
every great food of the world except bananas and rice. It is hardly 
too much to say that it is the most productive spot known to civil- 
ization. "With the soil full of bread and the earth full of minerals; 
with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel; with per- 
fect natural drainage, and abundant springs, and streams, and navi- 
gable rivers; half way between the forests of the Korth and the 
fruits of the South; within a day's ride of the great deposits of 
iron, coal, copper, lead and zinc; and containing and controlling 
the great grain, cattle, pork and lumber markets of the world, it is 
not strange that Illinois has the advantage of position. 

There are no mountains in Illinois; in the southern as well as in 
the northern part of the State there are a few hills; near the banks 
of the Illinois, Mississippi, and several other rivers, the ground is 


elevated, forming the so-called bluffs, on which at the present day 
may be found, unetfaced by the hand of Time, the marks and traces 
left by the water which was formerly much higher; whence it may 
be safe to conclude that, where now the fertile prairies of Illinois 
extend, and the rich soil of the country yields its golden harvests, 
must have been a vast sheet of water, the mud deposited l)y which 
formed the soil, thus accounting for the present great fertility of the 

Illinois is a garden 400 miles long and 150 miles wide. Its soil 
is chiefly a black, sandy loam, from 6 inches to 60 feet thick. About 
the old French towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half 
without rest or help. She leads all other States in the number 
of acres actually under plow. Her mineral wealth is scarcely 
second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, lead, zinc, 
copper, many varieties of building stone, marble, fire clay, cuma 
clay, common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint, — 
in fact, everything needed for a high civilization. 


If any State of the Union is adapted for agriculture, and the other 
branches of rural economy relating thereto, such as the raising of 
cattle and the culture of fruit trees, it is pre-eminently Illinois, 
Her extremely fertile prairies recompense the farmer at less 
trouble and expense than he would be obliged to incur elsewhere, in 
order to obtain the same results. Her rich soil, adapted by nature 
for immediate culture, only awaits the plow and the seed in order 
to mature, within a few months, a most bountiful harvest, A 
review of statistics will be quite interesting to the reader, as well as 
valuable, as showing the enormous quantities of the various cereals 
produced in our prairie State: 

In 18 T6 there was raised in the State 130,000,000 of bushels of 
corn, — twice as much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn 
raised in the United States. It would take 375,000 cars to transport 
this vast amount of corn 1o market, which would make 15,000 trains 
of 25 cars each. She liarvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one- 
tenth of all the hay in the Republic, It is not generally appreciated, 
but it is true, that the hay crop of the country is worth more than 
the cotton crop. The hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana- 


Go to Charleston, S. C, and see them peddling handfuls of hay or 
grass, almost as a curiosity, as we regard Chinese gods or the cryo- 
lite of Greenland; drink your coffee and condensed milk; and walk 
back from the coast for many a league through the sand and burs 
till you get up into the better atmosphere of the mountains, with- 
out seeing a waving meadow or a grazing herd; then you will begin 
to appreciate tlie meadows of tlie Prairie State. 

The value of her farm implements was, in 1876, $211,000,000, 
and the value of live stock was only second to New York. The 
same year she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about 
one-half of all that were packed in the United States. She marketed 
$57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals, — more than any other 
State, and a seventh of all tlie States. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles 
of postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the 
amount of lumber sold. 

Illinois was only second in many important matters, taking the 
reports of 1876. Tliis sample list comprises a few of the more 
important: Peripanent school fund; total income for educational 
purposes; number of publishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value 
of farm products and implements, and of live stock; in tons of coal 

The shipping of Illinois was only second to New York. Out of 
one port daring the business hours of the season of navigation she 
sent forth a vessel every nine minutes. This did not include canal- 
boats, which went one every five minutes. 

No wonder she was only second in number of bankers or in phy- 
sicians and suro^eons. 

She was third in colleges, teachers and schools; also in cattle, 
lead, hay, flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She was fourth in population, in children enrolled in public 
schools, in law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She was fifth in value of real and personal property, in theologi- 
cal seminaries, and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, 
and in boots and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She was only seventh in the production of wood, while she was 
the twelfth in area. Surely that was well done for the Prairie State. 
She then had, in 1876, much more wood and growing timber than 
she had thirty years before. 


A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactured 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, which placed her well up toward 
New York and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing 
establishments increased from 1860 to 1870, 300 per cent. ; capital 
employed increased 350 per cent.; and the amount of product in- 
creased 400 per cent. She issued 5,500,000 copies of commercial 
and financial newspapers, being only second to New York. She had 
6,759 miles of railroad, then leading all other States, worth $636,- 
458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train long 
enouirh to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations were only five miles apart. She carried, in 1876, 15,795,- 
000 passengers an average of 36|- miles, or equal to taking her 
entire population twice across the State. More tlian two-thirds of 
her land was within five miles of a railroad, and less than two per 
cent, was more than fifteen miles away 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central 
railroad. The road was incorporated m 1850, and the State gave 
each alternate section for six miles on each side, and doubled the 
price of the remaining land, so keeping herself good. The road 
received 2,595,000 acres of land, and paid to the State one-seventh 
of the gross receipts. The State received in 1877, $350,000, and 
had received up to that year in all about $7,000,000. It was prac- 
tically the people's road, and it had a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to the above amount the annual receipts from 
the canal, $111,000, and a large per cent, of the State tax was pro- 
vided foro 


Shadrach Bond — Was the first Governor of Illinois. He was a 
native of Maryland and born in 1773; was raised on a farm; re- 
ceived a common English education, and came to Illinois in 1794 
He served as a delegate in Congress from 1811 to 1815, where he 
procured the right of pre-emption of public land. He was elected 
Governor in 1818; was beaten for Congress in 1824 by Daniel P. 
Cook He died at Kaskaskia, April 11, 1830. 

Edward Coles — Was born Dec. 15, 1786, in Virginia. His father 
was a slave-holder; gave his son a collegiate education, and left to 
him a large number of slaves. These he liberated, giving each 
head of a family 160 acres of land and a considerable sum of money. 


He was President Madison's private secretary. He came to Illinois 
in 1819, was elected Governor in 1S22, on the anti-slaver j ticket; 
moved to Philadelphia in 1833, and died in 1868. 

Ninian Edwards. — In 1809, on the formation of the Territory of 
Illinois, Mr. Edwards was appointed Governor, which position he 
retained until the organization of the State, when he was sent to 
the United States Senate. Ho was elected Governor in 1826. He 
was a native of Maryland and bora in 1775; received a collegiate 
education; was Chief Justice of Kentucky, and a Republican in 

John Reynolds — AVas born in Pennsylvania in 1788, and came 
with his j)arents to Illinois in 1800, and in 1830 was elected Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, and afterwards served three terras 
in Congress. He received a classical education, yet was not polished. 
He was an ultra Democrat; attended the Charleston Conv^ention in 
1860, and urged the seizure of United States arsenals by the 
South. He died in 1865 at Belleville, childless. 

Josep/i Duncan. — In 183i Joseph Duncan was elected Governor 
by the Whigs, although formerly a Democrat. He had previously 
served four terms in Congress. He was born in Kentucky in 1794; 
had but a limited education; served with distinction in the war of 
1812; conducted the campaign of 1832 against Black Hawk. He 
came to Illinois when quite young. 

Thomas Carlin — "Was elected as a Democrat in 1838. He had 
but a meager education; held many minor offices, and was active 
both in the war of 1812 and the Black Hawk war. He was born in 
Kentucky in 1789; came to Illinois in 1812, and died at Carrollton, 
Feb. 14, 1852. 

Thomas Ford — Was born in Pennsvlvania in the year 1800; was 
brought by his widowed mother to Missouri in 1804, and shortly 
afterwards to Illinois. He received a good education, studied law; 
was elected four times Judge, twice as Circuit Judge, Judge of 
Chicago and Judge of Supreme Court. He was elected Governor 
by the Democratic party in 1842; wrote his history of Illinois in 
1847 and died in 1850. 

Augustus C. French — Was born in New Hampshire in 1808; 
was admitted to the bar in 1831, and shortly afterwards moved to 
Illinois when in 1846 he was elected Governor. On tlie adoption 
of the Constitution of 1848 he was again chosen, serving until 1853. 
He was a Democrat m politics. 



Joel A. Matteson — Was born in Jefferson county, IT. Y., in 1808. 
His father was a fanner, and gave his son only a common school 
education. He first entered upon active life as a small tradesman, 
but subsequently became a large contractor and manufacturer. He 
was ^ heavy contractor in building the Canal. He was elected Gov- 
ernor in 1853 upon the Democratic ticket. 

William H. Bissell — Was elected by the Republican party in 
1856, He had previously served two terms in Congress; was 
colonel in the Mexican war and has held minor official positions. He 
was born in J^ew York State in 1811; received a common educa- 
tion; came to Illinois early in life and engaged in the medical j)ro- 
fession. This he changed for the law and became a noted orator, 
and the standard bearer of the Republican party in Illinois. He 
died in 1860 while Governor. 

Richard ITates — "The war Governor of Illinois," was born in 
Warsaw, Ky., in 1818; came to Illinois in 1831: served two terms 
in Congress; in 1860 was elected Governor, and in 1865 United 
States Senator. He was a college graduate, and read law under J. J. 
Hardin. He rapidly rose in his chosen profession and charmed the 
people with oratory. He filled the gubernatorial chair during the 
trying days of the Rebellion, and by his energy and devotion won 
the title of " War Governor." He became addicted to strong drink, 
and died a drunkard. 

Richard J. Ogleshy — Was born in 1824, in Kentucky; an orphan 
at the age of eight, came to Illinois when only 12 years old. He 
was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade; worked some at 
farming and read law occasionally. He enlisted in the Mexican 
War and was chosen First Lieutenant. After his return he again 
took up the law, bufe during the gold fever of 1819 went to Califor- 
nia; soon returned, and, in 1852, entered upon his illustrious 
political career. He raised the second regiment in the State, to 
suppress the Rebellion, and for gallantry was promoted to Major 
General. In 1864 he was elected Governor, and re-elected in 1872, 
and resigned for a seat in the United States Senate. He is a staunch 
Republican and resides at Decatur. 

Shelby M. Cullom — Was born in Kentucky in 1828; studied 
law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in 1848; was elected to the State Legislature in 1856, 
and again in 1860. Served on the war commission at Cairo, 1862, 


and was a member of the 39th, 40th and 41st Congress, in all of which 
he served with credit to his State. He was again elected to the 
State Legislature in 1872, asd re-elected in 1874, and was elected 
Governor of Illinois in 1876, which office he still holds, and has 
administered with marked ability. , 


Pierre Menard — Was the first Lieut. Gov. of Illinois. He was 
born in Quebec, Canada, in 1767. He came to Illinois in 1790 
where he engaged in the Indian trade and became wealthy. He 
died in 1844. Menard county was named in his honor. 

Adolphus F . Hiibbard — Was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1822. Four 
years later he ran for Governor against Edwards, but was beaten. 

William Kinney — Was elected in 1826. He was a Baptist 
clergyman; was born in Kentucky in 1781 and came to Illinois in 

Zadock Casey — Although on the opposition ticket to Governor 
Reynolds, the successful Gubernatorial candidate, yet Casey was 
elected Lieut. Gov. in 1830. He subsequently served several terms 
in Congress. 

Alexander M. Jenkins — Was elected on ticket with Gov. Duncan 
in 1834 by a handsome majority. 

S. H. Anderson — Lieut. Gov. under Gov. Cariin, was chosen in 
1838. He was a native of Tennessee. 

John Moore — Was born in England in 1793; came to Illinois in 
1830; was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1842. He won the name of 
" Honest John Moore." 

Joseph B. Wells — Was chosen with Gov. French at his first 
election m 1846. 

William McMurtry. — In 1848 when Gov. French was again 
chosen Governor, William McMurtry of Knox county, was elected 
Lieut. Governor. 

Gustavus P. Koerner — Was elected in 1852. He was born in 
Germany in 1809. At the age of 22 came to Illinois. In 1872 he 
was a candidate for Governor on Liberal ticket, but was defeated. 

John Wood — Was elected in 1856, and on the death of Gov, 
Bissell became Governor. 

Francis A. Hoffman — Was chosen with Gov. Yates in 1860. 
He was born in Prussia in 1822, and came to Illinois in 1840. 



William Bross — "Was born in New Jersey, came to Illinois in 
1848, was elected to office in 1864. 

John Dougherty — Was elected in 1868. 

John L. Beveredge — Was chosen Lieut. Gov. in 1872. In 1873 
Oglesbj was elected to the U. S. Senate when Beveridge became 

Andrew Shuman — Was elected Nov. 7, 1876, and is the present 


Ninian W. Edwards 1854-56 

W. H. Powell 1857-58 

Newton Batemaa 1859-75 

Samuel M. Etter 1876 


Daniel P. Cook 1819 

William Hears 1820 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1821-22 

James Turney 1823-28 

George Forquer 1829-32 

James Semple , 1833-34 

Ninian E. Edwards 1834-35 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr 1835 

Walter B. Scales 1836 

Asher F. Linder 1837 

Geo. W. Olney 1838 

Wickliffe Kitchell 1839 

Josiali Lamborn 1841-42 

James A. McDougall 1843-46 

David B. Campbell 1846 

[Office abolished and re-created in 1867] 

Robert G. Ingersoll 1867-68 

Washington Bushnell 1869-72 

James K. Edsall 1873-79 


John Thomas '. . . .1818-19 

R. K. McLaughlin 1819-22 

Ebner Field 1823-26 

James Hall 18'27-30 

John Dement 1831-36 

Charles Gregory 1836 

John D. Whiteside 1837-40 

M. Carpenter 1841-48 

John Moore 1848-56 

James Miller 1857-60 

William Butler 1861-62 

Alexander Starne 1863-64 

James H. Beveridge 1865-66 

George W. Smith 1867-68 

Erastus N. Bates 1869-72 

Edward Rutz 1873-75 

Thomas S. Ridgeway 1876-77 

Edward Rutz 1878-79 


Elias K. Kane 1818-22 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1822-23 

David Blackwell 1823-24 

Morris Birkbeck 1824 

George Forquer 1825-28 

Alexander P. Field 1829-40 

Stephen A. Douglas 1840 

Lyman Trumbull 1841-42 

Thompson Campbell 1843-46 

Horace S. Cooley 1846-49 

David L. Gregg 1850-52 

Alexander Starne 1853-56 

Ozias M. Hatch 1857-60 

Sharon Tyndale 1865-68 

Edward Rummel 1869-72 

George H. Harlow 1873-79 



Elijah C. Berry 1818-31 Thompson Campbell 1846 

I. T. B. Stapp 1831-35 Jesse K. Dubois 1857-64 

Levi Davis 1835-40 Orlin H. Miner 1865-68 

James Shields 1841-43 ' Charles E. Lippencott 1869-76 

\V. L. D. Evving 1843-45 Thompson B. Needles 1877-79 


Ninian Edwards. — On the organization of the State in 181S, 
Edwards, the popular Territorial Governor, was chosen Senator for 
the short term, and in 1819 re-elected for full terra, 

Jesse B. Thomas — One of the federal judges during the entire 
Territorial existence was chosen Senator on organization of the 
. State, and re-elected in 1S23, and served till 1829. 

John McLean — In 1824 Edwards resigned, and McLean was 
elected to fill his unexpired term. He was born in North Carolina 
in 1791, and came to Illinois in 1815; served one term in Congress, 
and in 1829 was elected to the IT. S. Senate, but the following year 
died. He is said to have been the most gifted man of his period in 

Elias Kent Kane — Was elected Nov. 30, 1824, for the term be- 
ginning March 4, 1825. In 1830 he was re-elected, but died before 
the expiration of his term. He was a native of New York, and in 
1814 came to Illinois. He was first Secretarv of State, and after- 
wards State Senator. 

David Jewett Baker — Was appointed to fill the unexpired term 
of John McLean, in 1830, Nov. 12, but the Legislature refused to 
endorse the choice. Baker was a native of Connecticut, born in 
1792, and died in Alton in 1869. 

John M. Robinson. — Instead of Baker, the Governor's appointee, 
the Legislature chose Robinson, and in 1^34 lie was re-elected. In 
1843 was elected Supreme Judge of the State, but within two 
months died. He was a native of Kentucky, and came to Illinois 
while quite young. 

William L. D. Ewing — Was elected in 1835, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Kane. He was a Kentuckian. 

Richard M. Yovng — Was elected in 1836, and held his seat 
from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1843, a full term. He was a 


native of Kentucky; was Circuit Judge before his election to the 
Senate, and Supreme Judge in 1842. He died in an insane asyhim 
at Washington. 

Samuel Mc Roberts — The first native Illinoisian ever elevated to 
the high office of U. S. Senator from this State, was born in 1799, 
and died in 1843 on his return home from Wasliington. Pie was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1824, and March 4, 1841, took his seat in 
the IT. S. Senate. 

Sidney Breese — Was elected to the U. S. Senate, Dec. 17, 1842, 
and served a full term. He was born in Oneida county, N. Y. 
He was Major in the Black Hawk war; Circuit Judge, and in 1841 
was elected Supreme Judge. He served a full term in the TJ. S. 
Senate, beginning March 4, 1843, after which he was elected to the 
Legislature, again Circuit Judge, and, in 1857, to the Supreme 
Court, which position he held until his death in 1878. 

James Semjjle — Was the successor of Samuel McRoberts, and" 
was appointed by Gov. Ford in 1843. He was afterwards elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Stephen A. Douglas — Was elected Dec. 14, 1846. He had pre- 
viously served three terms as Congressman. He became his own 
successor in 1853 and ao^ain in 1859. From his first entrance in the 
Senate he was acknowledged the peer of Clay, Webster and Cal- 
houn, with whom he served liis first term. His famous contest 
with Abraham Lincoln for the Senate in 1858 is the most memor- 
able in the annals of our country. It was called the battle of the 
giants, and resulted in Douglas' election to the Senate, and Lincoln 
to the Presidency. He was born in Brandon, Vermont, April 23, 
1813, and came to Illinois in 1833, and died in 1861. He was 
appointed Secretary of State by Gov. Carlin in 1840, and shortly 
afterward to the Supreme Bench. 

James Shields — Was elected and assumed his seat in the U. S. 
Senate' in 1849, March 4. He was born in Ireland in 1810, came 
to the United States in 1827. He served in the Mexican army, was 
elected Senator from Wisconsin, and in 1879 from Missouri for a 
short term. 

Ijyuian Trumhull — Took his seat in the (J. S. Senate March 4, 
1855, and became his own successor in 1861. He had previously 
served one term in the Lower House of Congress, and served on 
the Supreme Bench. He was born in Connecticut; studied law 


and came to Illinois early in life, where for years he was actively 
engaged in politics. He resides in Chicago. 

Orvill H. Browning — Was appointed U. S. Senator in 1861, to 
fill the seat made vacant by the death of Stephen A, Douglas, until 
a Senator could be regularly elected. Mr. Browning was born in 
Harrison county, Kentucky; was admitted to the bar in 1831, and 
settled in Quincy, Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of law, 
and was instrumental, with his friend, Abraham Lincoln, in form- 
ing the Republican party of Illinois at the Bloomington Conven- 
tion. He entered Johnson's cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, 
and in March, 1868, was designated by the President to perform the 
duties of Attorney General, in addition to his own, as Secretary of 
the Interior Department. 

William A. Richardson — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 
1863, to fill the unexpired term of his friend, Stephen A Douglas. 
He was born in Fayette county, Ky., about 1810, studied law, 
and settled in Illinois; served as captain in the Mexican War, and, 
on the battle-field of Buena Vista, was promoted for bravery, by a 
unanimous vote of his regiment. He served in the Lower House 
of Congress from 1847 to 1856, continually. 

Richard Yates — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1865, serv- 
ing a full term of six years. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 

John A. Logan — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1871. He 
was born in Jackson county, 111., Feb. 9, 1826, received a common \ 
school education, and enlisted as a private in the Mexican War, 
where he rose to the rank of Regimental Quartermaster. On 
returning home he studied law, and came to the bar in 1852; was 
elected in 1858 a Representative to the 36th Congress and re-elected 
to the 37th Congress, resigning in 1861 to take part in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion; served as Colonel and subsequently as a 
Major General, and commanded, with distinction, the armies of 
the Tennessee. He was again elected to the U. S. Senate in 1879 
for six years. 

David Davis — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1877 for a term 
of six years. He was born in Cecil county, Md., March 9, 1815, 
graduated at Kenyon College, Ohio, studied law, and removed to 
Illinois in 1835; was admitted to the bar and settled in Bloominj?- 
ton, where he has since resided and amassed a large fortune. He 



was for many years the intimate friend and associate of Abraham 
Lincoln, rode the circuit with him each year, and after Lincohi's 
election to the Presidency, was appointed by him to fill the position 
of Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. 



John McLean 1818 Daniel P. Cook 1825-26 


Daniel P. Cook 1819-20 Joseph Duncan 1827-28 


Daniel P. Conk 1821-22 Joseph Duncan 1829-30 


Daniel P. Cook 1823-24 Joseph Duncan 1831-32 


Joseph Duncan 1833-34 Zadock Casey 1833-34 


Zadock Casey 1835-36 William L. May 1835-36 

John Reynolds 1835-36 


Zadock Casey 1837-38 William L. May 1837-38 

John Reynolds 1837-38 


Zadock Casey.. . , 1839-40 John T. Stuart 1839-40 

John Reynolds 1839-40 


Zadock Casey 1841-42 John T. Stuart 1841-42 

John Reynolds 1841^2 


Robert Smith 1843-44 Joseph P. Hoge 1843-44 

Orlando B. Finklin 1843-44 John J. Hardin 1843-44 

Stephen A. Douglas 1843-44 John Wentworth 1843-44 

John A. McClernand 1843-44 


Robert Smith 1845-46 Joseph P. Hoge 1845-46 

Stephen A. Douglas 1845-4G John A. McClernand 1845-46 

Orlando B. Finklin 1845-46 John Wentworth 1845-46 

John J. Hardin 1845 


John Wentworth 1847-48 Orlando B. Finklin 1847-48 

Thomas J. Turner 1847 Robert Smith 1847-48 

Abraham Lincoln. 1847-48 William A. Richardson 1847-48 

John A. McClernand 1847-48 

]6A llISTORr Oti" iLLlKOI&» 


John A. McCiernand 1849-50 Edward D. Baker 1849-50 

John Wentworth 1849-50 William H. Bissell 1849-50 

Timothy R. Young 1849-50 Thomas L. Harris 1849 

William A. Richardson 1849-50 


William A. Richardson 1851-52 Richard Yates 1851-52 

Thompson Campbell 1851-52 Richard S. Maloney 1851-52 

Orlando B. Finkliu 1851-52 Willis 1851-52 

John Wentworth 1851-52 William H. Bissell 1851-52 


William H. Bissell 1853-54 Thompson Campbell 1853-54 

John C. Allen 1853-54 ^^-James Knox 1853-54 

Willis 1853-54 ' Jesse O. Norton 1853-54 

Elihu B. Washburne. 1853-54 William A. Richardson 1863-54 

Richard Yates 1853-54 


Elihu B. Washburne 1855-56 Samuel S. Marshall 1855-56 

Lyman Trumbull 1855-56 J. L. D. Morrison.. 1855-56 

James H. Wood worth 1855-56 John C. Allen 1855—56 

James Knox • . 1855-56 Jesse O. Xorton 1855-56 

Thompson Campbell 1855-56 William A. Richardson 1855-56 


Elihu B. Washburne 1857-58 Samuel S. Marshall 1857-58 

Charles D. Hodges 1857-58 Isaac N. Morris 1857-58 

William Kellogg 1857-58 Aaron Shaw 1857-58 

Thompson Campbell 1857-58 Robert Smith 1857-58 

John F. Farnsworth 1857-58 Thomas L. Harris 1857-58 

Owen Lovejoy 1857-58 


Elihu B. Washburne 1859-60 John F. Farnsworth 1859-60 

John A.Logan 1859-60 Philip B. Fouke 1859-60 

Owen Lovejoy 1859-60 Thomas L. Harris 1859-60 

John A. McCiernand ia59-60 William Kellogg 1859-60 

Isaac N Morris 1859-60 James C. Robinson 1859-60 


Elihu B. Washburne 1861-62 Isaac X. Arnold 1861-62 

James C. Robinson 1861-62 Philip B. Fouke 1861-62 

John A. Logan 1861-62 William Kellogg 1861-62 

Owen Lovejoy 1861-62 Anthony L. Knapp 1861-62 

John A. McCiernand 1861-62 Williaui A. Richardson 1861-62 


Elihu B. Washburne 1863-64 William J. Allen 1863-64 

Jesse O. Norton 1863-64 Isaac N. Arnold 1863-64 

.James C. Robinson 1863-64 John R. Eden 1863-64 






■'^fVE^biTY OF ILliNOIS 

History of Illinois. 


Lewis W. Ross 1863-64 

John T. Stuart 1863-64 

Owen Lovejoy 1863-64 

William R. Morrison 1863-64 

John C. Allen 1863-64 

John F. Farnsworth 1863-64 

Charles W. Morris 1863-64 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1863-64 

Anthony L. Klnapp 1863-64 


Elihu B. Washburne 1865-66 

Anthony B. Thornton 1865-66 

John Wentworth 1865-66 

Abner C. Hardin 1865-66 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1865-66 

Barton C. Cook 1865-66 

Shelby M. Cullom 1865-66 

John F. Farnsworth 1865-66 

Jehu Baker 1865-66 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1865-66 

Andrew Z. Kuykandall 1865-66 

Samuel S. Marshall 1865-66 

Samuel W. Moulton 1865-66 

Lewis W. Ross 1865-66 


Elihu B. Washburne 1867-68 

Abner C. Hardin .1867-68 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1867-68 

Norman B. Judd 1867-68 

Albert G. Burr 1867-68 

Burton C. Cook 1867-68 

John F. Farnsworth 1867-68 

Jehu Baker 1867-68 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1867-68 

John A Logan 1867-68 

Samuel S. Marshall 1867-68 

Green B. Raum 1867-63 

Shelby M. Oullom 1867-68 , Le^is W. Ross 1867-68 


Norman B. Judd 1869-70 

John F. Farnsworth 1869-70 

H. C. Burchard 1869-70 

John B. Hawley 1869-70 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1869-70 

Burton C. Cook 1869-70 

Jesse H. Moore 1869-70 

Shelby- M. Cullom 1869-70 

Thomas W. McNeely 1869-70 

Albert G. Burr 1869-70 

Samuel S. Marshall 1869-70 

John B. Hay 1869-70 

John M. Crebs 1869-70 

John A. Logan .1869-70 


Charles B. Farwell ' 1871-72 

John F. Farnsworth :i871-73 

Horatio C. Burchard 1871-72 

John B. Hawley 1871-72 

Bradford N. Stevens 1871-72 

Henry Snapp 1871-72 

Jesse H. Moore 1871-72 

James C Robinson 1871-72 

Thomas W. McNeely 1871-72 

Edward Y. Rice 1871-72 

Samuel S. Marshall 1871-72 

John B. Hay 1871-72 

John M. Crebs .• 1871-72 

John S. Beveredge 1 871-73 


John B. Rice 1873-74 

Jasper D. Ward 1873-74 

Charles B. Farwell 1873-74 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1873-74 

Horatio C. Burchard 1873-74 

John B. Hawlej^ 1873-74 

Robert M. Knapp 1873-74 

James C. Robinson 1873-74 

John B. McNulta 1873-74 

.Joseph G. Cannon 1873-74 

John R. Eden .1873-74 

James S. Martin 1873-74 

Franklin Corwin 1873-74 William R. Morrison 1873-74 



Greenbury L. Fort .1873-74 

Granville Barrere l8'<'3-74 

William H. Ray 1873-74 

Isaac Clements 1873-74 

Samuel S. Marshall 1873-74 


Bernard G. Caulfield 1875-76 

Carter H. Harrison 1875-76 

Charles B. Farwell 1875-76 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1875-76 

Horatio C. Burchard 1875-76 

Thomas J. Henderson 1875-76 

Alexander Campbell 1875-76 

Greenbury L. Fort 1875-76 

Richard H. Whiting 1875-76 

John C. Bagby . . . . .^ 1875-76 


William Aldrich 1877-78 

Carter H. Harrison 1877-78 

Lorenzo Brentano 1877-78 

William Lathrop 1877-78 

Horatio C. Burchard 1877-78 

Thomas J. Henderson 1877-78 

Philip C Hayes 1877-78 

Greenbury L. Fort 1877-78 

Thomas A. Boyd 1877-78 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1877-78 


Scott Wike ,....1875 

William M. Springer 1875 

Adlai E. Stevenson 1875 

Joseph G. Cannon 1875 

John R. Eden 1875 

W. A. J. Sparks 1875 

William R. Morrison 1875 

William Hartzell 1875 

William B. Anderson 1875 


Robert M. Knapp 1877- 

William M. Springer 1877- 

Thomas F. Tipton 1877- 

Joseph G. Cannon 1877- 

John R. Eden 1877- 

W. A. J. Sparks 1877- 

William R. Morrison 1877- 

William Hartzell 1877- 

Richard W. Townshend 1877 











William Aldrich 1879-80 

George R. Davis 1879-80 

Hiram Barber 1879-80 

John C. Sherwin 1879-80 

R. M. A. Hawk 1879-80 

Thomas J. Henderson 1879-80 

Philip C. Hayes 1879-80 

Greenbury L. Fort 1879-80 

Thomas A. Boyd 1879-80 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1879-80 

James W. Singleton 1879-80 

William M. Springer 1879-80 

A. E. Stevenson 1879-80 

Joseph G. Cannon 1879-80 

Albert P. Forsythe 1879-80 

W. A. J. Sparks 1879-80 

William R. IMorrison 1879-80 

John R. Thomas 1879-80 

R. W. Townshend 1879-80 


While we cannot, in tlie brief space we have, give more than a 
ineaircr sketch of such a city as Chicago, yet we feel the historj of 
tlic State would be incomplete without speaking of it> metropolis, 
the most wonderful city on the globe. 

In comparing Chicago as it was a few years since with Chicago 
of to-dav, we behold a change whose veritable existence we should 


be inclined to doubt were it not a stern, indisputable fact. Kapid 
as is the customary development of places and things in the United 
States, the growth of Chicago and her trade stands without a parallel. 
The city is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan at the 
mouth of the Chicago river. It lies 14 feet above the lake, having 
been raised to that grade entirely by the energy of its citizens, its 
site having originally been on a dead level with the water of the 

The citj'- extends north and south along the lake about ten miles, 
and westward on the praii-ie from the lake five or six miles, embrac- 
ing an area of over 40 square miles. It is divided by the river 
into three distinct parts, known as the North, West and South 
Divisions, or "Sides," by vvliich they are popularly and commonly 
known.. These are connected by 33 bridges and two tunnels. 

The first settlement of Chicago was made in 1804, during which 
year Fort Dearborn was lni.ilt. At the close of 1830 Chicago con- 
tained 12 houses, with a population of about 100. The town was 
organized in 1833, and incorporated as a- city in 1837. The first 
frame building was erected in 18o2, and the first brick house in 
1833. The first vessel entered the harbor June 11, 1834; and at 
the first official census, taken July 1, 1837, the entire population 
was found to be 4,170. In 1850 the population had increased to 
29,963; in 1860, to 112,172; in 1870, 298,977; and, according to 
the customary mode of reckoning from the number of names in 
the City Directory, the population of 1879 is over 500,000. 

Nicholas Perrot, a Frenchman, was the first white man to visit 
the site of Chicago. This he did in 1671, at the instigation of M. 
Toulon, Governor of Canada. He was sent to invite the Western 
Indians to a convention at Green Bay. It has been often remarked 
that the first white man who became a resident of Chicago was a 
negro. His name was Jean Baptiste Pointe an Sable, a mulatto from 
the West Indies. He settled there in 1796 and built a rude cabin on 
the north bank of the main river, and laid claim to a tract of land 
surrounding it. He disappeared from the scene, and his claim was 
"jumped" by a Frenchman named Le Mai, who commenced trad- 
ing with the Indians. A few years later he sold out to John Kin- 
zie, who was then an Indian trader in the country about St. 
Joseph, Mich., and agent for tlic American Fur Company, which 
had traded at Chicago with the Indians for some time; and this 


fact had, probably more than any other, to do with the determina- 
tion of the Government to establish a fort there. The Indians 
were growing numerous in that region, being attracted by the 
facilities for selling their wares, as well as being pressed northward 
b}' the tide of emigration setting in from the south. It was judged 
necessary to have some force near that point to keep them in 
check, as well as to protect the trading interests. Mr. Kinzie 
moved his family there the same year Fort Dearborn was built 
and converted the Jean Baptiste cabin into a tasteful dwelling. 

For about eight years things moved along smoothly. The garri- 
son was quiet, and the traders prosperous. Then the United States 
became involved in trouble with Great Britain. The Indians took 
the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities between the 
civilized nations, committing great depredations, the most atro- 
cious of which was the massacre of Fort Dearborn, an account of 
which may be found in this volume \inder the heading of "The 
War of 1812." 


From the year 1840 the onward march of the city of Chicago 
to the date of the great fire is well known. To recount its marvel- 
ous growth in population, wealth, internal resources and improve- 
ments and everything else that goes to make up a mighty city, 
would consume more space than we could devote, however interest- 
ing it might be. Its progress astonished the world, and its citizens 
stood almost appalled at the work of their own hands. She was 
happy, prosperous and great when time brought that terrible Octo- 
ber night (Oct. 9, 1871) and with it the great fire, memorable as 
the greatest fire ever occurring on earth. The sensation conveyed 
to the spectator of this unparalleled event, either through the eye, 
the ear, or other senses or sympathies, cannot be adequately 
described, and any attempt to do it but shows the poverty of lan- 
guage. As a spectacle it was beyond doubt the grandest as \yell as 
the most appalling ever oftered to mortal eyes. From any 
elevated standpoint the appearance was that of a vast ocean of 
flame, sweeping in mile-long billows and breakers over the doomed 

Added to the spectacular elements of the conflagration — the 
intense and lurid light, the sea of red. and black, and the spires and 
pyramids of flame shooting into the heavens — was its constant and 


terrible roar, drowning even the voices of the shrieking multitude; 
and ever and anon — for a while as often as every half-minute — 
resounded far and wide the rapid detonations of explosions, or fall- 
ing walls. In short, all sights and sounds which terrify the weak 
and unnerve the stron-; abounded. But they were only the accom- 
paniment which tlic orchestra of nature were furnishing to the 
terrible tragedy there being enacted. 

The total area bur.;ed over, including streets, was three and a 
third square miles. The number of buildings destroyed was 
17,450; persons rendered homeless, 98,500; persons killed, about 
200. Not including depreciation of real estate, or loss of business, 
it is estimated that the total loss occasioned by the fire was 
$190,000,000, of which but $44,000,000 was recovered on insur- 
ance. The business of the city was interrupted but a short time; 
and in a year after the fire a large part of the burned district was 
rebuilt, and at present there is scarcely a trace of the terrible dis- 
aster, save in the improved character of the new buildings over 
those destroyed, and the general better appearance of the city — 
now the finest, in an architectural sense, in the world. 

One of the features of this great city worthy of mention is the 
Exposition, held annually. The smouldering ruins were yet smok- 
ing when the Exposition Building was erected, only ninety days 
being consumed in its construction. The accompanying engrav- 
ing of the building, the main part of which is 1,000 feet long, 
will give an idea of its magnitude. 


The trade of Chicago is co-extensive with the world. Every- 
where, in every country and in every port, the trade- marks of her 
merchants are seen. Everywhere, Chicago stands prominently 
identified with the commerce of the continent. A few years ago, 
grain was carted to the place in wagons; now more than 10,000 
miles of railroad, with thousands of trains heavily ladened with the 
products of the land center there. The cash value of the produce 
handled during the year 187S was $220,000,000, and its aggregate 
weight was 7,000,000 tons, or would make 700,000 car loads. 
Divided into trains, it would make 28,000 long, heavily ladened 
freight trains, wending their way from all parts of the United States 
toward our great metropolis. These trains, arranged in one con- 


tinuous line, would stretch from London across the broad Atlantic 
to New York and on across our continent to San Francisco. 

In regard to the grain, lumber and stock trade, Chicago has sur- 
passed all rivals, and, indeed, not only is without a peer but excels 
any three or four cities in the world in. these branches. Of grain, 
the vast quantity of 134,851,193 bushels was received during the 
year 18TS. This was about two-fifths more than ever received 
before in one year. It took 13,000 long freight trains to carry it 
from the fields of the Northwest to Chicago. This would make a 
continuous train that would reach across the continent from New . 
York to San Francisco. Speaking more in detail, we have of the 
various cereals received during the year, 62,783,577 busli«ls of corn, 
29,901,220 bushels of wheat, 18,251,529 bushels of oats, 133,981,104 
pounds of seed. The last item alone would fill about 7,000 freight 

The lumber received during the year 1878 was, 1,171,364,000 feet, 
exceeded only in 1872, the year after the great fire. This vast 
amount of lumber would require 195,000 freight cars to transport 
it. It would build a fence, four boards high, four and one-half 
times around the globe. 

In the stock trade for the year 1878, the figures assume propor- 
tions almost incredible. They are, however, from reliable and 
trustworthy sources, and must be accepted as authentic. There 
were received during the year, 6,339,656 hogs, being 2,000,000 more 
than ever received before in one year. It required 129,916 stock 
cars to transport this vast number of hogs from the farms of the 
West and Northwest to the stock yards of Chicago. These hogs 
arranged in single file, would form a connecting link between 
Chicago and Pekin, China. 

Of the large number of hogs received, five millions of them were 
slaughtered in Chicago. The aggregate amount of product manu- 
factured from these hogs was 918,000,000 pounds. The capacity of 
the houses engaged in slaughtering operations in Chicago is 60,000 
hogs daily. The number of hands employed in these houses is 
from 6,000 to 8,000. The number of packages required in which 
to market the year's product is enormously large, aggregating 500,- 
000 barrels, 800,000 tierces and 650,000 boxes. 

There has been within the stock yards of the city, during the 
year 1878, 1,036,066 cattle. These were gathered from the plains 


of Oregon, "Wyoming and Utah, and the grazing regions of Texas, 
as well as from all the Southern, Western and Northwestern States 
and Territories and from the East as far as Ohio. If these cattle 
were driven from Chicago southward, iu single file, through the 
United States, Mexico, and the Central American States into South 
America, the foremost could graze on the plains of Brazil, ere the 
last one had passed the limits of the great city. 

Not only does Chicago attract to its great market the products of 
a continent, but from it is distributed throughout the world manu- 
factured goods. Every vessel and every train headed toward that 
city are heavily ladened with the crude products of the farm, of the 
forests, or of the bowels of the earth, and every ship that leaves her 
docks and every train that flies from her limits are filled with 
manufactured articles. These goods not only find their way all 
over our own country but into Europe, Asia, Australia, Afi-ica, 
South America, Mexico, and the Islands of the sea; indeed, every 
nook and corner of the globe, where there is a demand for her 
goods, her merchants are ready to supply. 

The wholesale trade for the year 1878 reached enormous figures, 
aggregating $280,000,000. Divided among the leading lines, we 
find there were sold of dry goods, $95,000,000 worth. The trade in 
groceries amounted to $66,000,000; hardware, $20,000,000; boots 
and shoes, $24,000,000; clothing, $17,000,000; carpets, $8,000,000; 
millinery, $7,000,000; hats and caps, $6,000,000; leather, $8,000,- 
000; drugs, $6,000,000; jewelry, $4,500,000; musical instruments, 
$2,300,000. Chicago sold over $5,000,000 worth of fruit during 
the year, and for the same time her fish trade amounted to $1,400,- 
000, and her oyster trade $4,500,000. The candy and other con- 
fectionery trade amounted to $1,534,900. This would fill all the 
Christmas stockings in the United States. 

In 1852, the commerce of the city reached the hopeful sura of 
$20,000,000; since then, the annual sales of one firm amount to 
that much. In 1870, it reached $400,000,000, and in 1878 it had 
grown so vapidly that the trade of the city amounted during that 
year to $650,000,000. Her manufacturing interests have likewise 
grown. In 1878, her manufactories employed in the neighborhood 
of 75,000 operators. The products manufactured during the year 
were valued at $230,000,000. In reviewing the shipping interests of 
Chicago, we find it equally enormous. So considerable, indeed, is the 


commercial navy of Chicago, that in the seasons of navigation, one 
vessel sails every nine minutes during the business hours; add to 
this the canal-boats that leave, one every five minutes during the 
same time, and you will see something of the magnitude of her 
shipping. More vessels arrive and depart from this port during the 
season than enter or leave any other port in the world. 

In 1831, the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who 
went on foot to ISTiles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back 
what papers and news he could find. As late cs 1846, there was 
often but one mail a week. A post-office was established in 
Chicago in 1833, and the postmaster nailed up old boot legs upon 
one side of his shop to serve as boxes. It has since grown to be 
the larofest receiving office in the United States. 

In 1841:, the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by 
plank roads. The wooden-block pavement appeared in 1857. In 
1840, water was delivered by peddlers, in carts or by hand. Then 
a twenty-five horse powepengine pushed it through hollow or bored 
logs along the streets till 1854, when it was introduced into the 
houses by new works. The first fire-engine was used in 1835, and 
the first steam fire-engine in 1859. Gas was utilized for lis'htinir 
the city in 1S50. The Young Men's Christian Association was 
organized in 1858. Street cars commenced running in 1854. The 
Museum was opened in 1863. The alarm telegraph adopted in 
1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The telephone introduced 
in 1878. 

One of the most thoroughly interesting engineering exploits of 
the city is the tunnels and water-works system, the grandest and 
most unique of any in the world; and the closest analysis fails to 
detect any impurities in the water furnished. The first tunnel is 
five feet two inches in diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 
50,000,000 gallons per day. The second tunnel is seven feet in 
diameter and six miles long, running four miles under the city, and 
can deliver 100,000,000 gallons per day. This water is distributed 
throuo-h 410 miles of water mains. 

Chicago river is tunneled for the passage of pedestrians and vehi- 
cles from the South to the AVest and ]Sorth divisions. 

There is no grand scenery about Chicago except the two seas, one 
of water, the other of prairie. ^Nevertheless, there is a spirit about 
it, a push, a breadth, a power, that soon makes it a place never to 
















be forsaken. Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the 
wealth of one-fourth of the territory of this great republic. Tlie 
Atlantic sea-coast divides its margins between Portland, Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Savannah, but Chicago has 
a dozen empires casting their treasures into her lap. On a bed of 
coal that can run all the machinery of the world for 500 centuries; 
in a garden that can feed the race by the thousand years; at the 
head of the lakes that give her a temperature as a summer resort 
equaled by no great city in the land; with a climate that insures 
the health of her citizens; surrounded by all the great deposits of 
natural wealth in mines and forests and herds, Chicago is the 
wonder of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 



Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 16S4, and 
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in 
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no 
motto. Population in 1860,964,201; in 1870,996,992. Furnished 
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles. 
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi- 
dential electors. Rufus W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000; 
politics. Democratic. Length of term, 2 years. 

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,- 
450; in 1870,484,471. Area 59,198 square miles. Little Rock, 
capital. Its motto is Regnant Populi — " The people rule." It has 
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the " Bear State." 
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress^ 
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, W. R. Miller, Democrat; salary, 
$3,500; term, 2 years. 

California — Has a Greek motto. Eureka., which means " I have 
found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula 
of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first 
visited by the Spaniards in 1542, and by the celebrated English 


navigator, Sir Francio Drake, in 1578. In 1846 Fremont took 
possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United 
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines 
from 1868 to 1878 produced over $800,000,000. Area 188,982 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 379,994. In 1870, 560,247. She gave 
to defend the Union 15.225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital. 
Has 4 Representatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential 
electors. Present Governor is William Irwin, a Democrat; term, 
4 years ; salary, $6,000. 

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population 
in 1860 of 34,277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnished 4,903 
soldiers. Was admitted as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto, 
Nil sine Numine, which means, "Nothing can be done without 
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital. 
Has 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors. T. AV. Pitkin is Gov- 
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics, Pepublicau. 

Connecticut — Qui transtulit sustinet, " He who brouglit ns over 
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indian Quon- 
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long River." It is called the "Nutmeg 
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in 
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers. Hart- 
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000; 
term, 2 years. 

Delaware. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this 
State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states- 
man, and is called, " The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond State." It 
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original 
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population in 
1860, 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend 
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the capital. Has but 1 mem- 
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors. John W. 
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term, 2 years. 

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter 
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the 
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to 
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is, 
" In God we trust." It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has 
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in 


1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con- 
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. George F. Drew, Democrat, 
Governor; term, 4 years; salary, $3,600. 

Oeoi^gia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice 
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population 
in 1860, 1,057,286; 1870, 1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58,- 
000 square miles. Has 9 Representatives in Congress, and 11 
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat; 
term, 4 years; salarj^ $4,000. 

Illinois — Motto, " State Sovereignty, National Union." ISTame 
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It 
is called the '"Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers." 
"Was Urst explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into the 
Union in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in 1860 
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the 
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield Has 19 members in 
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. Cullom, Eepub. 
lican, is Governor; elected for 4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Indiana — Is called " Hoosier State." Was explored in 1682, 
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its 
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu- 
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the 
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 13 mem- 
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J. D. Williams, 
Governor, Democrat; salary, $3,000; term, 4 year. 

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its 
motto is, " Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain." 
It is called the " Hawk Eye State." It was first visited by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in 
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. Des Moines is the 
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674,913, 
and in 1870 of 1,191,802. She sent to defend the Government, 
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential 
electors. John H. Gear, Republican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; 
term, 2years. 

Kansas — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making the 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra per aspera, " To the 
stars through difficulties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and 


is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,841 square miles. 
Population in 1860, 107,209; in 1870 was 362,812. She furnished 
20,095 soldiers. Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor; 
politics, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Kentucky — Is the Indian name for " At tlie head of the rivers." 
Its motto is, '• United we stand, divided we fall." The sobriquet 
of "dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first 
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area 
37,680. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She 
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort. 
Has 10 members in Congress ; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary, 
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Louisiana — Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con- 
fidence. " It is called '"The Creole State." It was visited by La 
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the L'nion in 1812, making the 
eighteenth State. Population in 1860,708.002; in 1870, 732,731. 
Area 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224 
soldiers. Capital, Xew Orleans. Has 6 Representatives and 8 
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in 
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned 
that province. Its motto is Dirigo, meaning " I direct." It is 
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in 
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol- 
diers v/ent from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7 
Electors. Selden Connei', Republican, Governor; term, 1 year; 
salary, $2,500. 

Maryland — "Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Crecite et inultiplica- 
mini^ meaning "Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634, 
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,- 
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,- 
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital. Annapolis. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll, 
Democrat, Governor; salary, $4,500; term, 4 years. 


Massachusetts — Is the Indian for " The country around the great 
hills." It is called the "Bay State," from its numerous bays. Its 
motto is Ense petit placidam sub lihertate quietem, " By the sword 
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth 
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States, 
and was the first to take up arms against the English durini; the 
Revolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1,2,31,- 
066; in 1870, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union army 146,467 sol- 
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. ' Thomas Talbot, Republican, is 
Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 1 year. 

Michigan — Latin motto, Luehor, and Si quceris 'peninsulam 
amcenam circumspice, '''■ 1 will defend" — "If you seek a pleasant 
peninsula, look around you." Tlie name is a contraction of two 
Indian words meaning "Great Lake." It was early explored by 
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It 
is known as the " Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square 
miles. In 1800 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,181,059. 
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre- 
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov- 
ernor; politics, Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy Water." It 
has a French motto, V Etoile du Nord — " The Star of the North." 
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted 
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860 
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,511. She gave to the 
Union army 24;002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem- 
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J. S. Pills- 
bury, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Mississippi — Is an Indian name, meaning "Long River," and the 
State is named from the " Father of Waters." The State was first 
explored by De Sota in 1511; settled by the French at Natchez in 
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of 
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; in 1870,827,- 
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is 
the capital. Has 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential 
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word " muddy," which 


more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto 
is Salus populi sapreina lex esto^ " Let the welfare of the people 
be the supreme law." The State was first settled by the French 
near Jefferson City in 1719, and in 1821 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 
acres. It had a population in 1860 of 1,182,012; in 1870, 1,721,- 
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,162 soldiers. Capital, 
Jefferson City. Its inhabitants are known by the offensive cogno- 
man of '' Pukes." Has 13 representatives in Congress, and 15 
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics, Demo- 
cratic; salary, S5,000; term, 4 years. 

Nebraska — Has f ^r its motto, " Equality before the law." Its 
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal- 
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1S67. Its capital 
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870, 
123,993, and in 1875, 246,280. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but 
1 Representative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Kance, Repub- 
lican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; term, 2 years. 

Nevada — '' The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span- 
ish. Its motto is Latin, Volens et jpotens^ and means " willing 
and able." It was settled in 1S50, and admitted into the Union in 
1S64. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857; 
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,090 square miles. 
She furnished 1.080 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Has 1 Rep- 
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. H. Kinkhead, Republican ; 
salary, $0,000; term, 4 years. 

New Hampshire — "Was first settled at Dover by the English in 
1623. "Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is 
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the 
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles, 
which equals 9,239,200 acres. It had a population in I860 of 326,- 
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with 
33.913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Representatives 
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Republican, Governor; 
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

New Jersey — "Was named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the 
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was 
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig- 


inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,- 
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035 ; in 1870 it was 906,096. 
She put into the Federal army 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton. 
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor, 
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years. 

Ntw York. — The "Empire State" was named by the Duke of 
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto, 
Excelsior, which means "Still Higher." It was first settled by the 
Dutch in 1614: at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square 
miles, or 30,080,000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735; 
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States. 
Capital is Albany. It gave to defend our Government 445,959 
men. Has 33 members in, Congress, and 35 Presidential electors. 
Governor, L. Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years. 

North Carolina — Was named after Charles IX., King of France. 
It is called " The Old N"orth," or " The Turpentine State." It was 
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis 
I., King of France. It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 square 
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in ISGO a population of 
992,622, and in 1S70, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. She 
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem- 
bers in Conixi-ess, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z, B. 
Vance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

QJiio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary, 
and means "Beautiful." Its motto is Imperium in Iniperio — 
'•An Empire in an Empire." It was first permanently settled in 
1783 at Marietta by New Englanders. It was admitted as a State 
in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square 
miles, or 25,576,960 acres. Population in 1860, 2,339,511; in 1870 
it had 2.665,260. She sent to the front during the Rebellion 310,- 
654 soldiers. Has 20 Representatives, and 22 Presidential electors. 
Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto 
is Alls volat propriis — "She flies with her own wings." It was 
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was set- 
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859. 
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,274 square miles, equal 
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in 


1870,90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1 
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. W. Thayer, 
Republican, is Grovernor; salary, $1,500 ; term, 4 years. 

Pennsylvania. — This is the "Keystone State," and means "Penn's 
Woods," and was so called after William Penn, its original owner. 
Its motto is, "Virtue, liberty and independence." A colony was 
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original 
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,- 
000 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 2,906,215; and in 1870, 
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Rebellion, 338,155. Harris- 
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H. 
M.IIoyt, is Governor; salary, $10,000; politics. Republican; term 
of office, 3 years. 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to 
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said 
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly 
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1636. 
It was one of the original thirteen States, It has an area of 1,306 
square miles, or 835,840 acres. Its population in 18G0 numbered 
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248. 
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives, 
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Yanzandt is Governor; politics, 
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of 
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, Animis 
opib usque 2y<^'rati, "Ready in will and deed." The first permanent 
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French 
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a 
settlement. It is one of tJie original thirteen States. Its capital is 
Columbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,^^06,400 
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000. 
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential 
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 3^ears. 

Tennessee — Is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i, e^ 
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called 
"The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce." 
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak- 
ini? the sixteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution- 
ary War — Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It 


has an area of 45,600 square miles, or 29,184,000 acres. In 1860 
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1870, 1,257,983 She 
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Nashville is 
the capital. Has 10 Representatives, and 12 Presidential electors. 
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all tliat section of the country was known before it was ceded to the 
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set- 
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of 
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1836, when 
it gained its independence, and in 1845 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,- 
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 604,215; in 1870, 818,579. 
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O. 
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 

Yermont — Bears the French name of her mountains Verde Mont^ 
"Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and Unity." It 
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area 
10,212 square miles. Population in 1860, 315,098 ; in 1870, 330,55 1 • 
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont- 
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair- 
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the 
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 
the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his 
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic seraper 
tyrannis, " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James- 
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the 
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before 
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains 
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. The population 
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it w\as 1,224,830. Rich- 
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov- 
ernor, F. W. M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; term, 4 years. 

West Virginia. — Motto, Montani semper liber i., " Mountaineers 
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the 
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done 
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 



23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in I860 
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 4i5.616. She furnished 32,003. 
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. The Governor is H. M. Mathews, 
Democrat; term, 4 years; salary, $2,700, 

Wisconsin — Is an Indian name, and means *' Wild-rushinor 
channel," Its motto, Clvitatas successit barbaruni, " The civilized 
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State." 
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a settle- 
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay, It was admitted into the 
Union in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in 
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the 
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is 
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith; 
politics. Republican; salarj^ $5,000; term, 2 years. 



The first class of unfortunates to attract the notice of the legis- 
lature were the deaf mutes. The act establishino^ the institution for 
the education of these unfortunates was approved by Gov, Carlin, 
Feb. 23, 1839, the asylum to be located at Jacksonville. The 
original building, afterward called the south wing, was begun in 
1842, and completed in 1849, at a cost of about $25,000. A small 
portion of the building was ready for occupancy in 1846, and on 
the 26th day of January, of that year, the Institution was formally 
opened, with Mr. Thomas Officer as principal. The first term 
opened with but four pupils, which has increased from year to year, 
until the average attendance at the present time is about 250. 


In response to an appeal from the eminent philanthropist, 
Miss D. L. Dix, an act establishing the Illinois Hospital 
for the Insane, was approved by Gov. French, March 1, 1847". 
Nine trustees were appointed, with power to select a site, 
purchase land, and erect buildings to accommodate 250 patients. 
On the 1st of May the board agreed upon a site, 1^ miles 
from the court-house in Jacksonville. In 1851 two wards in 
the east wing were ready for occupancy, and the first patient 
was admitted Nov. 3, 1851. In 1869 the General Assembly passed 
two acts creating the northern asylum for the insane, and the 
southern asylum for the insane, which was approved by Gov. 
Palmer, April 16, 1869. Elgin was selected as a location for the 
former, and Anna for the latter. The estimated capacity of the 
three asylums is 1,200 patients. In addition to the State institu- 
tions for the insane, there are three other asylums for their benelit. 
one in Cook county, which will accommodate about 400 patients, 
and two private institutions, one at Batavia, and one at Jack- 


The experimental school for feeble-minded children, the first 
institution of its kind in the North-west, was created by an act 
approv:ed, Feb. 15, 1865. It was an outgrowth of the institution 
for deaf and dumb, to which idiots are frequently sent, under a 
mistaken impression on the part of parents, that their silence 
results from inability to hear. The selectiou of a site for tlie 

;; 3 iiiSTOKV of Illinois. 

building was intrusted to seven commissioners, who, in July, 18T5, 
agreed upon the town of Lincoln. The building was begun in 
1875, and completed three years later, at a cost of $154,209. The 
averajje attendance in 1878 was 22-1. 


The association for founding this institution was organized in 
May, 1858, and Pearson street, Chicago, selected for the erection 
of the building. In 1865 the legislature granted the institution 
a special charter, and two years later made an appropriatioa of 
$5,000 a year for its maintenance, and in 1871 received it into the 
circle of State institutions; thereupon the name was changed by 
the substitution of the word Illinois for Chicago. The buildinff 
was swept away by the great fire of 1871, and three years later the 
present building was completed, at a cost of $12,813. 


Is located at Carbondale. This University was opened in 1874, 
and occupies one of the finest school edifices in the United Spates. 
It includes, besides a normal department proper, a prejiaratory 
department and a model school. The model school is of an 
elementary grade; the preparatory department is of the grade of a 
high school, with a course of three years. The normal course of four 
years embraces two courses, a classical and a scientific course; both 
make the study of the English language and literature quite 


Located at Urbana, was chartered in 1867. It has a corps of twen- 
ty-five instructors, including professors, lecturers and assistants, 
and has an attendance of over 400 pupils. It comprises four 
colleges (1) Agriculture, (2) Engineering, (3) Natural Science, 
(4) Literature and Science. These colleges embrace twelve subor- 
dinate schools and courses of instruction, in which are taught 
domestic science and art, commerce, military science, wood engrav- 
ing, printing, telegraphy, photographing and designing. This insti- 
tution is endowed with the national land grant, and the amount of 
its productive fund is about $320,000. The value of its grounds, 
buildings, etc., is about $640,000. It is well supplied with appara- 
tus, and has a library of over 10,000 volumes. 


LiciMii r 






Tlie MUitary Tract. — At tlie close of the war betAvocn the United 
States and England in 1812 onr Government laid off a tract of lan<l 
in Illinois for the soldiers who ])artiei])ate(l in that war. The land 
thns a])propriated was enil,)raced in the region between the Missis- 
sippi and the Illinois rivers, and extended as far northward as the 
north line of Bnreaii and Henry connties. To it the name " Mili- 
tarv Tract" was given, and by that name this section is still 
known. Within this boundary is embraced one of the most fertile 
regions of the globe. Scarcely had Congress made the proper pro- 
visions to enable the soldiers to secure their land ere a few of the 
most daring and resolute started to j)ossess it. There were only a 
few, however, who at first regarded their '^'quarter-section" of suffi- 
cient value to induce them to endure the hardships of the pioneer 
in its settlement and improvement. Many of them sold their patent 
to a fine ''prairie quarter" in this county for one hundred dollars, 
others for less, while some traded theirs for a horse, a cow, or a 
watch, regarding themselves as just so much ahead. This was a 
source of no little trouble to the actual settlers, as shown further on 
in this volume, for they could not always tell which quarter of land 
belonged to a soldier, or which was "Congress land" and could be 
pre-empted. Even when a settler found a suitable location knoMU 
to be " patent land," with a desire to ])urchase, he experienced great 
difficulty in finding the owner, and often did not find him until he 
had put hundreds of dollars' wcn-th of improvements on it, when the 
patentee was sure to turn up. 

Fulton County. — The largest <if the counties contained in the Mil- 
itarv Tract is Fulton county, the history of which we now begin to 
write, and which we shall seek to make as detailed and accurate as 
accessible data will permit. That some errors will occur in names 
and dates, and some statements, cannot be denied, but studious (vare 



will be taken to avoid as many sii(3h inaccuracies as possible. The 
face of the conntiy of this county, save that portion bordering on 
Illinois river, is mostly rich, rolling prairie, watered by Spoon river, 
Coj)peras, Otter, Cedar, Buckheart, Big, Putjnan and Coal creeks, 
with their numerous and small tributaries, along which are exten- 
sive bodies of timber. The farmers have planted artificial groves 
extensively over the ])rairie, which has had the effect of ameliorating 
the climate, by kee])ing the winds of an open country from the sur- 
face of the earth. By the energy and enterprise of the citizens of 
this county it has been transformed from the native wilderness 
into one of the most attractive portions of the State, if not of the 
West. It is claimed that there is no spot on the face of the earth 
capal)lc of sustaining a denser population than the Military Tract; 
and those familiar with this beautiful portion of our State know 
that Fulton county is not excelled by any other within its boundary. 
That this county contains as intelligent, enterjn'ising and thrifty 
agriculturists as probably can be found elsewhere in the same breadth 
of territory in the Ignited States, few will deny. Fine barns, with all 
the modern improvements, comfortable dwellings, lawns, gardens, 
out-houses, etc., are to be found on every hand ; towns and cities 
have sprung up as if by magic, and every knoll is graced by a church 
edifice or school building. 

The natural resources of Fulton county, as above alluded to, for 
agricultural and manufacturing purposes, and marketing, give to 
the farmers and manufacturers of the county su])erior advantages. 
The agricultural interests of the county are well advanced. Indeed, 
it mav be said that Fulton is the great a<i:ricultural countv of Illinois. 
There is a larger nund)er of people living upon the farms of this 
county than reside in the rural districts of any other county of this 
great State. While there are a number of counties having a larger 
pojndation than Me have in Fulton county, yet all of those have 
within their boundaries large cities. Outside of the cities there is a 
greater population in Fulton than in any other county in the Prairie 
State. The soil is mostly rich ])rairie loam, and has great pro- 
ductive <pialities. It is mostly divided into farms of medium size, 
from 80 to o'H) acres ; but few large farms are to be found. The ben- 
efit of this is apparent by the increased population and a l)etter cul- 
tivation. The staple crops of cereals are corn, wheat and oats, which 
generally yield abundantly. This is the condition of Fulton ecninty 
at present. How ditt'erent when John Eveland with his family lo- 
cated within its borders ! Then these prairies were a vast wilderness 
covered with a i-ank growth of prairie grass, and much of the land 
now under a high state of cultivation was covered with heavy for- 
ests. At that time the native red men roamed unmolested over the 
flowery ])rairies and through dark forests. 

Before proceeding further in detailing the immediate history of 
the county we desire to mention a few important facts relative to the 
ante-pion(>er history of this section of the State. In 1673 the great 


French explorers, Marquette and Joliet, passed up the Illinois in 
canoes on their return from their famous voyage down the Missis- 
sippi. In 1680, January 3, LaSalle, with his little band of French- 
men, came down the Illinois river and landed upon the' opj)osite 
shore and erected a fort, — Fort Crevecteur. This fort was sotni 
evacuated and destroyed, yet the enterprising Frenchmen continued 
among the Indians as traders. In 1778 the French made another 
settlement, at the upper end of Peoria lake. The country in the 
vicinity of this lake was called by the Indians Piin-i-fc-iri, that is, 
a ])lace where there are many fat beasts. Here the town of Laville 
de Meillet, named after its founder, was started. Within the next 
twenty years, however, the town was moved down to the lower end 
of the lake to the j)resent site of Peoria. In 1812 the town was 
destroyed and the inhabitants carried away by Cai)tain Craig. In 
1813 Fort Clark was erected tliere by Illinois trooj)s engaged in the 
war of 1812. Five years later it was destroyed by fire. 

Year after year rolled by until almost a century and a half had 
passed since LaSalle stepped ashore from his skifl', before the aV)()rigi- 
nes who occupied the territory eml)raccd ^vithin the present l)oun(larv 
of Fulton county were molested by the encroachments of the whit(> 
man. Generation after generation of natives a})peared upon the 
wild scenes of savage life, roamed the forest and prairie, an<l 
glided over the beautiful, placid Illinois and Spoon rivers in tiieii' 
log and bark canoes, and passed away. Still the advance of civil- 
ization, the steady westward tread of the Anglo-Saxon, disturbed 
them not. The buffalo, deer, bear, and wolf roamed the ])rairie and 
woodland, tlie Indian tlicir only enemy. But nature had destined 
better things for this fertile region. She had been too lavisii in the 
distribution of natural advantages to leave it longer in the |)eaeeable 
possession of those who had for centuries refused to devehip, even 
in the slightest degree, any of her great resources. She accordingly 
directed hitherward the footsteps of the industrious, enter})rising 
pioneer; and so fertile was the soil, and so beautiful the flowers, so 
sparkling were the streams and shady the groves that, in advance of 
all the surrounding country, the pioneers sought and settled the 
timber land and prairie of Fulton county. 

The thrilling scenes through which the [)ioneer settlers passed in 
the settlement of this portion of Illinois must ever awaken emotions 
of warmest regard for them. To pave the way for those who fol- 
lowed after them, to make their settlement in the West a pleasure, 
they bore the Hood-tide wave of civilization ; they endured all, suf- 
fered all. But few of these spirits now survive ; they have passed 
away full of years and honors, leaving their children, and children's 
children and strangers to succeed them and enjoy the fruits of the 
toil, privations and savings of their long and eventful lives. 

Life with them is o'er, their hibors all are done, 
And others reap the harvest that they won. 


Too great honor cannot be accorded them, and we regret that we 
have not the data to speak more fully and definitely of them, their 
])ersf)nal experiences, their lives and their characters. 

Dr. Davison, the Hermit. — Undoubtedly the first white man to 
make his home within the present boundaries of Fulton county was 
Dr. W. T. Davison. The time of his settlement here is not known, 
but was at a very early date. We do not know positively that his 
name was W. T., but from all we can learn, those must have been 
his , initials. There was a "W. T." Davison who served on the first 
ffrand inrv ever chosen in the countv, and as we can find no record 
of another Davison living in the county at that time (1823), we 
must conclude that this grand juror was the eccentric Dr. Davison. 
He was leading the life of a hermit on the south bank of Spoon river 
near the present town of Waterford when first visited by John Eve- 
land, whom we may justly call the first legitimate settler of Fulton 
county. He thus continued to live for a few years here, absolutely 
refusino: to have anvthin*): to do with his neiohbors. A sketch of 
this most singular individual from the lips of the late Mrs. O. M. 
Ross has been jilaced on record, which we give below, knowing 
that from no other source could a more correct or complete account 
of him be obtained. 

Mrs. Ross has said, at the time of the birth of Abner E. 
Barnes, Mrs. Barnes being very sick, they sent fi)r Dr. Davison, he 
being the only physician within hundreds of miles. He sent back 
word that he would not go for the whole "Military Tract." Then 
Mrs. Ross and ^Irs. Eveland were sent for him, and l)v hard })er- 
suadino; thev induced him to make the visit, which thev thought 
saved the life of Mrs. Barnes. Mrs. Ross says he lived in a very 
small cabin, but all within was neat ; and from the appearance of 
things, such as fine bed-clothing, his own clothing having been the 
best and fashionably made and himself an educated man, he had 
once seen the bright side of life; but from what they could gather 
from the few remarks he had dropped, he had been disappointed by 
the lady he had expected to make his partner for life, which so de- 
pressed him and made him lose all confidence in the human family 
that he resolved to push westward so far that he would have no 
more associations with civilized man. Mrs. Ross also says that, 
from the clearing of his garden, the advancement of his bushes and 
shrubbery he had set out, his fiowers, etc., all convinced her that he 
had been living there for years, which undoubtedly makes Dr. Da- 
vison the first settler of Fulton county. In 1823, when Ossian M. 
Ross ran against William P]ads for Sheriif, the excitement was high, 
as it was a selection either from Le wisto wn or Peoria ; and as there were 
less than thirty voters, every vote told perceptibly in the result. In 
this excitement Dr. Davison was persuaded to go to Lewistown and 
deposit his first and only vote. He at that day took dinner with 
Mr. Ross, and remarked at the table how strange it was to eat a 
meal of victuals with his fellow men, which was something he had 


not done for many years. He pnrchasetl the walnut boards which 
were sawed in the short-lived saw-mill on Otter Creek in 1818, for 
his own coffin. He was very much annoyed by the encroachment 
of civilization, and about the year 1824 he (juietly gathered his few 
effects, with the material for his coffin, and })addled his canoe up the 
Illinois river, since which time his old neighbors have not heard 
from him. 

The late Dr. Reuben R. McDowell thought Dr. Davison to be an 
uncle of his wife's (of which there is no doul)t), and made extended 
inquiries into the history of his life ; but as the doctor has left no 
record of his research we can only obtain such information on this 
point as a few of the old settlers obtained from him. He came from 
Pennsylvania to this far western country, hoping, like the red men 
around him, never to be disturbed by the encroachment of the whites, 
or civilization. It is told by some that through the disappointment 
he met with by the young lady- whom he loved he lost confidence in 
the human family, and desired to have no more intercourse with any 
one. Another tradition is left to us as a reason for his adopting the 
life of a hermit, which is this : He joined the I'egular army and was 
sent into the Southern States. Being insulted while an officer of 
rank he challenged the officer who offended him to fight a duel. 
The affair of honor was fought, and the doctor killed his opponent. 
Through remorse, as mnch as the fear of the law, he sought the wild- 
erness of the banks of S}X)on river. We are also told that instead 
of having purchased lumber for his coffin he made one by digging it 
out of a log. Hon. L. W. Ross, of Lewistown, and Henry An- 
drews, of Canton, remember seeing Davison, and say he was a fine- 
looking man. He left in 1824 and went to Starved Rock, on the 
Illinois river near Peru, Avhere he died. He kept a journal, which 
was sent back to two sisters he had in Pennsylvania. This is all, 
after a careful research, that we are able to learn of Dr. W. T. 

John Ei'dand, the first actual settler, came with his family to what 
is now Fulton county in the spring of 1820. He landed half a 
mile north of the present town of Waterford, on the southeast 
quarter of section 10, Waterford township. He was from Kentucky, 
and came into Calhoun county. 111., where he had a brother living, 
a few years prior to his coming here. He was of the same type of 
Kentuckian as the famous explorer, Daniel Boone. He brought 
with him a large family, ])erhaps ten or twelve children. Among 
his children were John, Henry, Mace, William and Amos, the latter 
of whom but recently died in the old neighborhood. He lived on 
Spoon river but a few years when he moved to Buckheart township, 
where he soon died, and where his widow also died. There is now 
no building where he first settled. Mr. Eveland was a finely formed, 
square-built man, of l)ut little education, quiet and hospitable. He 
became a prominent man in the early history of Fulton county. He 
was appointed its first Treasurer, but declined the office. When he 


arrived in the county lie found besides Mr. Davison a man by the 
name of Statler. This individual was livino: in a rude boat floating 
on the bosom of Spoon river about where Waterford is now situated. 
He shortly afterwards left the country, and nothing more is known 
of him. At this time, it must be remembered, this county was a 
part of Pike eonnty, but it did not long so remain. 

A saw-mill was erected by a St. Lonis tirm, Craig ct Savage, on 
Otter creek, in Kcrton township, in 181<S. This tirm had sawed a 
a part of their first log when a sudden rise in the stream carried 
their mill away, and the site was abandoned. This ])erha})S was the 
iirst enterprise undertaken in the Military Tract. 

Oissi((n M. Tohn Eveland had scarcely got snugly settled 

in his new home on the banks of Spoon river ere Ossian M. Ross 
and-family came in to be his neighbors, and t<» wield a greater influ- 
ence in molding and forming the history of the county perhaps than 
anv other family that ever resided in it. Ossian M. Ross was b<n'n 
in \ew York State Aug. 10, 1790, and was united in marriage with 
Miss Mary Winans in Waterloo, X. Y., Jnly 7, 1811. Mrs. Ross 
was horn A))ril 1, 179o, in Morris county, X. J. Mr. Ross was a 
soldier in the war of 1812, and came to this section to secure the 
land triven him bv Government for services rendered as a soldier. 
In 1820 Mr. Ross with his family came to Alton, 111., and in the 
spring of the following year (1821), with his family and a few men 
employed by him to make improvements, sailed up the Illinois river 
to Otter creek in a keel-boat. It was his intention to locate upon 
the southeast (piarter of section 29, Isabel townshij). He with three 
companions came up from Alton the year previous (1820), ex- 
plored this country, and selected this place because there was 
a good mill-seat there. It was his intention to erect a water-mill 
on this stream at that point; Init after traveling up Otter creek for 
some distance in their cumbersome keel-boat thev came to a large 
tree fallen across the stream, which made a barrier that could 
not be passed over or around. These sturdy pioneers, hoM'ever, 
were not easily turned from their course. They made preparations 
to saw the log into pieces and remove it. This scheme was frustrat- 
ed, however, and the whole course of Mr. Ross' plans changed. A 
heavy rain fell during the night, and in the morning the log they 
intended sawing was six to eight inches under water and therefore 
out of reach of workmen. He ran his boat stern foremost back 
down Otter creek to the Illinois, ^uid up that stream to Spoon river. 
He entered this stream and started up its swift swollen waters for 
Mr. Eveland's, intending to go on to where he owned three quarter- 
sections of land. They experienced the greatest ditiiculty in ascend- 
ing this turbulent stream, made so by recent heavy rains. It 
consumed several days of constant hard labor to reach Eveland's. 
At ])laces men were put upon the bank and with ropes dragged the 
boat along. This Mas slow motive power and known as cordelling. 
Then they wf)uld get liold of the overhanging limbs of trees and 


pull the boat along in that way. They finally reached Eveland's, 
in whose cabin the party was welcomed. There they remained un- 
til his teams and stock arrived. These were brought across the 
country. Mr. Ross with his teams then started for his own land, 
where Lewistown now is. j\Ien were sent ahead to cut down trees 
and clear a road. On arriving at the end of the journey Mr. Ross 
iubilantlv exclaimed to his familv, "We are now on our own land." 
His daughter, Mrs. Steel, of Canton, who was then a little girl, 
quickly spoke up, "Why, pa, have we come all this distance just for 
this?" Xothing but a vast wilderness was s])read out before them 
and the little girl expected to find something wonderfully fine, else 
they would not have endured all the hardships that had befallen them 
on their long journey. There have been many hearts made sad by 
the disappointment received on their arrival into this county (hiring 
its first settlement when, after traveling for weeks through an al- 
most unbroken country, the husband and father would stop his jaded 
team under the boughs of a large tree many miles from the nearest 
white inhabitant and say, " Our journey's end is readied. This is 
our home. Alight." Surely, as it did to little JNIiss Ross, it must 
have seemed to the wife and little ones that they had come a long 
way to make their home in the wilderness among the wild beasts. 

In twenty-four hours after arrival Mr. Ross had a shelter made 
for his family. It consisted of poles set in the ground tent fashion 
and other poles laid across these and covered with bark. Harvey 
L. Ross, his son, says he distinctly remembers helj)ing carry bark to 
cover this shantv. Mr. Ross immediatelv set about buildinj): a log 
cabin, which was located where Major Newton Walker's residence 
now stands. He was so well pleased with the location of his land 
that he determined to lay off a town, which he did, and secured for it 
the county-seat for the county of Fulton when it was organized. 

Among those who came with Mr. Ross AvereMr. Nimon and wife. 
He was a blacksmith and lived here a long time. Mr. Ross also 
brought with him a shoemaker bv the name of Swetliup;. He and 
Nimon died many years ago, and were buried in the eastern part of 
Lewistown near where the old Presbyterian church stood, which 
was the first burying ground in the county. 

Fenuer Brothers. — Hon. L. W. Ross tells us that when they came 
to the county there were two brothers, Roswell and Reuben, by the 
name of Fenner, living at Eveland's. We find frequent mention 
made of these pioneers in the earliest records of tiie county. They 
were both unmarried men when they came to the county, but did 
not long remain so. A few years afterwards one of them was ar- 
rested for whipping his wife. Judge Stephen Phel})s, of Lewis- 
town, defended him, and declared that according to law and the 
scriptures a man had a right to chastise his wife. 

The Serc/eants and Barnes. — Theodore Sergeant, his brother, 
Charles Sergeant, David W. Barnes and William Blanchard, vet- 
erans of the war of 1812, at their discharge determined to come 


west. From Detroit, Mich., they went to Fort Wayne, whence 
they journeyed in a canoe to Vincennes, thence to St. Louis. From 
there they came up the Illinois in a keel-boat, manned by a fishing- 
crew, and commanded by a man named AVarner. They landed at 
Ft. Clark, now Peoria, in the spring of 1819. Crossing the river 
to what is known as the bottom lands they found a cleared spot, and 
with such tools as they could arrange from Avood put in a patch of 
corn and potatoes. This land is now em1)odied in Fond du Lac 
township, Tazewell eounty. Looking farther down they found an 
old French field of about ten acres, upon which they erected a rude 
habitation. This was the firet settlement between Ft. Clark and 
vicinity and Chicago, and theirs was the first dwelling erected. 

These daring ex])lorers were looking up the "l)0unty land" Con- 
gress had given them, which was in the ^Military Tract. Learning 
the location of his land Sergeant soon made a trip to Fulton county 
to look at it. He found it to be located in the breaks on Big creek, 
several miles south of Canton. This was not a desirable location. 
He reported to his com})anions, however, that there were fine lands, 
good timber and plenty of water a few miles north of his land, and 
advised them to come and settle there. Accordingly, in 1821, 
Charles and Theodore and D. AV. Barnes came to Fulton county 
and made a temporary settlement near the mouth of Spoon river. 
Li 1830 Blanchard moved to Woodford county, where he yet 

Theodore and Charles Sergeant, John Pixley and Henry Andrews 
lived with D. W. Barnes at Ft. Clark (now Peoria). The latter, 
a brother-in-law of Barnes, had lost both his parents while living at 
Ft. Clark. Pixley had served in the war of 1812, and was a brav^, 
daring man. One day a stalwart Indian in boasting of his bravery, 
of having killed men, women and children, said he had once taken 
a little child by the heels and beat its brains out on the corner of a 
cabin. He boasted thus to Pixley and others and told how the little 
creature raised its hands, quivering. This the brutal savage thought 
showed bravery. There were two hundred Indians around and but 
eight white men ; l)ut this did not deter the plucky Pixley from 
giving the Indian a good whipping. He had bought a rawhide, 
at St. Louis, and when the Indian finished his story he took the 
rawhide down from between the clapboards of the roof of their cabin, 
and lit u])on the Indian and threshed him till the blood spurted from 
his mouth. He flogged him most severely, and so fearless and reso- 
lute was he that not an Indian raised an objection. 

While Mr. Barnes and his companions lived at Ft. Clark the In- 
dians threatened to kill the whites during a certain moon. The In- 
dians then reckoned time by moons. If they owed a debt it was 
due at a certain moon. The Indians being offended determined 
to kill the whites. There were but eight or ten men, mostly young 
soldiers of the war of 1812, to i)i-otect the women and children. The 
moon arrived and a slaughter was expected. The women and 


chiklren were put in Barnes' cabin and tlie latch string pulled in, 
while the men with their trusty rifles stood outside. They sent 
word for the Indians to come on, but their courage subsided before 
the superior courage of the whites, 

Barnes with his family came on to Lewistown and became the 
neighbor of O. M. R^)ss. While living at this place Mr. Barnes 
hauled a load of salt from the mouth of Spoon river, where the 
river craft had frozen up, to Ft. Clark. This was a perfectly wild 
country and of course no roads. He made this trij), which con- 
sumed several davs, and in remuneration received one bushel of salt. 
This was a most precious article at that time, and indeed for many 
years afterwards. 

AVhile residing at Lewistown the Indians would steal his pota- 
toes and everything else they could get their hands upon. One 
niffht while an Indian was stealiui)- his iiotatoes he was attacked l)v 
their watch dog, which tore from his blanket a small piece. This 
was a clue for Mr. Barnes to use in finding the thief. He took the 
piece and went among the Indians, and finally found a red man with 
a blanket that had in it a hole the size and shape of the piece he had. 
This brave he concluded was the thief, which he proved to be. 

Mr. Barnes soon left Lewistown and located two and a half miles 
north of the present city of Canton. He traded 80 acres of land he 
owned in the upper part of Lewistown for the 1(50 acres he located 
upon in Canton township. He made this trade because he was get- 
ting; crowded at Lewistown and all was a vast wilderness at Canton. 
Mr. Henry Andrews remembers very distinctly this move. He was 
a small l)oy and ran along in the Indian trail behind the wagon, and 
ifot so far behind at one time that he became verv much frightened 
lest he be left. He also remembers very distinctly the time two In- 
dians came to their cabin shortly after they had settled in their 
new home, to stay all night. They were traveling toward Chicago, 
and it being in the fall of the year the weather was cool and they 
did not like to sleej) out in the cold if they could get a cabin to rest 
in. Barnes' cabin contained only one room, yet they permitted the 
two red men to stay with them. They alighted from their ])onies, 
gave Mrs. Barnes, the chomokoman's wife as they called her, a quar- 
ter of a deer and passed into the house. They set their guns up in 
the corner, hung up their bullet ])ouch, tomahawk, and scalping 
knives, and lay down before the large fire-place. They cut oft' a 
large piece of venison, j)ut it on a stick and fixed it before the fire. 
During the night they would occasionally turn it, thus cooking it 
thoroughly. This they intended should last them several days. We 
fear there are few of the present day who would permit two tram])s 
to sleep in the same room they do even without all the implements 
of death at hand, as these Indians had. They might have arisen 
and murdered the entire househfdd, and many days, perhaps months 
hav^e elapsed before any other white man would have known of it. 


Those pioneers were fearless and had much more confidence in their 
red neighbors than we are wont to believe. 

Mr. Barnes lived on the very frontier. His was the last cabin 
travelers passed on the road to Ft. Clark and the first they met go- 
ing,' south. It was therefore a stopping- place for travelers going 
both ways. Judge Stephen Phelps, who was living at Lewistown, 
was traveling toward Chicago. With him were his wife and daughter. 
They stopped for the night at Barnes' caVjin. The cabin was small 
and the night warm, and Miss Emily Phelps, the daughter, took her 
blanket out doors and spread it under the boughs of a tree and 
passed the night alone in the forest. There are but few of the 
young ladies of to-day who woidd not shrink from making their bed 
in such a spot. 

When Mr. Barnes left Lewistown lie also left the only blacksmith 

• shop in this whole region of country. Mr. Henry Andrews tells us 

he remembers Mr. Barnes shouldering up the plowshare of his 

large prairie breaking ])low and going M'ith it, on foot, to Lewistown 

to the blacksmith shop. 

It may seem strange, but the very earliest settlers suffered from 
want of meat. The Indians had driven game almost entirely awav 
and the wild liog had not yet apjieared. Mr. Andrews tells us that 
a lady at Lewistown (they were known as neighbors then, although 
fifte(»n miles away ) sent to one of their neighbors at Canton one- 
half of a brant. Meat was then a great luxury, and this piece of 
fowl Mr. Andrews savs seemed to be worth an ox. It, though 
so small, was divided among the settlers at Canton. He also tells 
us he went to a neighbor's on a visit at one time and the only food 
set before him, or the family, was boiled potatoes and salt, and this 
latter article was very scarce. He also says that during the first 
settlement of this county men wore moccasins and buckskin pants 
and shirts and coonskin caps almost altogether, li' they had a cot- 
ton or woolen shirt it was worn only on important occasions. 
When Eliza Andrews, a sister of Henry Andrews, died, they had 
no lumber out of which to make a c(»ffin, but dug a receptacle for 
the body out of a log. 

During the great txalena-lead-jnines excitement in 1827 Mr. 
Barnes went to Galena. He did not reniain long but returned to his 
home near Canton. 

tSerf/cani's Wcddin;/. — Barnes was the only married man in tlic 
party (from Fort Clark) and Sergeant lived ^vith Barnes un- 
til his marriage, Nov. o, 1824, when he was united with Miss 
Mary Brown. This was one of the earliest weddings of the 
county, and the following interesting description of it was fur- 
nishetl Mr. Swan by Henry Andrews, a member of the wedding 

" This wedding was a great event in the Barnes neigh- 
borhood. It occurred at the cabin of Daniel Brown, the father of 
the bride. All the neighbors were invited, and probably all were 


assembled in the cabin ; still, though small, it was not nearly full. 
The bride was gorgeously appareled in a checked linsey homespun 
dress, a three-cornered handkerchief about her neck, and ^ her feet 
encased in moccasins. The groom also wore moccasins, and a full 
suit of new linsey, colored with butternut bark. The guests were 
dressed much the same and were seated upon [)uncheon benches 
around the sides of the cabin. Captain Barnes, at that time County 
Commissioner, performed the marriage ceremony with due and be- 
coming dignity. At the conclusion of the ceremony all the gentle- 
men present saluted the bride. When this ceremony was com- 
pleted, old Mr. Brown produced a ' noggin ' of whisky and a 
bran-new tin cup — then considered a very aristocratic drinking-ves- 
sel — and passed the customary beverage to all present. All drank 
from the cup, filling it from the 'noggin ' when em])ty, and passing 
it from hand to hand until again empty. The liquor soon began to 
make the guests merry, and jokes and songs were considered to be 
in order, (xeorue Matthews, a gav old bachelor, was considered a 
fine ballad-singer, and sang a song that would scarcely be considered 
appropriate on a festive occasion at this day. Mr. Andrews gives 
from memorv two verses of the ballad: 

"There's the silly old man 

Of a hundredand twenty, 
Who pines on his riches. 

Though stores he has plenty. 

"He'll exchange all his riches. 

His lands and his rents, 
For a worm-eaten coffin, 

A hundred years hence. 

" This song was vigorously a]>])lauded, and was followed by sev- 
eral others of the same sort. The partv dispersed about eleven 

Sergeant would have been united in marriage sooner than he was, 
and then would have been the first man married in the county "had 
the old lady been willin'." He made a proposal for the hand of the 
lady for whom it is claimed the honor of being the first woman 
married in the county. AVe take his story of his proposal from 
Swan's Canton History : 

^' I had made up my mind that I ought to have a housekeeper, 
and accordingly had mv eve out for one. Somehow I heard that 
there was an old lady living d<twn toward the mouth of S])oon riv- 
er bv the name of AVent\V(»rth, who had some gals that wanted to 
marry ; so I concluded I would go down and see about it. I did so, 
and on arriving there at once made mv business known to old Mrs. 
AVeutworth. The old lady looked me over, with the air of a judge 
of the article she wanted', and began her catechism by asking me 
what I followed, my age, and where I was from. I told her that I 
was twenty-nine years old, had been five years a soldier, and thought 
I could manage a wife ; that I was from Barnes' settlement, was 


opening a farm, and wanted a gal to help me pull through the start. 
The old lady f^hook her head and informed me that I would not suit 
her gals, as she had made up her mind that they should all jnarry 
store-keepers. I told her, if that was the ease I reekoned her gals 
would not suit me, as I wanted one that would })ull with me on the 
start. Sero-eant returned to Canton from this unsuceessful wooino- 
and reported the result to the few young men in that part of the 
county. They at once determined to get even with the family whose 
notions were so aristocratic. There was an occasional peddler, 
named Clark, who came through the county on horseback, carrying 
needles, thread and other small wares in a sack, dividing his stock 
into ecpial ])roportions and balancing it over his saddle. This Clark 
was the first ])eddler who visited the county. Clark was not a man 
of much force of character, and it was determined to send him after 
the Wentworth girls. He readily acceded to the proposition, and 
soon visited Mrs. AV. In reply to her interrogations, Clark in- 
formed the old lady that he resided in Peoria, and sold goods for a 
livelihood. This tilled the old lady's bill, and she at once gave her 
daughter to Clark in marriage ; and Sergeant thinks theirs was the 
first wedding celebrated in the county. Tt took place a few weeks 
])rior to Sergeant's wedding. 

''George S. McConnell, however, relates an incident connected 
with the first court held in the county, and the spring or early sum- 
mer of the same year, which establishes the fact that Clark's could 
not have been the first wedding, as at that court a couple were di- 
vorced, the woman l)eing a sister of the Tottens, and the same nigiit 
the divorced woman was married to one of the jurors, by the name 
of Williams, who had tried the cause." 

"When my commission comes.'' — The following certificate whether 
true or not is certainly rich. It was ])ublished in a history of Illi- 
nois as early as 1837, and the author of that claims to have copied it 
from a historv of Peoria countv. It therefore is nothinp; new, and 
might be accredited owing to its age if for nothing else. The Jus- 
tice of the Peace, O. M. R., we suppose was none other than Ossian 
M. Ross, the well-known founder of Lewistown. We give it with 
the writer's comments as copied in the old liistory of 1837, from the 
History of Peoria county : 

"Examining a land title the other day which involved a question 
of legitimacy, I stumbled upon the following marriage certificate, 
which is decidedly too good to be lost, and is literally bona fide. Th.e 
marriage, of which this is the only legal evidence, took place in Cop- 
peras precinct (now in Fulton county ), in the infancy of the county, 
or rather in ])rimitive times, and the magistrate ought to l)e immor- 
talized, whether he gets his commission or not:" 

State ok Illinois, ) 
Peoria County J " 

To all the World Greeting : — Know ye, that John Smith and Poly Myers is 
hereby entitled to go together and do as old folks does anywhere inside of 


Copperas precinct, and when my commision comes I am to marry 'em good, 
and date 'em back to kiver accidents. 

[ L. s. ] 0. M. R- — , Justice Peace. 

f)fhfr s'^efflers. — In 1822 James and Charles Gardner, with a com- 
panion, loft Sano^amon eonnty for Fnlton. The party crossed the 
Illinois river at Peoria, where they found three settlers, John L. 
Bogardns, Capt. Eads and Aqnila Moifatt. They journeyed on 
and met no other white person until they arrived at Lewistown. 
Thev explored the county and found a suitable location on section 
34, Isabel township, where they sowed some garden and apple seed. 
They then returned to Sangamon after their families. They were 
ferried over the Illinois at Havana by John Eveland. In the spring 
of 1823 Messrs. Gardner, assisted by a Mr. Higgins, built a flat-boat 
on the Sanwimon river in which thev moved to their new homes. 
Duriug the summer of 1823 the flat-boat was taken for a ferryboat 
at Havana, and old Mr, Scoville was the first ferryman. 

Charles Gardner returned to Sangamon county about twenty years 
ago and there died. James died here a few years ago. Their |>ar- 
ents, who came with them when they first moved to this county, 
passed the remainder of their lives here. 

Besides these pioneers there were others who cauie in shortly after- 
wards. Among these were licJ^ert Reeves, who settled on Keeves' 
Prairie, Deerfield townshi]), in 1823. William Totteu located on 
T(jtten's Prairie, Cass township, the same year, and about the same 
time came Roswell Tyrrell and John Totten, who settled upon the 
same section. Thomas Cameron came the following vear ( 1 S24 ). 
Joshua Moore settled in Joshua townshij), from whom it received its 
name, in 1824. He was closely followed in that townshi]^ by I^evi 
D. Ellis, who in 1823 moved to Ellisville township and was its 
first settler. Reading Putman settled on section 2, Putman town- 
ship, in 1828, and Stephen Chase settled in the southern part of the 
township the same year. 

The FIr.sf Mall Carrien^. — Harvey L. Ross, a sou of Ossian M. 
Ross, and now a resident of Macomb, 111., at the age of 15 years 
was employed to carry the mail from Springfield to Monmouth, a 
distance of one hundred and thirty-five miles, making a tri]) each 
week. He would often have to swim streams three or four times 
each day with the mail-bag stra])ped across his shoulders. At that 
time (1832) there Mas no direct road from Knoxville to Monmouth, 
a distance of twenty miles, and not a single house between the two 
])oints. His only guide along the route was ])oints of tindier. He 
tells us that he still has a vivid recollection of the imminent danger 
he found himself in one stormy night in January, when in the vi- 
cinity of the present city of Galesburg he heard a pack of hungry 
wolves set up a tremendous howling a few rods behind him. It 
may be imagined that the young hero, in that vast wilderness on a 
mid-winter night with wild and savage beasts howling on every 
iiand, lost no time in reaching the end of his journey. The only 


postoffices along the route were Springfield, Sangamon Town, New 
Salem, Havana, Lewistown, Canton, Farmington, Knoxville and 
Monmouth. Abraham Lincoln, our martyr President, was then 
])ostmaster of Xew Salem, receiving his aj)pointment on the recom- 
mendation of (^ssian M. Ross, who Mas one of the oklest postmas- 
ter-; in the country, and the only postmaster at that time within the 
boundaries of the present ]\Iason county. After Harvey L. Koss 
had carried the mail over that long, dangerous and desolate route 
for a considerable time, his father let out a part of the route to Ma- 
lon AVinans, an uncle of Mr. Ross'. Mr. Winans, who lived at 
Lewistown, was given that part of the line from Lewistown to Mon- 
mouth. AVinans had a son that he intended to put upon the route, 
but concluded to go over it himself first tliat he might make all 
necessary arrangements fi)r stopping-places. Rut his first trip was 
his last, for in attempting to swim Spoon river with the mail-bag 
strap])ed to his back he was drowned. This was in 1834 and was 
the first death to occur in Truro township, Knox countv. His 
body was afterwards fimnd in a drift of wood one-half mile beh)W 
the crossing. A coffin was made by the settlers l)y splitting a log 
lengthAvise and hollowing it out, using one part as the body of the 
coffin and the other jiart the lid. Ry these kind but strange hands 
a grave was dug ujion the bank of the river beneath the boughs of a 
young iiickory tree and the l)ody of Mr. ^^'inans placed therein. 
L^])on the trunk of the tree the letters "P. W." were cut and are vis- 
ible to this day. They made a mistake in the initial of his given 
name, in making it "P" instead of 'OL" 

.4 Trddiin/ Erpcrllfion. — Harvey Tj. Ross in his youthful davs was 
fond of hunting and trading with the Indians. When l)ut 
seven years of age he had killed wild turkeys, geese and small game 
of almost everv kind, and at twelve thoui^ht nothini>- of killing; a 
deer. He says he also remembei-s catching twelve wolves in less 
than a month in steel-tra])S ])laced near a dead horse. He relates 
some incidents of the first trading expedition in which he was en- 
gaged, which occurred in 1828. He started from I^ewistown in 
company with Eldward Plude, a Frenchman and Indian interpreter, 
and "Rill" Elveland, son of John Eveland spoken of elsewhere in 
this volume. P^veland was a large, powerful man, well ac([uainted 
with the country and familiar with the Indian character. They 
loaded a two-horse wagon, at Lewistown, with goods and traveled 
through what is now known as Knox and Peoria counties, where 
they found a large number of Indians and traded their goods to ad- 
vantage. They returned home with their wagon loaded with furs 
and deerskins. They were gone three weeks and had traveled about 
one hundred and fiftv miles, meeting: onlv with two white settlers 
after leaving the neighborhood of Canton. 

Frightened by Indians. — In speaking of Indians Mr. Ross tells us 
he cannot remember of ever being frightened by the Indians but 
once. In 1825, when but eight years of age, his father sent him to 


an old shoemaker by the name of Stephen Meeker, livino- about four 
miles east of Lewistown, to have some work done. In coming home 
with a sack of shoes across his horse, and when he had traveled 
about half the distance along- the little path through heavy timber and 
thick underbrush, he came suddeidy upon live or six redskins, who 
were sitting upon the ground. One of the Indians jum])ed up and 
made a grab at his bridle reins, l)ut young Ross turned his horse 
(piickly around; and giving him a cut with his whip, hurried back 
to Meeker's and related his story. Meeker at once took down his 
rifle, loaded it, and cutting a hickory club, went back with him. 
When the Indians saw^ Meeker with his rifle and club they com- 
menced to apologize, stating that they were not going to hurt the 
bov. They had been to Lewnstown to trade and had been drinking, 
and ])robaV>ly only desired to see what was in the sack and scare the 
voung traveler. 

The earlv recollections of Mr. Koss are many indeed, and his ex- 
perience in pioneer life in Fulton county was proliably greater than 
that of any man now living. He remembers partaking of a piece 
of fat bear, in 1(S29, killecl by Andrew Laswell near the present 
town of Cuba. 

Thv Battle of ^la/oni/'.^ Fcrri/. — The advance guard of civilization, 
those fearless persons who boldly strike into the Avildness of a 
new conntrv aixl open the road for the sturdy settlers, encounter 
hardship'^ and dangers which can but faintly be pictured in word- 
painting. Those who first came into this county met the red man 
in his wigwam or on the chase. Indeed, Indians were numerous for 
many years after the county was settled, and, although friendly, 
were often quite troub]esom(\ 

In 1828, about the middle of May, John Walters, Norman Scho- 
field, Edward Stocking, Simon Kelsey, and an old man by the name 
of Ensign, came up the Illinois on their little river craft to Malony's 
ferrv at the mouth of Spoon river. They brought with them from 
St. Louis a barrel of whisky for Mr. Malony, the accommodat- 
ing gentleman who carried the pilgrims over the Illinois at that 
point, ^\lliskv, it must be remembered, was considered an indis- 
j)ensable article for the household and the most desirable and ])rofit- 
able commodity for tavern-kee])ers. Then, as now, however, it was 
a source of no little trouble and many bruised heads. The men 
landed at the ferry but found no one there. Mr. Malony and his 
sons were back in the timber cutting wood. They rolled the barrel 
of li(pi(tr upon the ferryboat, left it and started overland for Lewis- 
town. After proceeding abont a mile and a half from the ferry 
William Nichols came running after them for help. No sooner had 
the barreLof whisky been landed and the little band departed, than 
twenty-six or 'seven Indians w^ere attracted to it, by its fumes 
we suppose; any way, just as Malony appeared u])on the scene from 
the timber he found his barrel of whisky standing on end with two 
or three stalwart braves making a desperate effort to break in the 


head. A score of anxious redskins stood around jubilant over the rich 
bootv they had found. Malony could do nothing more than give 
them all to drink. A band of drunken Indians are the most des- 
])crate and uncontrollable of all beings. The worst wa< feared and 
therefore Nichols had been sent to obtain hel]). The squaws antici- 
pated trouble and hurriedly secreted all of their guns. The men, five 
in number, — although Mr. Ensign, who wore spectacles owing to his 
short-sightedness, was feeble and could do but little, — all started 
back for the ferry with their canes in their hands ready for an emer- 
gencv. Schofield could speak the Indian language, and on their ar- 
rival at the ferry told the Indians to leave. This enraged them, and 
thev swore bitterly at the whites and told them to leave. At this 
Schofield, fearless of consequences, knocked the leading speaker down. 
This was the signal for the fray to begin, and every man went to 
knocking right and left with his cane. The Indians were " pretty 
full," but the eifects of the liquor had not fully reached the brain. 
The whites fi)ught their multiplied foe with great desperation. Some 
vears previous Kelsey had l)een shot in the knee, and when he Avould 
exercise it hard it would give down. He was in great danger and 
started to run to save himself, but fell, overtaken by two drunken 
redskins. Walters, who was oft* some distance, Avas attracted by the 
cries of Kelsey, He saw one of the braves with knife in hand reach- 
to thrust his victim through. He was fieet of foot and daslied to- 
ward the trio, and just as the drunken savage raised his knife fi)r its 
deadly work he struck him over the head with iiis cane, knocking 
him down and thus savinir the life of Kelsev. In doiiiii' this, how- 
ever, he placed himself in danger, for in striking the Indian his 
cane flew from his hands. Seeing this the other Indian took after 
him. Walters proved the fleetest runner and widened the distance 
between them. While running up a hill he gathered up a stone 
which he hurled at his ])ursuer with such force and accuracy as to 
" fetch his head and knees togetiier." This gave him an opportunity 
ttt run back after his cane, which he took advantage of and secured 
his trusty weapon. The battle was short but fierce, and the whites 
proved the victors. Mr. Walters tells us that his brother William, 
an old and respected settler of this county, who died only recently, 
wore that very cane for fi)rty years. For years it bore the marks r(>- 
ceived when it struck doAvn the brutal savage who was about to 
end Kelsey's life. This was the kind of a reception these gentlemen 
received ujion their introduction into Fulton county. 

Trouble in Scftliii;/ f/ic MUitury Tract. — The "^lilitary Tract" com- 
prises all the land between the Illinois and the Mississippi rivers 
south of the north line of Bureau and Henry counties. It is so 
called because much of it was "jiatented" by Government, in quar- 
ter sections, to soldiers of the war of 1812. There was scarcely a 
soldier in that early day who counted his land of much value, and 
ever thought to occupy it himself; but inunigrants came in, entered 
Government lands and squatted on "patent" or military land, im- 


J, /(./^<Y^ll 


■■ILil/MI t 


'^^■inniTY OF ILLINOIS. 


proved it, and thus rendered it valual)le. Tt Avas seldom that a 
'•patentee" could be found at tlie time of settlement, and many of 
the early settlers presumed that the owner never would be known ; 
but in manv instances, after a patent quarter-section Avas made val- 
uable by improvement, the orio:inal patent would be brought on by 
some one, Avho would oust the occupant and take possession, some- 
times paying him something for his improvements and sometimes 
not. Manv holders of patents had no pity. This condition of af- 
fairs presented a temptation to merciless ''land-sharks," who would 
come into this section and work uj) cases, ostensibly for the original 
patentees, but really for their own pockets. The most notorious of 
these was one Toliver Craig, who actually made it a business to 
forge patents and deeds. This he carried on extensively from 1847 
to 1854, especially in Knox and Fulton counties. He had 40 bogus 
deeds put on record in one day at Knoxville. He was arrested in 
New York State in 1854, by O. M. Boggess of Monmouth, and 
taken to the jail at Cincinnati, Ohio, where he attempted suicide by- 
arsenic ; but at the end of a year he was released on bail. 

When the Military Tract was laid off into counties, most of them 
were named in honor of the military heroes of the nation, mostly 
of the war of 181*2 ; but Fulton county, the largest one in the 
Military Tract, was not christened in honor of a soldier-hero. Its 
name is not a symbol of blood- and battle. It is true that our na- 
tion was born in blood and saved by blood, and the memoiy of 
those brave heroes should be commemorated; l)ut there are other 
illustrious heroes, who knew not \var, e(|ually deserving. Among 
these stand in the front the great inventive genius, Robert Fulton, 
in honor of whom Fulton county was named. We deem it fitting 
to give a brief personal sketch of this gentleman, whose name this 
county wears. 

Robert Fulton was born near Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, in 1765. 
His father, an Irish tailor, came to this country in early life, and 
soon retired to a farm in Lancaster county. The father of Benjamin 
West, the celebrated artist, and the father of Robert Fulton were 
neighbors and warm friends. At the age of twenty-one Rob- 
ert left home and sailed for England to seek instruction from Benja- 
min AVest. He remained with liim for several years ; but, although 
an excellent draughtsman, a good colorist, and a diligent workman, 
he had not the artist's imagination or temperament. His mind was 
mechanical ; he loved to contrive, to invent, to construct ; and we 
find him, accordingly, withdrawing from art and busying himself 
more and more with mechanics, until at length he adopted the 
profession of civil engineering. Robert Fulton was not the in- 
ventor of the steam-boat. It is, nevertheless, to his knowledge of 
mechanics, and to his resolution and perseverance, that the world is 
indebted for the final triumph of that invention. His attention was 
called to the subject by the operations of John Fitch, the inventor 
of the steam-boat, in 1785. Next, fifteen years later, Fulton visit- 




ted a steam-boat in Scotland. He then fell in Avith Chancellor Liv- 
ingston, American minister to France, and constructed a boat and 
propelled it by steam upon the Seine in France. This was not a 
success. He then returned to Xew York and built the famous 
Clermont. On Monday, Sept. 10, 1807, he left New York for Al- 
bany on his famous trial trip. He was laughed at and jeered, but 
at one o'clock the Clermont moved from the dock, vomiting smoke 
and sparks from her pine-wood fires. She reached Albanv Wednes- 
day at five o'clock. Returning immediately to New York, she made 
the trip in thirty hours, — exactly five miles an hour. Fulton devot- 
ed the rest of his life to the improvement of the steam-boat, and 
lived to see his labors universally recognized, and acquired a consid- 
erable fortune. He died Feb. 24, 1815, aged fifty years, and his 
remains were consigned to Trinitv Church vard in the eitv of New 



Early Preachers. — Je.sse Williams and Peter Cartwright were 
among the earliest preachers of the county. John M. Ellis was, 
however, not much if at all behind them in paying attention to this 
field. There were in the vicinity of Canton a good many Regular 
Baptists, who organized a church in the Eveland neighborhood at 
quite an early day, probably before, certainly not later than, 1825. 
We take the following from Canton History : 

"James Tatum, one of their pioneer preachers, used to edify his 
congregation by relating his call to preach, in the words and figures 
that follow, to wit : 

"'My dearly beloved brethering-ah and sisters-ah, my blessed 
master-ah has called me to dispense his everlasting gospel-ah. 
For one night-ah, in a vision, in a vision of the night-ah, I 
dreamed-ah that I had swallowed a stiflF-tongued four-horse wagon 
-ah, and me thought-ah that the tongue of the wagon-ah was 
a stickin' out of my mouth-ah, and the chains were hanging down 
beside my chin-ah, and the chains were a rattlin'-ah, and the 
tongue was a waggin'-ah ; and my beloved brethering-ah and sis- 
ters-ah, I knowed that God had called me to preach his everlasting 
gospel-ah ; and I'm a-goin' to preach it-ah until the day that 
I die-ah. 

" The same preacher exemplified the doctrine of ' once in grace, 
always in grace', in this wise: 

"'My dear brethering and sisters-ah, when a -soul is once con- 
verted-ah, it allers stays converted-ah. Its just like me the other 
day-ah. I was going to Canton-ah, and as I rid past old Mr. 
Eggers-ah, old sister Eggers ran out-ah, and she hollered, ' Broth- 
er Tatum-ah, won't you take a coon-skin to town-ah, and sell it 
and buy me a plug of smokin' terbacker-ah ? ' And I said, ' Sartiu, 
sister Eggers-ah ; ' and I took the coon-skin-ah, and when I 
got to town I tried to sell it to Joel Wright-ah, but he said coon- 
skins wern't of much account now-ah, and he wouldn't buy it-ah ; 
so I took it to Mr. Stillman-ah, and he wouldn't buy it ueither-ah ; 
then I tried to give it to Mr. Stillman-ah, and he wouldn't have it 
-ah, and then I took it back to Joel Wright-ah, and tried to give 
it to hini-ah, but he wouldn't have it neither-ah. So I bought 


sister Eggers a plug of terbacker-ah, and tied the coon-skin to my 
saddle-ah, a thinkin' for to lose it-ah, and I started for to go back 
-ah, and when I got most back to sister Eggers-ah, I heard some- 
body behind me a hoUerin', "Mr. Tatum-ah, Mr. Tatum-ah ;" and 
mv brethering and sisters-ah, when I looked back-ah, I seed a 
man a comin'-ah with that very coon-skin in his haud-ah, a 
hollerin' " Mr, Tatum-ah^ you've lost your coon-skin-ah." And so 
mv brethering and sisters-ah, it is with religion ; you can't sell it- 
ah, vou can't give it away -ah, and you can't lose it.'" 

fraininy Day. — The following graphic account of the first train- 
ing Harrison P. Fellows witnessed in Illinois is but a picture of 
others, and will illustrate the scenes of training day much better 
than we could describe them. AVe take the stor^', as furnished by 
Mr. Fellows, from the Canton History. 

" It Avas in the summer of 1830, we had just moved to the coun- 
trv, and my father, Hiram Fe}lows, had rented part of Captain 
Haacke's house. I soon found out in some way that Haacke was 
a captain of a militia company ; and as I had some knowledge of 
militia captains in Xew York, where we came from, I was tilled 
with an intense awe of the Captain. One day I mustered up cour- 
age to ask him if I might see them muster some time, and received 
akiud and cordial invitation to accompany him to the next training. 
I was in ecstasies, and looked forward with great anxiety to the ex- 
pected day. It came at last, and the Captain notified me to be ready 
by the time he was. I ran into our part of the house, and, I tell 
vou, it was but a short job for me to wash, change my shirt, comb 
my hair, and make my appearance in the front yard to await the 
coming of the Captain and his regimentals. I did not venture to 
go into Haacke's part of the house, but timidly peeped through a 
crack in the door, to get a sight at the gorgeous trappings with 
which, I had no doubt, he would be arraying himself. It is said 
that great men never appear well at their toilet, and I must have 
verified the observation, as I remember going back to mother tell- 
ing her I guess Captain Haacke was not much of a captain after 
all ; any how he did not dress up like one. 

" In due time the Captain presented himself in readines-; for the 
parade-ground. Let me try to describe his dress. On his head he 
wore a hat of home-braided wheat straw, the braid was notched and 
the crown round. There was a band around it of red calico, with 
loose ends several inches in length floating in the breeze. His coat 
was made of homespun blue jeans, cut long in the skirts, — so long, 
indeed, I fancied that he was in danger of throwing himself, by 
stepping on his own coat-tail. This coat was closely buttoned be- 
fore with old-fashioned brass buttons, placed at intervals of perhaps 
two inches apart. The collar was short, stiff and standing, the up- 
per end resting under his broad hearty jaws, thus keeping his head 
proudly erect. His pantaloons were of the same homespum mate- 
rial, cut very wide in the legs^ and corresijondingly short. He wore 


no socks, and I noticed that his pantaloons and ^stogas' did not 
break joints by abont six inches. The 'stogas' aforesaid were his 
crowning glory. They were built of cowhide, very wide in the 
heels. Very broad in the toes, and of considerable length. They 
were tied with buckskin whangs, while the huge counters were 
sewed to the quarters with other whangs, perhaps from the same de- 
funct deer. It had rained the day previous, and the shoes had be- 
come covered to a considerable depth with clay ; they had then 
been dried in the sun, until their deep wrinkles were hard as bone. 
Mrs. Haacke had that morning undertaken the task of cleaning and 
greasinp; them. I cannot sav that her efforts had been entirelv sue- 
cessful, as particles of yellow clay were interspersed with unmelted 
hog's lard, over their broad surface. 

" The Captain held in his hand a formidable-looking sword, en- 
cased in a leathern scabbard. I noticed hair on the hilt, and, as at 
that time I was not so familiar with natural history as I have since 
become, I could not tell whether it was human hair or hog bristles. 
The discovery filled me with a due appreciation of the Captain's 
ferocity; so much so, indeed, that I followed him with some misgiv- 
ings, and at a respectful distance ; when he would look back over 
his shoulder to see if 1 was keeping up, I would stop and tremble, 
until his face was turned in a forward direction again. 

" On our arrival at Holcomb's, we found the company waiting 
for the Captain. He strode into the house with all the pomp and 
circumstance of glorious warfare, and I could see that by his bear- 
ing he was making an impression upon his subordinates that must 
be conducive to good discipline. I ventured to peep into the cabin, 
to get a glimpse of CJaptain Haacke's staff, and noticed that he was 
the best dressed, and by no means the worst-looking of the ]iarty. 

"The Captain now ordered Orderly-Sergeant Seth Hilton to mus- 
ter the company and call the roll. This order was obeyed with due 
formality, and so reported, when the Captain made his appearance 
before his men. I noticed at the time that he had buckled on his 
sword. His sword belt was a strip of raw calf-skin, perhaps two 
inches in width, with the hair on, hair-side out. The buckle was of 
iron, of the width of the strap, and had, I had no doul)t, been taken 
off some cow-bell strap; to this belt the sword was attached by a 
buckskin whang. The scabbard hung loose, and, to prevent its get- 
ting tangled among his legs, he had grasped its lower third in his 
left hand, while the right held the hilt. The Captain stood for one 
moment in front of the company in dignified silence; looking up 
and down the living line, he raised his voice to a tone of command 
and shouted, ' Company, halt ! ' This order was obeyed. The next or- 
der was given in a lower tone to the Orderly, and was : ' Seth, I 
reckon the boys are a gittin' dry ; you come in with me an we'll see 
what can be done.' The Captain now disappeared into the house, 
followed by Hilton. They soon re-appeared, Hilton bearing in his 
hands an old-fashioned wooden-handled ' piggin,' which held per- 


haps a gallon and a half of Holcomb's whisky. Hilton was ordered 
to commence at the head of the line and pass the ' piggin/ which 
contained, in addition to the 'fluid courage/ three small gourds as 
drinking cups. ' Officers, don't you drink out of the ' piggin, ' ' 
shouted Haacke. ' You come this way. I'll 'tend to you.' The 
officers seemed to manifest no disposition toward insubordination, 
but followed their commander to the rear of the corn-cril), when he 
proceeded to unbutton his coat and draw from an inside pocket a 
gourd that would hold perhaps a quart. This gourd was bottle- 
shaped, with the end of the neck cut off smooth, and a corn-cob stop- 
per. ' Here, boys, don't you see I've got a little something nice 
for us officers? " Oh, my stomach ! ' said the Captain, as he handed 
it around to the evident satisfaction of the heroic band who sur- 
rounded him. 

" After this performance had concluded, the serious work of drill 
commenced, and I soon saw that Captain Haacke was quite pro- 
ficient in tactics. At one time during the day the Captain's shoes 
began to hurt his feet, and he ordered the company to ' Hold on, boys, 
till I sret off these cussed shoes.' 

''During the day Captain Saunders brought his company on the 
ground from his house, several miles further down the Lewistown 
road. He said they had run out of whisky at his house, and hear- 
ing Holcomb had a barrel, had concluded it would be best 'just to 
march the boys up, you see. Oh, my stomach ! ' " 


First Election. — The first election held in Fulton county, which 
embraced all of the northern part of the State at that time (1823), 
was a very exciting one. It was a contest between North and South 
Fulton. "OssianM. Ross and William Eads were candidates for 
for the office of Sheriff. The latter lived at Ft. Clark ( now Peoria), 
and represented Xorth Fulton. The only settlements within the 
boundary of the county at that time were one near the present town 
of Rushville, at Lewistown, Canton, Ft. Clark and Chicago. Lew- 
istown was the county-seat and the largest town in the county, and 
the only place where elections were held. The voters at that time 
came from Ft. Clark down the Illinois river, a distance of fifty miles, 
in canoes ; then up Spoon river ten miles ; then on foot through the 
woods six miles to Lewistown, to deposit their ballots, bringing their 
whisky with them, without which it was thought impossible to trav- 
el or properly exercise the rights of American citizens. Many of 
those from the south part of the county came a distance of thirty 

At this election there were thirty-five votes cast. There were on- 
ly thirty-three legitimate voters who visited the polls ; but Eads, as 
he came down the Illinois with his sixteen voters from Xorth Ful- 
ton, met two bachelors at "Town Site" (now Pekin, Tazewell 
county, then in Sangamon county) and " colonized " them, thus giv- 


ing him a majority over Ross. Every available man was mustered 
by Ross, even the hermit, Dr. Davison, yet he lacked two votes in 
order to beat Eads. The following year, however, Ross found no dif- 
ficulty in being elected to this position over Mr. Eads. 

First Officials. — The first County Commissioners were David W. 
Barnes, Joseph Moffatt and Thomas R. Covell. 

The first Sheriff was William Eads. 

The first County and Circuit Clerk was Hugh R. Colter. 

The first County Treasurer was Thomas L. Ross. John Eveland 
was appointed first, but declined the office when Mr. Ross was ap- 

The first Surveyor was John N. Ross, 

The first Coroner was William Clark. 

The first Postmaster in the county was Ossian M. Ross. 

The first Assessor was Thomas L. Ross. 

First Foiirth-of-JuIy Celebration. — The first celebration of our 
national independence in Fulton county was held in 18*23. The 
celebration was held in Lewistown on the knoll north of the Metho- 
dist Church edifice ; Ossian M. Ross was the orator of the occasion, 
Captain David W. Barnes was marshal of the day ; John, Jacob and 
Enos Jewell furnished the music. The two former played the 
drums and the latter the fife. They did not have the stars and 
stripes to display, but they nevertheless had a liberty pole. F(n- 
this they secured a tall hickory tree, trimmed it and peeled the ba k, 
and left it standing in its original place. For a flag to display 
from its top a hat of Mr. Ross' was substituted. This was a showy 
hat, being surmounted by two large plumes, and a cockade upon it. 
Mr. Ross wore this hat when a Major under General Scott in the 
war of 1812. It was placed upon the top of the pole by W^illiam 
Ennis, and all joined in cheering the glorious Fourth and drinking 
egg-nog. Logs were felled for seats and there were about thirty 
men, women and children in attendance, many of whom were bare- 
foot. The whites had their celebration during the day, and seem- 
ingly ignored the Indians, who were not to be denied a glorious 
time. In the evening the Pottawatomies to the number of a hun- 
dred or more assembled at the same place and had a grand war 
dance. Thus closed the first Fourth-of-July celebration of Ful- 
ton county. 

First Grain JRaised. — The first wheat raised in Fulton county was 
in 1823, by O. M. Ross. It had to be cut with a sickle or reaping- 
hook, and threshed with a flail, winnowed with a sheet, ground in a 
horse-mill, and bolted with a hand bolt. Mr. Ross also raised the 
first ten acres of corn. The truck wagon was the principal one used 
in the first settlement of the countv. Thev have been known to do 
good service on a farm for several years, and there was not a pound 
of iron or a nail used in their construction. 

First School. — Hugh R. Colter taught the first school ever taught 
in Fulton countv. The school-house, which stood about where the 


Circuit and County Clerks' offices now stand, was built of round 
logs, provided with a mud chimney, and puncheons for floor, seats 
and. writing-desks, and oil-paper for Avindow glass. Those who are 
livino; that attended this school are Mrs. Steel, of Canton, for- 

O 7 7 

merly Miss Ross, ]\Irs. Howard (Putman) Martin, Hon. Lewis "SV. 
Ross, Harvey L. Ross and Henry Andrews. 

First Steam-hont. — The first steam-boat to run up the Illinois 
river was the "Liberty." Harvey L. Ross was a passenger on 
board. It was commanded by Captain Samuel Bailey, one of the 
proprietors of Pekin, and a co-commander with Gen. Stillman of 
this county during the Black Hawk war. This boat was advertised 
to run " from St. Louis to Peoria, touching all intermediate ports." 
It landed at Havana, then nothing but a ferry crossing, and at Pe- 
kin, which at that time was known, from its fine location, as " Town 
Site." A steam-boat was a novelty, and even a mystery, to many 
of the early settlers. Coming up the river the boat passed Kings- 
ton in the night. Hugh Barr, who lived near that point, heard it 
coming, and being on rather unfriendly terms with the Indians, then 
quite numerous in the vicinity, concluded that it was some infernal 
contrivance of theirs to frighten or harm him. Seizing his gun and 
setting his equally bewildered dog at it, he pursued the offi-nding 
mystery. The pilot, not being familiar with the channel, ran into 
Clifton's lake, and finding no outlet, he had to back the boat out. 
Barr, witnessing this, drew oif his dog, and, though still hugely 
puzzled to know what manner of craft it was, gave up pursuit. 
William Haines, who lived at Pekin, hearing the puif of the escap- 
ing steam, hastily left his bed, and, half dressed, crossed the street to 
Thomas Snell's, now the Bemis House, called neighbor Snell out of 
bed, and inquired as to what manner of creature was coming up the 
river. Snell replied : '' I don't know. Bill ; but if I was on the 
Ohio river I would think it was a steam-coat." Old Jacob Tharp, 
hearing the noise of the paddles and the steam whistle, thought it 
was Gabriel blowing his horn ; that sure enough the end of the 
world had come in the night ; and calling up his family, engaged in 
prayer as a fitting preparation for the advent of a higher and better 

The First Turning-Lathe. — The first turning-lathe in Canton and 
perhaps in the county was owned and operated by Deacon Xathan 
Jones. It was a S])ring-pole lathe, with the cord wound around the 
stick to be turned, in such a manner t»hat the stick ran half the time 
one way and half the time the other. Upon this lathe the deacon 
turned his chair-stuif. This lathe was a part of the outfit of the 
first chair-maker's shop in Canton. It is related of the deacon, 
while engaged in this shop, that on one occasion he had carried a lot 
of chair-stufi' into the kitchen to season by the kitchen fire. The 
deacon had neglected to provide Aunt Matilda — his wife — with 
wood, and this neglect had so excited the old lady's ire that she 
siezed and burnt an armfiil of chair-runsrs. The deacon stood and 


contemplated the destruction of his chair-rungs in solemn silence 
for some moments. As the flames began to curl around them, the 
deacon's lips })arted, and his hand Avas raised, not in anger, but in 
sadness. He tipped his hat to one side with the uplifted hand, and 
exclaimed, " Matilda, I wish you were in heaven !" And this, it is 
recorded, was the most nearly an oath the good old man had ever 
allowed to escape his lips. 

First Mills. — Ossian M. Ross built the first horse-mill, Jacob 
Ellis built the first water-mill. Who erected the first steam-mill 
we are -not able to say. There was one erected at Canton at a verv 
earlv dav, and one at Vermont. John H. Gardner, of Joshua town- 
ship, also put up one among the first of the county. 

First Distiller u. — As eariv as 1833 Rafe Dixon, Ensley Touts 
and George Smith owned and operated a small distillery on Duck 
creek. This was a small, old-fashioned cop]>er still, and made pure 
if not palatable whisky from corn. It is related of some of the 
pioneers that they would, when in need of their accustomed bever- 
age, shell a bushel of corn, put it on a horse, mount on top, and 
ride to Gabriel Walling's little band-mill on Copperas Creek, get 
their grist ^'cracked," then ride over with it to the Duck-creek Dis- 
tillery and wait until it could be turned into "sperrits." They were 
some times plagued very much while at the distillery by a fellow of 
the name of Garron, who, it was asserted, would drink the whisky 
as fast as it ran from the still. 

First Sale of Land. — The first conveyance of land contained with- 
in the boundary of Fulton county ever made was that of section 8, 
Kerton township. On this 6th day of May, 1817, John DoMott 
transferred this section of land to Richard Berriam. The first on 
record was the northeast quarter of section 30, C^ass township, which 
was transferred May 20, 1818. Both these deeds are recorded at 

First Two Children Born. — The first white child born in the county 
was Lucinda C. Ross, relict of the late Judge Williani Kellogg, and 
a resident of Peoria, 111. She was born at Lewistowu Oct. 17, 1821. 
Abner C. Barnes, son of Capt. D. W. Barnes, was born in the fol- 
lowing month, and was the first male child born. He is an attorney 
at law and resides at Bushnell, 111. A son of John Eveland was 
one of the first children l)orn on the Military Tract, if not the first. 
His birth occurred while Mr. Eveland was residing in Calhoun 

First Cotton-Gin. — In an early day cotton was quite extensively 
grown in this county. During the period when the pioneer women 
manufactured all the clothing of the family from the raw material, 
cotton and flax might be found growing on every farm. Jacob 
Ellis erected a cotton-gin that proved a source of great help to the 
settlers. They would come for many miles to this mill to have 
their cotton ginned. Hon. L. W. Ross has a pair of quilts that 
were ma de b y his mother in 1825 or '2(j^ when they lived where 


Major Walker now does. The cotton and every other article that 
entered into them was raised on their place in this county. 

First Hotel. — The first hotel in the county, perhaps in the Mili- 
tary Tract, was built at Lewistown in 1827, by John Jewell, and 
kept for many years by Truman Phelps. It was then considered 
the best hotel in the West. Such men as Abraham Lincoln, Ste- 
phen A. Douglas, O. H. Browning, Cyrus Walker, Gen. E. D. 
Baker, Wm. A. Richardson and other prominent men of early times 
were often guests of this hotel. 

Organization of Fulton Counfi/. — In the latter part of the year 
1822 it was thought by "some of the enterprising settlers of this 
section that a sufficient number of inhabitants were living here to 
justify the organization of a county. An effort was at once made, 
and on the 28th day of January, 1823, the organization was granted 
by the Legislature and ai> election appointed to be held on the 14th 
of April, for the election of county officials. The law required 
that a county should contain 350 legal voters before an organization 
could be effected, yet there were scarcely that number of individ- 
uals within the boundaries of Fulton county, although it embraced 
the entire northern part of the State. The same territory now con- 
tains a greater portion of the wealth of the State and a population 
of about two million souls. On the organization of Illinois Terri- 
tory in 1809 it was subdivided into the counties of Randolph and 
St. Clair. Fulton was included in the county of St. Clair. On the 
admission of the State into the Union Avhat is now Fulton county 
was a part of Madison. Afterwards, by an act of the Legislature 
approved June 30, 1821, it was placed within the boundaries of 
Pike, which is the oldest county in the Military Tract. 

When Fulton county was organized, and for over two years 
thereafter, it extended east and west from the Illinois to the Mis- 
sissippi rivers, and from the base line near where Rushville, Schuy- 
ler county, now stands, to the northern boundary of the State, in- 
cluding the country where Rock Island, Galena, Peoria and Chicago 
now are. It was indeed a large county, and embraced what is now 
the wealthiest and most populous portion of the great West. The 
great lead mines of Galena had not yet been discovered, and Chi- 
cago was only a trading and military post. As will be seen in the 
following chapter the officials of Fulton county- exercised full au- 
thority, so far as the duties of their respective offices were concerned, 
over all this vast region. In 1825 the Legislature created Peoria 
county and attached to it for all county purposes all the country lying 
north of it within this State on both sides of the Illinois river as far 
east as the third principal meridian. The Commissioners' Court of 
that county convened for the first time March 8, 1825. Thus was 
Fulton county greatly diminished in size. 

Soon the Military Tract began to settle up quite ra])idly, and a 
year had scarcely passed before Knox county was cut off of Fulton. 
This was done by an act approved Feb. 10, 1826. At that time, 



however, there was not a settler within the boundaries of that 
county, and although laid off it was still attached to Fulton county 
for all judicial purposes. In the early part of 1828 the pioneers ap- 
peared in that county and it was rapidly settled. On the loth of 
May, 1830, a meeting was held in Henderson township to inaugu- 
rate steps for the organization of the county. A committee consist- 
ing of Riggs Pennington, Philip Hash, Stephen Osborn and Dr. 
Chas. Hansford was appointed to present a petition to the Hon. 
Richard M. Young, Judge of the Fifth Judicial District, praying 
for the organization of Knox county. These gentlemen shortly 
afterwards came to Lewistown, where Judge Young was holding 
Court, and laid their petition before him. The Judge, believing the 
county contained 350 inhabitants, the number required by law, and 
that a majority desired the organization, did, on the 10th day of 
June, 1830, declare by virtue of the power invested in him, the 
said county of Knox to be organized and entitled to the same rights 
and privileges as other counties of the State. An election was held 
July 3, and three Commissioners chosen. These gentlemen con- 
vened in official capacity on the 7th and perfected the organization 
of Knox county, which completely severed all the vast territory 
outside of the present boundaries of Fulton that at one time 
belonged to our grand old county. This reduced the county to its 
present size, which in number of acres ranks fifth in the great 
Prairie State. 

By an act of the Legislature approved Jan. 28, 1823, as above 
mentioned, Fulton county was given authority to organize. A 
commission consisting of Hugh R. Colter, John Totten and Stephen 
Chase was appointed to locate the county-seat. A full account of 
their labors is given in the following chapter. An election was 
held on the 14th day of April, 1823, for the selection of three Com- 
missioners, a Sherifl' and a Coroner. The only voting place was at 
Lewistown, and men came from so great a distance that it consumed 
several days in making the trip. William Fads of Ft. Clark was 
elected Sheriif over O. M. Ross, and Wm. Clark, Coroner. David 
W. Barnes, Joseph Motfatt and Thomas R. Covell were chosen 
County Commissioners. They convened for the first time on the 
3d of June, same year. We refer our readers to the following 
chapter for a full and detailed account of all the important labors of 
this Court. 

Trade. — The earliest commercial transactions carried on in this 
county were but neighborhood exchanges, in great part. True, now 
and then a farmer would load a flat-boat with beeswax, honey, tal- 
low and peltries, with perhaps a few bushels of wheat or corn or a 
few hundred clapboards, and float down the Illinois river to St. 
Louis, where he would exchange his produce for substantials in the 
way of groceries and a little ready money with which he would 
return by some one of two or three steam-boats then running ; or if 
the period of the trip was before the advent of steam-boats he would 
;urn his load into cash and come home on foot. 


After the advent of steam-boats a new system of commerce sprang 
up. Every town would contain one or two merchants who would 
buy corn, wheat and dressed hogs in the fell, store them in ware- 
houses on the river at some of the "landings," and when the river 
opened in the spring would ship his winter's accumulations to St. 
Louis, Cincinnati or New Orleans for sale, and with the proceeds 
visit New York and lay in six months' siip])ly of goods. So far as 
the farmer was concerned in all these transactions money was an 
unknown factor. Goods were always sold on twelve months' time 
and payment made with the proceeds of the farmers' crops. When 
the crops were sold and the merchant satisfied the surplus was paid 
out in orders on the store to laboring men and to satisfy other 
creditors. When a days' work was done by a working man his 
emplover would say, "Well, what store do you want your order on?" 
and the order was always cheerfully accepted. 

Hogs were always sold ready dressed. The farmer, if forelianded, 
would call in his neighbors some bright fall or winter morning to 
help "kill hogs." Immense kettles filled with water had been 
boiling since dawn. The sleds of the farmer covered with loose 
plank formed a platform for dressing, and a cask or half hogshead, 
with an old quilt thrown over the top, was prepared in wliich to 
scald. From a crotch of some convenient tree a projecting pole 
was riffffcd to hold the dead animals. When everything was 
arranged the best shot of the neighborhood loaded his trusty rifle 
and the work of killing commenced. To make a "hog squeal" in 
shooting or "shoulder-stick," i. e., run the point of the knife used 
into the shoulder instead of the cavity of the breast, was a disgrace. 
As each hog fell the "sticker" mounted him and plunged a long, 
well sharpened knife into his throat, and others caught him by the 
legs and drew him to the scalding tub now hilled with hot water, 
into which a shovel-full of good green-wood ashes had been thrown. 
The cleaners now took the departed porcine, immersed him head 
first into the scalding tub, drew him back and forward a time 
or two, tried the hair, and if it would "slip" easily the animal 
was turned and the other end underwent the same process. As 
soon as taken from the water the scrapers with case-knives went to 
work and soon had the animal denuded of hair, when two stout 
fellows would take it up between them and a third man to manage 
the "gambrel" (^which was a stout stick about two feet long, sharp- 
ened at both ends to be inserted between the muscles of the hind legs 
at or near the hock joint), the animal would be elevated to the pole 
and the entrails removed by some skillful hand. 

When the work of killing was completed and the hogs had time 
to cool, such as were intended for domestic use were cut up, the 
lard tried out by the women of the household and the surplus taken 
to town to market. In those davs almost every merchant had, at 
the rear end of his ])lace of business or at some convenient neigh- 
boring building, a "pork-house," and would buy the pork of his ens- 


tomers and of such others as would sell to him, and "cut" it for 
market. This gave employment to a large number of hands in 
every village cuttiug pork — work which lasted all winter ; also to a 
large number of teams hauling to the river, and coopers making 
pork barrels. 

Prices of p(.)rk then were not so high as at present. Thousands 
of hogs dressed for market have been sold in this county at $l.l25 
to $1.50 per hundred lbs.; sometimes they were sold by the dozen, 
bringing from $12 to $18 per dozen, owing to size and quality. 
When, as the county grew older and communication easier between 
the seaboard and the great West, prices went up to $2 and $2.50 per 
100 lbs., our farmers thought they would always be content to raise 
pork at such a fine price. 

There was one feature in this method of buying pork that made 
any town in Fulton county a paradise for the poor man in winter. 
"Spare-ribs," "tender-loins," "pigs'-heads" and "feet" were not con- 
sidered of any value, and were given freely to all who asked. If a 
barrel were taken to any pork-house and salt furnished, the barrel 
would be tilled and salted down with tender-loins or spare-ribs for 
nothing. So great in many cases was the quantity of spare-ribs, 
etc., to be disposed of, that they would be hauled away in wagon 
loads and dumped in the woods out of town. 

In those days if wheat brought half a dollar per bushel the 
farmer was satisfied. The writer once knew a farmer to sell five 
hundred bushels of corn to a distillery, for which he received five 
cents jier bushel, and took his pay in whisky at thirty-five cents 
per gallon. 

A good young milch-cow could be bought for from $5 to $10, 
and that j)ayable in work. In those days one of the wealthiest 
farmers in the county was notified that there was a letter in the 
postofficQ to his address, and that the postage was twenty-five cents. 
He went home immediately, killed a fat cow, took her to Canton 
and peddled her meat in the hope that in the transaction he would 
get his quarter in cash to "lift" his letter ; but when the cash pro- 
ceeds were footed up he found he had but twenty cents, and had to 
borrow the balance before he could set his letter. 

Those might truly be called close times, yet the citizens of the 
county were accommodating, and no case of actual suffering for the 
necessaries of life was known to exist before each vied with the 
other to relieve it. 

Early MiUhir/. — One of the greatest difUculties encountered by 
the early settlers was in having their milling done. By a liberal 
application of enterprise and muscle they experienced but little 
trouble in producing an abundance of the cereals, but having it 
converted into breadstuff was a source of much hard labor. The 
hand-mill introduced was a great improvement over the mortar 
or tin grater, a description of which is given elsewhere in this vol- 
ume. Then the band-mill was introduced. John Walters tells us 


that he and his brother AVilliam used to strap their sacks of corn 
upon their back in knapsack fashion and take their guns and go 
eight or ten miles to mill. They often went to Jennings' band-mill. 
These mills ground only corn, and in order to have wheat ground 
the settlers would have to go to some distant water-mill. Pioneers 
often were gone an entire week with a load of grain to one of these 
mills. Mr. Jacob Silvernail relates that upon one occasion he 
went to the Little Mackinaw mill on the east side of the Illinois 
river, a distance of 25 miles. He took some 40 bushels of M'heat, 
and was gone from home nine days before he got his grist and, as 
Mr. Silvernail savs, "the ague at the same time." There are a 
multitude of milling incidents that would be interesting to read, 
but space in this chapter forbids the giving of others. These 
suffice to illustrate the difficulties the early settlers encountered in 
procuring breadstuff. 

Wild Hogs. — Among the settlers who came to Fulton county 
previous to 1835 were many who, accustomed to the advantages of 
an older civilization, to churches, schools and society, became 
speedily home-sick and dissatisfied. They would remain perhaps 
one summer or at most two, then, selling whatever claim with its 
improvements they had made, would return to the older States, 
spreading reports of the hardships endured by the settlers here and 
the disadvantages which thev had found, or imagined thev had 
found, in the country. These weaklings were not an unmitigated 
curse. The slight improvements they had made were sold to men 
of sterner stuff, who were the sooner able to surround themselves 
with the necessities of life, while their unfavoraV)le report deterred 
other weaklings from coming. The men who stayed, who were 
willing to endure privations, belonged to a different guild ; they 
were heroes every one, — men to whom hardships were things to be 
overcome and present privations things to be endured for the sake 
of posteritv, and thev never shrank from this duty. It is to these 
hardy pioneers who could endure, that we to-day owe the wonder- 
ful improvement we have made and the development, almost 
miraculous, that has brought our State in the past sixty years, from 
a wilderness, to the front rank among the States of this great 

When the earliest pioneer reached what is now Fulton county 
game was his principal food until he had conquered a farm from 
the forest or prairie, — rarely, then, from the latter. As the coun- 
trv settled game grew scarce, and by 1850 he who would live by 
his rille would have had but a precarious sulisistence had it not 
been for "wild hogs." These animals, left by home-sick immi- 
grants whom the chills or fever and ague had driven out, had 
strayed into the woods, and began to multiply in a wild state. The 
woods each fall were full of acorns, walnuts, hazelnuts, and these 
hogs would grow fat and multiply at a wonderful rate in the bot- 
toms and along the bluffs. The second and third immigration to 


the county found these wild hogs an unfailing source of meat sup- 
ply up to that period when they had in the townships contiguous to 
the river become so numerous as to be an evil, breaking in herds 
into the farmer's corn-fields or toling their domestic swine into 
their retreats, where they too became in a season as wild as those in 
the woods. In 1838 or '39, in Banner township, a meeting was 
called of citizens of the township to take steps to get rid of wild 
hogs. At this meeting, which was held in the spring, the people of 
the township were notified to turn out en masse on a certain day and 
engage in the work of catching, trimming and branding wild hogs, 
which were to be turned loose, and the next winter were to be 
hunted and killed by the people of the township, the meat to be 
divided pro rata among the citizens of the toAvnship. This plan 
was fully carried into effect, two or three days being spent in the 
exciting work in the spring. 

In the early part of the ensuing winter the settlers again turned 
out, supplied at convenient points in the bottom with large kettles 
and barrels for scalding, and while the hunters were engaged in 
killing, others with horses dragged the carcasses to the scalding 
platforms where they were dressed; and when all that could be 
were killed and dressed a division was made, every farmer getting 
more meat than enough for his winter's supply. Like energetic 
measures were resorted to in other townships, so that in two or 
three years the breed of wild hogs became extinct. 

Many amusing anecdotes are related of adventures among the 
wild hogs." Esquire W. H, Smith of Banner township relates 
the following incident: "I had gone to help one of my neighbors 
catch and mark some hogs that were running out in the bottom. 
He knew where his hogs ran, and we had no difficulty in finding 
them. Our dogs were called into requisition, and we had dogs then 
trained to the business, and soon I had a shoat down and was 
marking it when I heard a shout of warning, and looking up I saw 
my companions making for the nearest trees while a herd of wild 
iiogs, led by a powerful boar, was rushing through the grass and 
was almost on me. It was no time for argument I saw, and like 
my neighbors, I 'stayed not on the order of my going, but went at 
once' to the most convenient sapling, up which I found my way 
with a celerity that would have astonished those who know me now, 
and I was not in a hurry to come down until the herd had left." 

D. F. Emry, one of the early surveyors of this county, relates 
that once while surveying in the bottom he had his compass stand- 
ing in a path used by the wild hogs, and while adjusting his needle 
observed a very large boar with tushes five or six inches long com- 
ing do'svn the path toward him. "When the boar observed the 
obstruction in his pathway," says he, "he began to come sideways, 
champing his teeth and erecting his bristles in a way to convince 
me that I had better give him right of way, which I proceeded to 
do with commendable speed." 



Instances of adventures with wild hogs might be indefinitely 
multiplied, but space forbids. That these animals were dangerous 
those who have seen the tusks — in many cases still preserved — six 
and even in some instances eight inches long, will understand. 

The Deep Snoiv. — The big snoAv of 1830 will be vividly remem- 
bered by all the old settlers. The snow began falling on the night 
of the 29th of December, and continued to fall for three days and 
nights, until it reached an average depth of about four feet, but drift- 
ing in places as high as from eighteen to twenty feet. Great suf- 
fering was experienced in consequence. The settlers relied for their 
daily food upon Indian corn which they were enabled to raise, 
together with wild game, which was abundant at that time. Plenty 
of the former was raised to supply the wants of all until the next 
season's crop ; but when the snow fell very little had been gathered. 
Game could not be had. The great depth of snow was a barrier to all 
travel, and it may be well imagined the sufferings of the people were 
very great indeed. 

This was the heaviest snow that ever fell in Illinois within the 
memory of the oldest settler of this part of the State. According 
to the traditions of the Indians as related to the pioneers, a snow fell 
from fifty to seventy-five years before the settlement by the whito 
people, which swejjt away the numerous herds of buffalo and elk 
that roamed over the vast prairies at that time. This tradition was 
verified by the large number of bones of these animals found in 
different localities on the prairies when first visited by the whites. 
The deep snow is one of the landmarks of the pioneer. He reck- 
ons, in giving dates of early occurrences, so many years before or so 
many after the deep snow. He calculates the date of his coming, 
his marriage and l)irth of liis children from it, and well might It 
make a lasting impression upon their minds. Could we picture the 
suffering of that winter ; the dark forebodings that crept into every 
cabin, starvation staring the inmates in the face; the meagre meal 
that for months was their only portion, we, too, would never forget 
it. But human tongue or pen can never adequately picture the 
trials endured by the pioneers who were here during that long and 
eventful winter. For weeks the sun was not visible, and so intens(; 
was the cold that not a particle of snow would melt upon the south 
sides of the cabins. People were for weeks absolutely blockaded or 
housed up, and remained so until starvation compelled them to go 
forth in search of food. 

So much extra work was to be done in the building of homes that 
in the fall the pioneers did not gather in and crib their corn. They 
let it remain in the field until winter came before gathering. The 
big snow therefore found many of the settlers without any j)repara- 
tion for a long siege. They would go out into the field, and where 
they could see the top of a corn stalk sticking up through the snow 
they would dig down until they came to the ear. To get wood they 
would cut the trees at the top of the snow, and when spring came and 

(^)^Oi??: ^€^de^ ^&-MJ^7^/^ 



LlLxirMi 1 







the snow had disappeared, they often found the stump long' enough 
to cut into fence rails. The snow lay on the ground until about the 
first o£ April ; and we have little doubt that many a weary one 
during that long winter sighed for the comforts of the "old home;" 
still, notwithstanding its great dreariness and the greater sufferings 
of the people, none became disheartened, for we find them in the 
s])ring of 1831 as determined as ever to carve out for themselves a 
home in this truly beautiful country. 

. During this winter, from Dec. 29, 1830, till Feb. 13, 1831, it 
snowed nineteen times. After the snow had melted we are told that 
the bones of deer were so numerous in some places that for one- 
quarter of an acre one could step from bone to bone over the whole 
surface, so many deer had perished there. The season following the 
winter of the deep snow was a very late one, and frost came every 
month in the year. The crops were jjoor, as may be well supposed, 
and the corn did not ripen. 

The longest winter ever experienced since this country was settled 
by the whites was that of 1842-3. The cold Aveather set in No- 
vember 4, and lasted until the following April. 

Sudden Change. — The most extraordinary atmospheric phenome- 
non occurring within the knowledge of the oldest settler took place 
in January, 1836. The intensest suffering was caused to man and 
beast by this sudden change. Quite a snow had fallen the day ])re- 
vious to the change, and upon that day a slow, drizzling rain fell, 
makiny, of the snow a " slush." The storm came from the north- 
west, and the clouds, upon its approach, assumed a threatening and 
extraordinary aspect, those higher being dark, and those below of a 
white frosty appearance. As fast as the storm advanced it instanta- 
neously changed the temperate atmosphere to that of frigid coldness. 
Incidents are related in connection with this sudden change which 
are indeed marvelous. During the sudden change John Walters 
tells us that he was out hunting, and had just killed a large buck 
deer. He heard a terrible roaring in the northwest, and upon look- 
ing in that direction saw a black cloud. The cold came on so 
suddenly and became so intense that he started for home on a run, 
leaving his game. Before reaching his home he had frozen his feet 
and ears very badly. 

High Water. — We have spoken of the deep snow and the sudden 
atmospheric change ; we now wish to record the seasons that the 
greatest amount of water fell. It is claimed that the greatest rain- 
fall that has ever occurred in this country was in 183". There waf> 
no record kept of the amount of water that fell by any of the methods 
in use at the present time, and all we have to judge by is the high 
water in the streams. The Illinois, Spoon river and their tributaries 
are said to have been higher than at the breaking up of the big snow 
in the spring of 1831, or at any time since. The rains commenced 
falling in the early springand continued throughout the early sum- 
mer. There have been, perhaps, other seasons just as wet, but the 



streams were never so high at any other time. During this period 
there were many hard rains. In the early part of July a storm of 
rain, thuuder and lightning occurred, which for severity has scarcely 
ever been equaled. It spread throughout the West. The great 
prairies, then uncultivated and undrained, were a vast lake, and fish 
were plenty in almost every locality. The large ponds found here 
and there over the prairies in an early day contained fish large 
enough for domestic purposes. These ponds would dry up in the 
summer but in spring-time were well filled with water, and how the 
finny tribe managed to get there is a query the " old settler" cannot 
answer in a more satisfactory way than " they rained down when 
small." During this season but little in the way of crops was 
attempted to be raised. Hogs were fattened in the fall upon the 
mast, and those that were not killed for food had to subsist during 
the winter upon acorns; with them it was literally "root hog or die." 

The Severe Winter of 1842—3. — To add to the popular excitement 
occasioned by Rev. Miller's prophecy of the end of the world, and 
by the unprecedented comet of 1843, etc., one of the longest and 
severest winters ever known in this region, happened to be that of 
1842-3. Xov. 7, 1842, it commenced to rain; the 8th was cloudy; 
and on the 9th 18 inches of snow fell, which did not go off alto- 
gether until the 12th of the following April! Soon after the snow 
fell a rain came upon it, and a crust froze so strong as to make it 
almost impossible for a time to work or travel. A hunter, how- 
ever, could walk on the ice-covered snow, and deer were more easily 
caught than domestic swine are nowadays. When alarmed by the 
proximity of the hunter they would attempt to run, but breaking 
through where the snow was very deep, they would lodge there 
almost helpless. Turkey and other wild game were abundant and 
easily obtained. On account, however, of the abundance of game 
and a sufficiency of grain, the people lived very comfortably. 

The first plowing done was in 5lay, but a good crop was raised. 

The years of 1844, 1851, and 1858, are also notable as years of 
great rain-fall. During the early history of the county, when 
there were no bridges, great difficulty was experienced in getting 
from place to place in the spring-time on account of the high 
waters. At such times ferrymen were allowed to charge double fare 
for carrying people or goods across the streams. It is remarkable 
that so few lives were lost during these seasons of high water, ])ut 
the pioneers were all expert swimmers, and it was very seldom one 
was drowned. 

Moneu. — Monev''was an article little known and seldom seen 
among the earlier settlers. Indeed, they had but little use for it, 
as all business was transacted by bartering one article for another. 
Great'ingenuity was developed in the barter of their commodities, 
and when this failed longJ,credits contributed to their convenience. 
But for taxes and postage neither the barter nor credit system would 
answer, and often letters were suifered to remain a considerable time 


in the po.stoffice for want of twenty-five cents, which was then tlie 
postage on all letters from any great distance ; nor were they car- 
ried on the fast express or mail trains. It was only every week or 
so that a lone horseman, with mail bag thrown astride, would ride 
into a settlement or village. If, however, the village was on the 
line of a stage route, the old stage-coach would make its apj)earance 
as often. It was not common, then, for persons to get many letters; 
indeed, one or two a month was considered a large mail. Nor did 
three cents pay the postage upon a letter at that day. It seldom 
took less than twenty-five cents, or two "bits," as Kentuckians 
would say. 

To illustrate how very scarce money was in an early day we 
record the following incidents : Mr. Joseph H. Gardiner, of Joshua 
township, tells us that although he owned a farm of six hundred 
acres, with stock, grain, etc., he could not raise cash sufficient to 
pay postage on letters that came to him. They would often have 
to lie in the postoflfice for weeks before he could get them out. At 
one time in the early history of the country he had a legal dispute 
and was sued, the party getting judgment for |oO or 160 against 
him. He sent East for money and it came in a $100 bill. He 
ofFered it in payment of judgment ; they could not change the bill, 
nor could they find enough money in Canton to do it with ; conse- 
quently the judgment was not paid for some time afterwards. 

A member of one of the leading business firms iu Canton had 
noticed that his partner had charged to himself fifty cents cash each 
week. This. caused him so much uneasiness to know that cash was 
being withdrawn from their business that he took his ])artner to task 
about it. He admitted the fact, of course, and explained that it aatis 
to pay postage on letters received from a young lady in the East, 
perhaps his sweet-heart, which, though money was scarce, must be 
attended to. 

Coon-skins passed as currency in many places up to 1835, and 
values were frequently expressed in coon-skins. Whisky was one 
coon-skin per quart. Childs &■ Stillman, of Canton, were selling it 
at that price, and their store was a place of resort in consequence. 
The counter of this store was a rude affair, and the front of it not 
closely jointed : indeed, there were interstices between the clap- 
board panels through which a coon-skin could be readily pulled. 
One day Jesse Dollar called for a quart of whisky, and in payment 
handed over his coon-skin. The coon-skin was tossed" under the 
counter, and the whisky drank among the crowd. Dollar had a 
ramrod in his hands with a wiping-screw on the end. This he slyly 
inserted through the cracks in the front of the counter, and, twist- 
ing it into the fur, drew it out, and with it paid for the second quart, 
which was also passed through the admiring crowd. Dollar was 
liberal, generous, indeed prodigal, with his one coon-skin, making it 
pay for five quarts of whisky in almost that number of minutes. 
Childs & Stillman were pleased at their prosperous trade. The 
crowd were pleased at the joke, and Dollar was glorious. 


The Beautiful Prairies. — The large prairies of the eounty pre- 
sented a most beautiful sight before they were settled. The follow- 
ing very descriptive lines on "The Prairies of Illinois/' by Captain 
Basil Hall, graphically portrays their beauty in their wild and 
native state : 

''The charm of prairie consists in its extension, its green, flowery 
carpet, its undulating surface, and the skirt of forest whereby it is 
surrounded ; the latter feature being of all others the most signifi- 
cant and expressive, since it characterizes the land^icape, and defines 
the form and boundary of the plain. If the prairie is little, its 
greatest beauty consists in the vicinity of the encompassing edge of 
forests, which may be compared to the shores of a lake, being inter- 
sected with many deep, inward bends, as so many inlets, and at in- 
tervals projecting very far, not unlike a promontory or protruding 
arm of land. These projections sometimes so closely approach each 
other that the traveler passing through between them, may be said 
to walk in the midst of an alley overshadowed by the forest, before 
he enters again upon another broad prairie. Where the plain is ex- 
tensive, the delineations of the forest in the distant background a])- 
pear as would a misty ocean beach afar off. The eye sometimes 
surveys the green prairie without discovering on the illimitable 
plain a tree or bush, or any other object save the wilderness of 
flowers and grass, while on other occasions the view is enlivened bv 
the groves dispersed like islands over the plain, or by a solitary 
tree rising above the wilderness. The resemblance to the sea which 
some of these prairies exhibit is really most striking. In the spring, 
when the young grass has just clothed the soil with a soddy carpet 
of the most delicate green, but especially when the sun is rising be- 
hind a distant elevation of the ground and its rays are reflected by 
myriads of dew-drops, a more pleasing and more eye-beneflting 
view cannot be imagined. 

"The delightful aspect of the prairie, its amenities, and the ab- 
sence of that sombre awe insjiired by forests, contribute to forcing 
away that sentiment of loneliness which usually steals upon the 
mind of the solitary wanderer in the wilderness ; for, although he 
espies no habitation, and sees no human being, and knows himself 
to be far ofl' from every settlement of man, he can scarcely defend 
himself from believing that he is traveling through a landscape 
embellished bv human art. The flowers are so delicate and elegant 
as apparently to be distributed for mere ornament over the plain ; 
the groves and groups of trees seem to be dispersed over the prairie to 
enliven the landscape, and we can scarcely get rid of the impression 
invading our imagination, of the whole scene being flung out and 
created for the satisfaction of the sentiment of beauty in refined 

"In the summer the prairie is covered with tall grass, which is 
coarse in appearance, and soon assumes a yellow color, waving in 
the wind like a ripe crop of corn. In the early stages of its growth 


it resembles young wheat, and in this state furnishes such rich and 
succulent food for cattle that the latter choose it often in preference 
to wheat, it being no doubt a very congenial fodder to them, since 
it is impossible to conceive of better butter than is made while the 
grass is in this stage. 

"In the early stages of its growth the grass is interspersed with 
little flowers, — the violet, the strawberry-blossom, and others of 
the most delicate structure. When the grass grows higher these 
disappear, and taller flowers, displaying more lively colors, take 
their place ; and still later a series of still higher but less delicately 
formed floMers appears on the surface. AVhile the grass is green 
these beautiful plains are adorned with every imaginable variety of 
color. It is impossible to conceive of a greater diversity, or dis- 
cover a predominating color, save the green, which forms a beauti- 
ful dead color, relieving the splendor of the others. In the summer 
the plants grow taller, and the colors more lively ; in the autumn 
another generation of flowers arises which possesses less clearness 
and variety of color and less fragrancy. In the winter the prairie 
presents a melancholy aspect. Often the fire, which the hunters 
annually send over the prairies in order to dislodge the game, will 
destroy the entire vegetation, giving to the soil a uniform black ap- 
pearance, like that of a vast plain of charcoal ; then the wind 
sweeping over the prairie will find nothing which it might put in 
motion, no leaves which it might disperse, no haulms which it 
mlirht shake. No sooner does the snow commence to fall than the 
animals, unless already frightened away by the fire, retire into the 
forests, when the most dreary, oppressive solitude will reign on the 
burnt prairies, which often occupy many square miles of territory." 

Prairie Fires. — Fires would visit the grassy plains every autumn. 
The settlers who had pushed out from the timber took great precau- 
tion to prevent their crops, houses and barns from being destroyed, 
yet not always did they succeed. Many incidents are related of 
prairie fires. The great conflagrations were caused either accident- 
ally, or designedly from wantonness, or with a view of bewildering the 
game. The fire often spread further than it was intended it should. 
Wherever were extensive prairie lands, one-half was burned in the 
spring and the other half in the autumn, in order to produce a more 
rapid growth of the naturally exuberant grass, destroying at the 
same time the tall and thick weed stalks. Violent winds would 
often arise and drive the flames with such rapidity that riders on 
the fleetest steeds could scarcely escape. On the ajiproach of a 
prairie fire the farmer would immediately set about "burning back," 
— that is, burning ofi: the grass close by the fences, that the larger 
fire upon arriving would become extinguished for want of aliment. 
In order to be able, however, to make proper use of this measure of 
safety, it was very essential that every farmer should encompass 
with a ditch those of his fences adjoining the prairie. When known 
that the conflagration could cause no danger, the settler, though 


accustomed to them, could not refrain from gazing with admiration 
upon the magnificent .>;pectacle. Language cannot convey, words 
cannot express, the faintest idea of the splendor and grandeur of 
such a conflagration during the night. It was as if the pale queen 
of night, disdaining to take her accustomed place in the heavens, 
had dispatched myriads upon myriads of messengers to light their 
torches at the altar of the setting sun until all had flashed into one 
long and continuous blaze. 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by 
a traveler through this region in 1849 :- 

''Soon the flres began to kindle wider and rise higher from the 
long grass; the gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and 
soon limned the small, flickering blaze into fierce torrent flames, 
which curled up and leaped along in resistless splendor ; and like 
quickly raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes 
before me were suddenly changed, as if by the magician's wand, into 
one boundless amphitheater, blazing from earth to heaven and 
sweeping the horizon round, — columns of lurid flames sportively 
mounting up to the zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke curl- 
ing away and aloft till they nearly obscured stars and moon, while 
the rushing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataract? mingled with 
distant thunders, were almost deafening ; danger, death, glared all 
around; it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstanding the immi- 
nent peril of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to 
withdraw or seek refuge." 

Incidents of Pioneer Life. — The amusements of the pioneers were 
peculiar to themselves. Saturday afternoon was a holiday in which 
no man was expected to work. A load of produce might be taken 
to "town" for sale or traffic without violence to custom, but no 
more serious labor could be tolerated. When on Saturday afternoon 
the town was reached, "fun commenced." Had two neighbors bus- 
iness to transact, here it was done. Horses were "swapped." Diffi- 
culties settled and free fights indulged in. Blue and red ribbons 
were not worn in those days, and whisky was free as water ; twelve 
and a one half cents would buy a quart, and thirty five or forty 
cents a gallon, and at such prices enormous quantities were con- 
sumed. Go to any town in the county and ask the first pioneer you 
meet, he will tell you of notable Saturday-afternoon fights, either of 
which to-day would fill a column of the Police ^^eics, with elaborate 
engravings to match. 

Rough, ready to fight, as these pioneers were, their latch-string 
was always out. Xo stranger ever stopped at their cabins without 
receiving a heartv welcome. Mrs. Commodore Joshua Barnev, 
whose husband was famous in the war of 1812, and who was a 
daughter of Elbridge Gerry, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, in her old age told a chapter of her experience in 
Fulton county in 1829 that graphically illustrates pioneer life. 
She had gone with her husband from Washington City overland to 


the Mississippi river, and crossing the Illinois at Ft. Clark (now 
Peoria), the party stopped late at night at a log cabin near Utica. 
The hail, "Hallo ! the honse," was given, and in answer to the 
inquiry, "Can we get to stay all night with you ?" they were told, 
"Certainly ; come in ; there is always room in this country." "On 
entering the cabin" says Mrs. Barney, "we found a room twelve 
feet by sixteen in which there was a fire-place, table, bench or two, 
a couple of rude chairs and three beds ; but worse than all, when our 
party got in, there were nineteen persons to stay all night ! Supper 
was almost ready when we arrived. It consisted of the usual corn 
bread, fat bacon, honey and in this case genuine store coifee. When 
bed-time came the men were ordered to step out of doors, and 
beds were spread, consisting of blankets and buffalo robes, over the 
whole floor, and we women — there were ten of us — told to go to 
bed, married women in the center. The men were now called in 
and each husband lay down by his wife, the single men outside. 
We were so thick, occupying the entire unappropriated space of the 
floor, that when we desired to turn over the word of command 
would be given, 'Spoon,' and we would all turn over at once." 

Mrs. Barney said this was an actual occurrence, and that similar 
cases occurred 3-t other points during her trip. 

The settler in the early days was not only hospitable but also 
philanthropic, and never neglected an opportunity to aid a neigh- 
bor. House-raisings were hiw special delight. Let a new-comer 
arrive in the neighborhood and all were ready to help him. 
One would send a bushel or two of potatoes, another a piece of 
meat, another some other article that could be used to eke out the 
larder ; but when the new-comer had his logs cut and all ready for 
the raising, then the fun commenced. Teams, men, axes, all were 
on the ground at an early hour, logs were hauled, scored, one side 
hewed, it may be, and before night willing hands had erected a resi- 
dence as comfortable and commodious as anv in the settlement, and 
at night was ready for the "house-warming," where dancing was 
kept up until the "wee short hours," and where all enjoyed them- 
selves in a manner unknown to the people of to-day. Let a neigh- 
bor get sick in the fall, as frequently occurred, and some neighbor 
would inaugurate a "chopping bee" or corn-gathering for his bene- 
fit, when all his fall work would be done in a day, — corn gathered 
and cribbed, wood chopped and hauled, and everything put in good 
shape for winter. After the day's labors were completed, song and 
dance were in order, and until morning perhaps the younger mem- 
bers of the community would keep up their hilarity. 

The only amusements of the pioneers had a hospitable, kindly 
core and were connected with some helpful act for needy neighbors. 
It was not only in amusements, but in all other acts of life that this 
kindliness was manifested, as an anecdote which living witnesses 
can testify to will illustrate. 

Some time prior to 1833 a traveling preacher of the M. E. 


Churcli sent an appointment into a neighborhood in what is now 
Isabel township, to preach. The honse wliere services were to be 
hekl did not belong to a Church member, but no matter for that. 
Boards were raked up from all quarters with which to improvise. 
seats, oue of the neighbors volunteering for this work, while the 
man of the house, trusty rifle on shoulder, sallied forth in quest of 
meat, — for this was truly a "ground-hog" case, the preacher coming 
and no meat in the house. The preacher had to come from the 
"Sangamon Settlements," and the few neighbors had assembled on 
his arrival. In the mean time the host of the occasion killed a deer 
and sent a boy on horseback with directions on what "point" to find 
it. After services, which had been listened to with fixed attention 
by the pioneers, "mine host" said to his wife, "Old woman, I reckon 
this 'ere preacher is pretty hungry, and you must git him a bite to 
eat." "What shall I get him?" asked the wife, who had not seen 
the deer; "thar's nuthin' in the house to eat." "Why, look thar," 
said the old gentleman ; "thar's a deer, and thar's plenty of corn in 
the field ; you get some corn and grate it while I skin the deer, and 
we'll soon have a good supper for him." It is needless to add that 
venison and corn bread made a supper fit for any jiioneer preacher, 
and was thankfully eaten. 

Sometimes the amusements of the pioneers were rough, almost to 
the point of fatal results, — sometimes, as in the case we are about 
to narrate, more witty than rough. In the early days of Canton a 
church buildiup: belonoiny: to the Presbvterian denomination stood 
in the public square. This church had a steeple and bell, probably 
at that period the only one in the county. The belfry of this church 
always stood open, and one night a party of wild fellows conceived 
the idea of a huge practical joke to be played upon the citizens by 
means of this bell. Several balls of twine were procured, and after 
everybody had got to sleep an adventurous spirit mounted to the 
bell and tied one end of the twine around the clapper of the bell, 
throwing the ball of twine out at the window. The knot around 
the clapper was so arranged that by pulling on an extra cord the 
twine could be loosened and made to disappear. When one o'clock, 
"the hour when grave-yards yawn," approached, this cord was taken 
to a second-story window opposite, where, out of sight above any 
night passer, it was pulled, setting the bell to tolling solemnly and 
sloNvly. It tolled for an hour, when those who had awakened at its 
first stroke with a yawn began to wonder what it all meant, and one by 
one windows here and there were opened and heads peered out into the 
darkness. Soon curiosity began to get the better of sleepiness, and 
here and there a man might be seen going towards the church to see 
what the bell was tolling for. On reaching the church the bell cord 
was found hanging as usual with no mortal ringer pulling it; still 
the bell tolled on, ding — dong — ding ! Others came, from every 
cabin in the town a representative, still the l)ell tolled on with no 
visible mortal sexton swinging its iron tongue. "What is the mys- 


tery?" eager tongues asked of eager ears; ''what does it mean?" 
Some one suggested that some straggler had elind)ed up into the 
belfry and was doing the ringing, and one or two adventurous 
spirits climbed to the belfry to learn if such was the case, only to 
report that no mortal hand was tolling the bell ; and now the mys- 
tery deepened. Men with solemn faces spoke to men whose coun- 
tenances marked deep concern, and declared that the end of the 
world must certainly be approaching. Some suggested that it was 
Satan, others his heavenly opponent, Michael, who was tolling the 
knell of a world about to depart; still the bell tolled on. At last 
James Wright, for a "spiritual" consideration, volunteered to solve 
the mystery. ' Of course the parties pulling the bell had confreres 
in the crowd, and, when Wright mounted into the steeple, gave the 
signal, and the cord was disengaged ; the bell stopped tolling; but 
the mystery was not solved. The mysterious bell furnished food 
for talk and texts for wise homilies for weeks, until at last the joke 
got too heavy to hold, and the parties dropped it, to the infinite relief 
of many a superstitious soul. 

What the Pioneers Have Done. — Fulton county is a grand countv, 
in many respects second to none in the State, and in almost every- 
thing that goes to make a live, prosperous community, not far behind 
the best. Beneath our fertile soil is coal enough to supply the State 
for generations; our harvests are bountiful; we have a medium cli- 
mate and many other things that make us a contented, prosperous 
and happy people ; but we owe much to those who opened up these 
avenues that have led to our present condition and happy surround- 
ings. Unremitting toil and labor have driven off the sickly mias- 
mas that brooded over swampy prairies'. Energy and perseverance 
have peopled every section of our wild lands, and changed them 
from wastes and deserts to gardens of beauty and profit. When 
but a few years ago the barking wolves made the night hideous with 
their wild shrieks and howls, now is heard only the lowing and 
bleating of domestic animals. Only a half century ago the wild 
whoop of the Indian rent the air where now are heard the engine and 
rumbling trains of cars, bearing away to markets the products of 
our labor and soil. Then the savage built his rude huts on the spot 
where now rise the dwellings and school-houses and church spires 
of civilized life. How great the transformation ! This change has 
l>een brought about by the incessant toil and aggregated labor of 
thousands of tired hands and anxious hearts, and the noble aspira- 
tions of such men and women as make any country great. What 
will another half century accomplish ? There are few, very few, 
of these old pioneers yet lingering on the shores of time as connect- 
ing links of the past with the present. What must their thoughts 
be as with their dim eyes they view the scenes that surround them? 
We often hear people talk about the old- fogy ideas and fogy ways, 
and want of enterprise on the part of the old men Mdio have gone 
through the experiences of pioneer life. Sometimes, perhaps, such 


remarks are just, but, considering the experiences, education and 
entire life of such men, such remarks are better unsaid. They have 
had their trials, misfortunes, hardships and adventures, and shall we 
now, as they are passing far down the western declivity of life, and 
many of them gone, point to them the finger of derision and laugh 
and sneer at the simplicity of their ways? Let us rather cheer 
them up, revere and respect them, for beneath those rough exteriors 
beat hearts as noble as ever throbbed in the human breast. These 
veterans have been compelled to live for weeks upon hominy and, 
if bread at all, it was bread made from corn ground in hand-mills, 
or pounded up with mortars. Their children have been destitute of 
shoes during the winter; their families had no clothing except what 
was carded, spun, wove and made into garments by their own hands ; 
schools they had none ; churches they had none ; afflicted with 
sickness incident to all new countries, sometimes the entire family at 
once; luxuries of life they had none; the auxiliaries, improvements, 
inventions and labor-saving machinery of to-day they had not; and 
what they possessed they obtained by the hardest of labor and indi- 
vidual exertions, yet they bore these hardships and privations with- 
out murmuring, hoping for better times to come, and often, too, 
with but little prospects of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written on every hand are most 
wonderful. It has been but three-score years since the white man 
began to exercise dominion over this region, erst the home of the 
red men, yet the visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the coun- 
ty, could scarcely be made to realize that within tliese years there 
has grown up a population of 50,000 people, who in all the accom- 
plishments of life are as far advanced as are inhabitants of the coun- 
ties of older States. Schools, churches, colleges, palatial dwellings, 
beautiful grounds, large, well cultivated and productive farms, as 
well as cities, towns and busy manufactories, have grown up, and 
occupy the hunting grounds and camping places of the Indians, and 
in every direction there are evidences of wealth, comfort and lux- 
ury. There is but little left of the old landmarks. Advanced 
civilization and the progressive demands of revolving years have 
obliterated all traces of Indian occupancy, until they are only 
remembered in name. 

In closing this chapter we again would impress upon the minds 
of our readers the fact that they owe a debt of gratitude to those 
who pioneered Fulton county, which can be but partially repaid. 
Never grow unmindful of the peril and adventure, fortitude, self- 
sacrifice and heroic devotion so prominently displayed in their lives. 
As time sweeps on its ceaseless flight, may the cherished memories 
of them lose none of their greenness, but may the future genera- 
tions alike cherish and perpetuate them with a just dev^otion to 



First Meeting. — The lirst meeting of the County Commissioners' 
Court of Fulton county was held at "the office of H. R. Colter in the 
town of Lewistown," on the 3d day of June, 1823. The records 
hold forth the "office of H. Ti. Colter" very prominently, yet we 
surmise this "office" of which the records speak so often was simply 
a portion of his cabin home. David W. Barnes, Thomas R. Co veil 
and Joseph Moffatt, County Commissioners, were all present. The 
first business transacted by the Court was the appointment of Hugh 
R. Colter as Clerk. The records open with the simple statement 
that "the Court held a special term June 3, 1823." They give us no 
information whatever concerning its organization, or its previous 
history, or of the organization of the county, but, like the Holy 
Scriptures, begins with unqualified statements and records its acts 
with the greatest simplicity. We were, however, fortunate enough 
to find in another old book some memorandums of the prior history 
of this Court, and of the official transactions of the county previous 
to the first meeting of the Commissioners' Court. These items, 
which are noted on the first four pages of the first Circuit Court 
records, are headed "Fulton County Clerk's Records." These 
were kept by Hugh R. Colter, and were written previous to his ap- 
pointment as Clerk by the Commissioners, and even prior to his 
being qualified as Justice of the Peace. The most satisfactory 
solution we can give why he should thus head the records and by 
what authority he swore men into office and transacted other official 
business, was, that he was appointed by the Legislature (act of Jan. 
18th, 1823, for the organization of Fulton county), as a Clerk to 
transact such business as was necessary to carry out the provisions 
of the act and complete the organization of the county. Whether 
this was really the case or not we cannot positively state, as we 
have been unable to procure a copy of the act. The record of these 
four pages embrace the following items : 

On Feb. 11, 1823, nearly four months prior to the date of Colter 
being appointed Clerk of the Commissioners' Court, this certificate 
was recorded : "This day Ossian M. Ross personally appeared be- 
fore me and took the several oaths prescribed by law to authorize 
him to act as Justice of the Peace in and for the county of Fulton, 
State of Illinois, and on the back of his commission I wrote and 


subscribed the usual certificate." Then follows a similar record of a 
certificate of John N. Ross to act as County purveyor. 

On March 17 Mr. Colter recorded in this same place that he had 
advertised an election authorized by law for county officials, to be 
held at the house of Ossian M. Ross on the ]4th day of April en- 
suing. On that day he noted the following words : "This day I 
attended the election for county officers and qualified the judges 
who conducted the election ;" and on the same date, which was 
April 14, these : "Received in this office the returns of the above 
election, and after examining said returns I gave certificates to the 
following persons, to-wit : David W. Barnes, Thomas R. Covell and 
Joseph Moffiitt ; Coroner, William Clark ; for Sheriff, Abner Eads." 
He then states that John Hamlin and Samuel Fulton appeared before 
him and (puilified as Justices of the Peace. 

On April 29 Thomas R. Covell came before him and (pialified to 
act as Lieutenant in the 17th Regiment of the Illinois Militia. May 
12, we find this: "Ossian M. Ross, Esq., deposited in this office the 
following certificate for record, to-wit : Hugh R. Colter personally 
appeared before me and took the several oaths prescribed by law to 
authorize him to act as Justice of the Peace." 

He next records that on May 17 he sent from his office an official 
certificate to the Governor, relative to the situation of our county 
officers, who were elected on the 14th of April at the house of (). 
M. Ross. 

On June 3 he wrote that "Joseph Moffiitt took the oaths pre- 
scribed by law to authorize him to act as County Commissioner. 
David W. Barnes and Thomas R. Covell qualified April 15." 

July 4 William Eads qualified as Sherifi' and the following day 
William Clark as Coroner. 

The last item on these four pages of record is a certificate filed 
July 9, from O. M. Ross, certifying that Hugh R. Colter appeared 
before him and took the oath to act as Judge of Probate. 

Thus we have all the items, or record of the official acts (save the 
one we give below relative to locating the county-seat) prior to the 
first meeting of the Commissioners' Court that the officiating pio- 
neers have left us. 

Appoinfmottft bi/ the Court. — After the Court had appointed a 
Clerk, it recommended to the Governor that Amherst C. Ransom be 
appointed Justice of the Peace, vice Samuel Fulton, resigned. The 
next act was the appointment of John Eveland as Treasurer of the 
county. Then Thomas Ij. Ross was appointed Assessor. Aquila 
Moffiitt, John Grifiin, George Matthews, William Totten and Hor- 
ace Enos were appointed Constables. 

Road Precincts. — The county was then divided into road pre- 
cincts, and William Eads appointed superintendent for district No, 
1, which began at Ft. Clark (now Peoria) and ran northwesterly to 
the Mississippi river. Stephen Chase was appointed su])erintendent 
for district No, 2, which road ran from Ft. Clark through Lewis- 


town to the month of Spoon river. Amo.s Evekind was ap^jointed 
for district No. 3, which "hegan at Spoon-river bhiifs and continn- 
ing same to base line." This wonkl run it sonth to Beardstown. 
"The Conrt was then declared adjourned, to meet at seven o'clock 
on the 4th, by O. M. Ross, an elisor, [acting sheriif] who was 
appointed for that purpose. 

Counfy-fSeaf Loeafcd. — The Court met on the 4th and the follow- 
ing papers were laid before the august judges: "A return made bv 
the Commissioners who located the seat of justice ; and also a deed 
made by O. M. Ross to the county of Fulton for 13 town lots in 
the town of Lewistown for })ublic pur})Oses." Further on in these 
records we find the report for the location of the county-seat re- 
corded, which report we give in full: 

"A Return of the ^ 'o//i»;(.s.s/ow;-s irlm Locafid the Sc<(t of Jiisfici' for Fulton Coinittj, 

lUinoiii : 

"Know all men by these presents, that we, the undersigned Commissioners, 
having been appointed agreeably to an act of the Legislature, approved Jan- 
uary 2<S, LS2.'], an act forming a new county out of the attached part of the 
County of Pike, to be called Fulton, now know ye that, whereas we, 
John Totten, Stephen Chase and Hugh R. Colter, were appointed by said act 
Commissioners to locate the permanent seat of justice for said county, met at 
the house of David W. Barnes in said county on the 11th day of February, 
1S23, and being duly sworn before Ossian M. Ross, Esq., a Justice of the 
Peace, Ave then proceeded to make inquiries and to hear proposals from inhab- 
itants of said county; and after some time spent therein we adjourned till the 
14th inst., at the house of 0. M. Ross, in said county. On the 14th we met, 
and after taking into consideration the duties of our office we agreed to, ancl 
do herel)y permanently locate the seat of justice of said county of Fulton on 
lot No. 214, in the town of Lewistown, being on the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 22, township 5 north and range 3 east ; said town of Lewistown having 
been platted and surveyed by Stephen Dewey, Esq., and on the lands belong- 
ing to Ossian M. Ross, Esq., in said town aforesaid, and as a donation to said 
county. The said Ross has this day made to the county of Fulton a good war- 
rantee deed in fee simple for the following town lots for ])ublic buildings, etc., 
to-wit : Lot No. Ki for burying yard, and lots Nos. 213, 214 and 215 for a court- 
house and jail, and lots Nos. 147, 148, 149, 180, 181 and 182 for a public square, 
or at the disposal of the County Commissioners, for public or county purposes. 
In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this 14th dav 
of Februarv, 1823. .JOHN TOTTEN, 


Tavern Licoi.scx. — The first "tavern" license was granted at this 
term of the C'ourt. A tavern in those days was a combination of 
an inn and a saloon. The proprietor, however, did not expect to 
derive any great revenue from the hotel, but looked to his liquors 
for an income. Manv of these "taverns" were the smallest of lot? 
cabins. Here and there all over the country, sometimes miles from 
any other cabin, they might be found. Some of them were indicated 
to be such by signs nailed to a post, tree, or to the side of the cabin. 
These were of the rudest make and design. Some simply had the 
word "entertainment" scrawled upon them, while others, more 
explicit, read " entertainment for man and beast." Some were still 
more definite and said simply " whisky and oats." The storms of 


a half century, the advancement of civilization, the culture of the 
age, have all combined to transform these rudest of signs, scribbled 
by an uncultured pioneer upon hewn boards, into gilded and glitter- 
ing letters artistically traced upon French-plate glass. 

The name by which the place was known where liquor was vended 
was shortly after this changed from "tavern" to ''grocery" or 
" groggery," and subsequently assumed the appellation of "saloon;" 
and finally, that coming into disrepute, many have adopted the more 
modern title of "sample room," "hall," "garden," etc. 

The Court ordered, "that Ossian M. Ross have license to keep an 
inn or tavern in the house wherein he now resides, by paying the 
sum of SlO, in ' State paper.'" The following schedule of "tavern 
rates" were then established to govern him : 

Yiituals, per meal, 25 cents 

Horse keeping, per niwht, 375 " 

Lodging, per night, 12.j u 

"Whisky, per half pint, I25 n 

Rum and gin, per half pint, 25 

French brandy, per half pint, 50 

Wine, per half pint, 37.V .. 

And all other liquors in like proportion. 

Joseph Ogee was granted similar license, with the same schedule 
regulating him. 

Ferry License. — (). ]\I. Ross was then given a license to keep a 
ferry across the Illinoi> at the mouth of Spoon river, the present 
site of Havana. He continued t<> run this ferry until his death, 
which occurred in 1887, and after which his sons ran it for a number 
of years. During the earlier years Mr. Ross would send a man 
down to the river every few days to carry the travelers with their 
saddles across the water in a canoe, swimming their horses beside it. 
It was generally understood among the settlers on both sides what 
days the ferryman would be there, and travelers always learned of the 
time. This was considered a splendid way to cross the river and a 
great accommodation to those who came to look at the country in 
the Military Tract. 

The following were the ferry rates established by the Court : 

Man and horse 25 cents. 

Each footman 122 " 

Each wagon drawn by two hoi-ses or oxen 75 u 

Each additional horse or ox 122 

Each hog or sheep « 3 " 

Each lead or drove horse, or other animal 12i a 

Each cart drawn by two oxen 50 a 

Each Dearborn wagon or sulky. 75 " 

And all other property in the same proportion, and double when 
the river is over its banks. 

These rates seem high, but ferry patronage was limited, for we 
certainly must know that the number of persons were few who 
desired to cross the Illinois river at any one point fifty-six years ago. 


More Justices of the Peace. — The Court then recommended, as a fit 
and suitable person for Justice of the Peace, Mr. Wm. Eads, of 
Peoria, then known as Fort Clark. Further on in the records we 
find the trio of Commissioners ordered that John Kinzie be recom- 
mended to the Governor as a fit person for Justice of the Peace for 
Fulton county. This jrentleman was the well known first settler of 
Chicago, and at that time resided there, it then being in this county. 
It must be remembered that Fult(Mi county at that time spread over 
a vast territory, and embraced all of the northern part of the State. 
Yes, though unlearned in law and unacquainted with science and 
literature, the Commissioners held jurisdiction over a large district; 
and that they conducted the public affairs rightly, and built a firm 
and solid foundation upon which the future prosperity and greatness 
of this portion of our beloved State should rest, can not ])e gainsaid. 
This is plainly evident from the unparalleled strides made in agricul- 
tural and mechanical progress; from the hundreds of thousands of 
busy inhabitants now dwelling within this territory ; and from the 
vast stores of wealth accumulated solely from resources within it. 
Those great and unconcealed wonders reflect honor and credit each 
day upon their founders; and as days and years multiply, when the 
same territory over which they presided shall l)e teeming with mil- 
lions of earnest and energetic people, then will great honors and 
more exultant praise and adoration be expressed for the brave, sturdy 
pioneers who explored and opened up a region so prolific, and founded 
a community that for genius, enterprise and wealth will in the near 
future out-rank many older settled countries, and indeed will vie 
with many kingdoms of the earth. Then these vast prairies will be 
cultivated as a garden. Every forest tree and woodland will be util- 
ized, and populous cities with numerous factories and vast stores of 
commerce may be numbered by the score. Then will the modes of 
travel be superior to the remarkable railroad facilities of to-day, and 
transport the increased products with greater facility. Indeed, every- 
thing will then })e as different and as superior to what they are at 
present as the things of to-day are as compared with those of fifty 
years ago. Our readers may regard this as wild and unreasonable 
speculation, as wholly visionary; but they are only the conclusions 
deduced from a carefid study of history, of a comparison of what 
has been accomplished, with certain advantages, with the results that 
the superior advantages now enjoyed will as certainly accomplish. 

Fin-t Court-House. — The Court then ordered "that a court-house 
be built, with a jail under the same roof; said buildings to be built 
of bricks, 26 by 34 feet, two stories high and well finished, or a 
hewed-log building 24x30 feet, one and a half stories high, w^ith a 
separate building for jail, 12x15 feet, built of hewed timber one 
foot square and well finished off and secure in every part. " 

It was then ordered that the Court meet July 3, at the office of 
Hugh R. Colter, to let the above jobs. Before adjourning, how- 
ever, a tax was ordered levied on personal property, household goods 
excepted, and on all town lots at " one-half per cent." 


On July 3 Barnes and Covell met per agreement, but adjourned 
without transacting any business, because MoflPat was not present. 
They met again the following day, and again adjourned, "for good 
causes, till the 5th at five o'clock in the mornino:." That was an 
early hour for officials to assemble to transact ])ublic business. 
Soon, however, the Commissioners did not meet till a later and a 
more fashionable hour, one in keeping with the modern spirit of the 
age. As the customs of civilization began to make themselves felt, 
they adjourned to meet at nine o'clock. The honorable Commis- 
sioners would fain indulge in a second morning nap and not don the 
ermine till the " third hour of the day." And before this distin- 
guished and time-honored official body was abolished ten o'clock 
was the hour for opening Court. 

On the 5th the Court assembled and by Abner Eads, Sheriff, 
was declared opened. This is the first time Eads attended Court. 
A petition was presented by O. M. Ross, a former supervisor of 
roads, praying to have the privilege of returning the delinquents of 
his district or of giving them over to the present supervisor in dis- 
trict 3, " on the road leading from the village of Peoria to the 
mouth of the Illinois river." 

. In regard to the court-house and jail it was ordered that the fol- 
loAving be a description of their size and the manner in which said 
buildings are to be finished : 

"The size of the court-house 26x30 feet, <me and a half stones 
high, and built of hewn logs ; a shingle roof, the shingles three feet 
long and well nailed on ; the u])])er floor, if puncheons, to be hewed 
on both sides ; three windows below and two above, with twelve 
lights of glass in each window ; window shutters to each window; a 
brick chimney with two fire-places, one below and one above ; one 
pair of stairs to go up on the inside of said building, to accommo- 
date the upper room. The above building to be raised and the roof 
on so that Court can be held in said house at the next term of the 
Circuit Court, which will be on the second Monday of October 
next ; and to be completed by the first day of January next. One- 
half of the money to be paid to the contractor when the house is 
raised and covered, and the l)alance when the house is completed. 

" On motion it was ordered that the following is a description of 
the style in which the jail is to be finished, to- wit : All of hewed 
logs or timber one foot square, floors and sides ; one Avindow with 
good iron grates ; the roof to be the same as that of the court-house ; 
a arood jail-door, and evervthins; else to make it a strong, substan- 
tial jail." 

The records then (piaintly proceed in the following strain : " On 
motion it was ordered that the above described buildings, agreeably 
to previous agreement, are set up and sold to the lowest l)idder. 
Agreeably to said order the jail was set up and offered to the public, 
and was finally stricken off' to Ossian M. Ross, for the sum of 8276, 
to be paid in State paper. The court-house was then ordered set up 



^,^-*=o-<t ^***'*«, 




to the public, whic^h was done, and it also stricken off to Ossian M. 
Ross, for 1500." 

Laying out Roads. — For many years the petitions for roads occu- 
pied ;•< very large proportion of the Court's time and attention, and 
consumed more space to record than all other proceedings. They 
are similar in construction, and it would be useless, and worse, to 
speak of them as often as they occur. At this meeting a petition 
was presented from sundry citizens " for a road running from the 
town of Lewistown through the village of Peoria in said county." 
The present thriving city of Peoria was only a " village," Avhile Lew- 
istown was able to wear the more exalted name of " town." View- 
ers were ajjpointed, as Avas the custom, and the road viewed and 
thought to be of "practical utility," and was then ordered by the 
Court to be opened. 

First Treasurer. — John Eveland, the gentleman who was ap- 
pointed Treasurer at the first meeting of the Court, " neglected to 
appear and take his engagements in Court as the law directs." 
Thomas L. Ross was then appointed and qualified. Thus, John 
Eveland lost the honor of being the first Treasurer of this grand 
old county. AVhy it was that he did not qualify we know not. It 
is true the labors were light, and the remuneration was proportion- 
ately small; yet, probably his own business aifairs would not per- 
mit him to assume the duties of an office so responsible. 

First Grand Jury. — The Sheriff was then ordered to summon 
persons to compose the grand jury "for the next term of the Cir- 
cuit Court," which was to have been held at the court-house on the 
second Monday of October, 1823 ; but from the Circuit Court records 
it is evident that no Court was held until the following spring, 
when another jury was summoned, which, although composed of 
almost the same men, Ave give in its proper place. The following 
persons were chosen at this time as grand jurors: A. C. Ransom, 
Joseph Ogee, Elijah .Wentworth, Elijah Putnian, Benjamin Seaville, 
Stephen Chase, John Totten, George Brown, John Eveland, Ros- 
well B. Fenner, Thomas L. Ross, William T. Davison, Hazael Put- 
man, Amos Eveland, George INIattheAvs, John Woolcott, Xorman 
Seaville, Theodore Sergeant, David Gallintin, William Higo-ins, 
Isaac Swan, Peter Wood, Charles Gardner and James I^veland. 

First 3farriage. — The first record of a marriage in the county, or 
the first license or certificate of which any record is made, is the fol- 
lowing: "The second of July, 1823, H. R. Colter j(»ined together 
Thomas L. Ross and Susan Xye in the bonds of matrimony, both 
of lawful age, and by virtue of license from proper authority." 
Who the "proper authority" was Ave are unable to say, as we have 
on record no other e\'idence of this mari'iage than the aboA-e. The 
first marriage license issued, as recorded, AAas not until about a year 
after this. 

Commissioners Paid for Locating County-^eat. — The Court met 
Sept. ], 1823, and, among other transactions, allowed H. R. Colter 



$4 for services performed in locating the seat of justice for the 
county. Stephen Chase was then given a like amount. Whether 
John Totten, the other member of the commission, ever received 
any pay we do not know; and as no record is made of it, suppose he 
did not. 

Pay for Assessing the Taxes. — The Treasurer, Thomas L. Ross, 
then also Assessor, was allowed the enormous amount of §16 for 
"taking a list of the taxable property of this county." When we 
consider the size of the county, which included all of the northern 
part of this great State, we can realize to some extent the small 
amount of property there was to assess and the value the honorable 
Court put upon Assessor Ross' labors. But Mr. Ross did not do 
all of the assessing, nor did §16 include total cost for assessing the 
entire county. Xo ; for in the same act we find that the "Treasurer 
was ordered to pay A. C. Ransom S4 for taking the taxable property 
of Chicago, in said county, and collecting the same," so soon as he, 
said Ransom, should ])ay the money thus collected over to the 
County Treasurer. Thus we see there is a small amount more to 
be added to the §16. The assessment of Chicago, which was then 
in this county, was let out to another party. But the §4 it must be 
remembered was Ransom's remuneration for both the assessment 
and collection of the taxes of that place. Now, allowing Ransom as 
much for collecting the taxes of Ciiicago as for assessing them, Ave 
have §2 for the labors of each, which, added to the §16 allowed Mr. 
Ross, would make §18, as the full and total amount for assessing 
one-third of the great State of Illinois, and, too, only a little over a 
half centurv atjo. This was the first assessment ever made of this 
territory so far as we are al)le to discover. We were enabled to go 
into further details in regard to this tax of Chicago, and figure 
the value of the property of that city at that time. Ransom never re- 
ceived his four dollars, nor did the county ever become the possessor 
of the amount of taxes collected by him. Ransom was a defaulter. 
He collected the money, consigned it to his own coffers, and went 
about his business, leaving the honorable Court to vent their indig- 
nation in passing orders for him to " hand the taxes over to the 
Treasurer immediately." Thus we see that the very first man in 
Chicago who ever handled public moneys defaulted, and many in 
that o-reat citv have admired Ransom's course and " gone and done 
likewise." Sept. 3, 1823, the Court peremptorily ordered Ransom 
to hand over the money, but he did not comply. Nov. 30 of the 
same year two citations were issued against Abner Eads and Am- 
herst C. Ransom to ajjpear at the next term of the Court and account 
for taxes collected in Chicago. The pioneers were generally veiy 
strict in having officials gi^^e "good and sufiicient l)onds" for the 
faithful perfi)rnian('e of their duties and to insure the safety of })ublic 
funds, but it ap])ears that Ransom gave none. The Sherifi, how- 
ever, was the collector of the county, and to Kim the Court looked 
for Ransom's default to be made good. Accordingly at the next 


term, liaiii^om not having pnt in an appearance, the full amount 
of taxes collected at Chicago was charged up to Sheriff Eads. This 
fell sorely upon the indignant Sheriff, and he appealed to the Court 
to be released. The Commissioners were at first immovable, but 
finally, at the June term, ]<S2o, he 'Svas given $11.42, being the 
amount deducted from his account as taxes collected at Chicago." 
The assessment was made at one-half of one per cent ; therefore, if 
$11.42 was this proportion of the whole value of the projjerty of 
Chicago, that would reach the large amount of $2,284. 

First Petit .hir)/. — Let us return to the Se})tember meeting of 
1823. The jail was completed and received, and Stephen Chase, 
Deputy Sheriff', was ordered to have the key to said jail. A traverse 
or petit jury was then selected for the Circuit Court which should 
meet the second Monday in October : Joseph Moffatt, Samuel Daugh- 
erty, John Griffin, Wm. Eads, Aquila Moffatt, James Fulton, Seth 
Fulton, William Clark, David D. Harkness, James .P. Harkness, 
Peter White, M. G. Fitch, Thomas Covell, D. W. Barnes, Wm. 
Smith, John Pixley, Chas. Sergeant, Reuben Eveland, A. W. Wil- 
liams, Reuben Fenuer, Ossian M. Ross, John L. Bogardus, Edward 
Carney and Isaac Eveland. 

Another Ferry. — John Griffin antl A(|uila Moffatt were granted a 
license to run a '' ferry across the Illinois river from and opposite 
the village of Peoria." The Commissioners persisted in having 
Peoria a "village ! " 

The Couniii Divided into JMilitia Frecinct't. — Among the pioneers 
"training" or "muster day" was one which was looked forward to 
with feelings of pleasure. We give a description of drill-day in 
this volume, page 212. It was necessary to have a well organized 
militia to repel ariy invasion of the Indians, which at that time 
were numerous. The Commissioners' Court in its official capacity 
took note of this, and accordingly they ordered "that the county of 
Fulton and all the attached part thereof compose one battalion dis- 
trict, and is hereby attached to the 17th regiment of Illinois militia." 
The county was then divided into three company districts, and an 
election for the first com])any district ordered to be held at the court- 
house Saturday, September 1, 1823, fi)r choosing a major. John 
W^oolcott, Stephen Chase and David Gallintin were a],)pointed 
judges. An election was ordered at the house of Joseph (Jgee " in 
the village of Peoria," <»n the last Saturday in September, for the 
same purpose. Edward Carney, Wm. Eads and Peter Wood were 
appointed judges. The third company district was ordered to hold 
a meeting at the house of John Kinzie, in Chicago, on the same 
day and for the purjiose of choosing a major and company officers. 
John Kinzie, Alex. Woolcott and John Hamlin were appointed 

Fine for SeUinfj Whisky. — In June, 1823, S. Daugherty was fined 
by the Court for selling whisky to the Indians at Peoria, 


Firf<t Marriage in Chicago. — Vrdindon the records the following : 
"September 4, 1823. Received in this office for record the foUoAV- 
ing certificate, to-wit : 

"I hereby certify that on the second day of July last I joined together in 
the holy state of matrimony Alexander Woolcott and Eleanor Kinzie, both of 
lawful age. 

"FuLTOx rorxTY, Aug. 22, 1823. . "JOHN HAMLIN, J. P." 

These parties lived in Chicago and were the first couple ever 
married in that city, so far as we have any evidence. Woolcott Mas 
quite a prominent man in the early history of that city, and for 
many years what is now Xorth State street bore his name. Eleanor 
Kinzie, the bride, was the daughter of the famous Indian trader 
and first permanent settler of C'hicago. We give a cut of his 
dwelling in this work. John Hamlin was Justice of the Peace and 
lived at Peoria. It may be possible that he lived at Chicago at this 
time, but we find him the followinor vear as a Peoria merchant. 
Thus we have the simple and only official record of the first mar- 
riage solemnized in the oreat citv of Chicago. 

Colter, Circuit acr/;.— November 30, 1823, H. R. Colter was 
given §40 as full compensation up to that date for services a.s 
"Deputy Clerk of the Circuit Court ten months and Clerk of the 
County Commissioners' Court for six months." Who it was that 
was Circuit Clerk we knou" not, but suppose there was none, as no 
mention is made of any, and all the writing in the early records 
was done by Colter. It is most likely that he was both Clerk and 
Deputy, as he held almost every official position. Again, we are at 
a loss to know where he served his ten months as "Deputy Clerk 
of the Circuit Court," unless it was at recording deeds, for up to 
the following spring no session of the Circuit Court had been held. 

O. M. Ross, Treasurer, — Robert Grant was ap])ointcd Treasurer 
in December, 1823, in the absence of Thomas L. Ross, the Treas- 
urer. He, however, came into Court Feb. 3, 1824, and "requested 
to have the privilege of resigning." This privilege was granted, and 
(). M. Ross appointed in his stead March 2, 1824. 

Xew Commis>ii<)ners and a Xew Cleric. — In August, 1824, an elec- 
tion was held, when James Barnes, David W. Barnes and James 
Gardner were chosen County Commissioners. They were evidently 
elected on the "reform ticket," for np sooner had they received the 
reins of government into their hands than they issued an order de- 
capitating Clerk Colter. The order reads as follows: "Ordered, 
that Hugh R. Colter be dismissed and discharged from holding the 
office of Clerk of this Court, for charo-ino- and taking; unlawful fees 
when acting as Clerk of said county." Stephen Dewey was imme- 
diately appointed to fill his place. It appears that Colter would not 
willingly give uj) the records at the pleasure of the Court, so the 
honorable body " ordered, that a writ issue from this Court, directed, 
to the Sheriff, requesting him to demand the records of this Court 
from Hugh R. Colter, late Clerk." 


A Record Book. — A small three-quire, paper-covered blank book 
was bought, which cost $4.o(). A very high price. 

Fearless (Jominit^sioiiers. — During the year the Commissioners pur- 
sued the even tenor of their way, granting petitions for roads, fer- 
ries, tavern licenses and election precincts ; appointing and remov- 
ing officers with an inflexibility of purpose that is really amusing. 
When they investigated a matter there were no ])al Hating circum- 
stauces to screen the delinquent, but the judicial guillotine cut off 
official heads with a refreshing impartiality. Negligent officers 
feared the power of the "triple C" more than Damocles feared the 
hair-suspended sword. They simply and plainly said "Go," and the 
official hesitated not but went at once, and tliat was the end of it. 

First Marria(/e License. — The first marriage license that was ever 
issued from this county was on New Year's day, 1825, and to 
Lyman Tracy. Previous to this Justices of the Peace, or other 
offi{aals, would perform the marriage ceremony and then send a cer- 
ti{i(';Ue of the marriage to the Clerk's office to be spread upon the 

Bounty for Wolf Scalps. — Wo.lves were abundant in that day and 
:vere troublesome to everybody. As a motive to induce persons to 
kill more of them than they were doing, the Commissioners, on 
March 7, 1825, offered a bounty of one dollar each £ur wolf scalps. 
This order was soon repealed, however, for wolf scalps came in so 
fist that in a short time the county would have been bankrupt, and 
yet we doubt if the numl)er of w(dves would have been missed. 

Estraij Pen. — One of the curious provisions of the law in the 
times of which we are now writing was, that stock was permitted to 
run at large. The Supreme Court of the State reversed the common- 
law idea prevailing almost universally in regard to stock running at 
large. In consequence of this every man was comjudled to fence 
his entire farm to protect his crops from wandering herds. The 
decision of the Court required stock to be fenced out instead of in. 
It would have been much less expensive for each man to have pro- 
tected himself from his own stock. 

Each settler had recorded in a book ke})t by the County Clerk, 
certain ear-marks and brands adopted by him for marking his stock, 
and by which he could identify his cattle and hogs. The vast prai- 
ries were then in their native condition, free from fences, cultivation 
or any sort of improvements. By many they wer(> thought to be 
worthless for all -MMctical firming purposes, except to furnish graz- 
ing f )r stock. Horses and cattle often wandered into adjoining 
counties. There were, however, means l)y which such stock might 
be recovered. In each county-scat was an cstray pen wherein all 
unclaimed and unknown stock was confined. Notice was quite often 
published of the number, kind and marks of the stock taken u]). At 
the March term, 1825, an estray [)en was ordered to be built. 

Road Tax. — Persons were required to work on the roads to ])av 
their poll-tax then as now. The schedule of labor prices foi- this 


work was as follows : "One day's work 62^ ots. ; for one pair of 
oxen 37J cts. ; wagon 25 cts. ; plow 12| cts." 

Chisus. — June 10, 1825, H. R. Colter was ordered to take the 
census of the county. We do not know the result, as his report 
was not seen. 

Bids for Assessment. — At the December term, 1826, the Clerk 
was ordered to give notice in three public places that " sealed pro- 
posals will be received by this Court on March 1, 1827, for taking 
the assessment of the taxable property of Fulton county for 

Count If I^evenue. — The amount of the tax of the county for 1828 
was only §176.68. This was not as much as it was in former years, 
but then Peoria, Chicago and all of the northern portion of the 
State were attached to this county. Peoria county was cut off from 
Fulton in 1825, and then that county included all north of it to the 
State line. Knox county, 'tis true, still remained attached to this 
in 1828, but that being the year the first settler located in that 
county it could not be expected that any revenue would be derived 
from there. When Knox county was formed it was attached to this 
for judicial purposes, and the first election held in that county was 
ordered bv the Commissioners' Court of this county. It constituted 
the entire county one election precinct, and ordered an election in 
1828 for Justices of the Peace to be held at the house of Stephen 
Osborn. Osaorn, Stephen Gum and Nicholas Voiles were ap- 
pointed judges. 

A New Court-House Built. — The old log court-house soon began to 
need repair, and indeed some of the more aristocratic thought the 
county should have a new one, a building more in keeping with the 
wealth and progress of the county. Accordingly, in March, 1830, 
the Court advertised for bids both for the repair of the old log 
house and for the erection of a new frame building. Abraham W. 
Williams wanted $475 to put the old one in proper repair. John 
McNeil offered to build a ne\y one for $649 and the old log one. 
After a short canvass of the bids the contract for building a new 
court-house was given to McNeil. This building did service for a 
few years when it, too, was abandoned and the present structure 
erected. The old frame court-house now stands one block west of 
the square in a dilai)idated state. When it was erected no doubt it 
was one of the finest and largest public buildings in the State. 

Trouble with Ojficials. — The first use that Fulton county had for a 
Coroner was, so far as we can find any evidence, in March, 1881, 
and even then it was not to hold an incjuest. Gen. Isaiah Stillman 
had been appointed Treasurer, and called upon the former Treasurer, 
John McNeil, for the moneys, books, etc., belonging to the county 
and in his possession. He (McNeil) reported to the Court that the 
Sheriff, Chas. Newcomb, Avho was also C'ollector, refused to pay 
over the whole amount of county taxes. It was therefoce ordered 
that a citation be issued directed to the Coroner, or any Constable, 


requiring the Sheriff to a])pear mul show cause, "if any he hath," 
why judgment should not be entered against him. This is the iirst 
mention of a Coroner in these records, and we arc unable to find 
who filled the position up to the year 1831, save for the first term. 

31erclianfi<' License. — At the April terra, 18.'>1, a li(^ense was rc- 
(^uired for the selling of merchandise. Twenty dollars was charged 
for this license. 

Paupers. — Joshua Stinson, the first ])auper, and Parmelia Fair- 
child, the second one, were ordered "let out to the lowest bidder by 
the year." 

Another Jail. — Necessarily, as faithful historians, we are compelled 
again to mar the pleasant progress of this chapter by reference to 
prison bars. It seems as the county advanced in wealth and pop- 
ulation the evil principle kept pace with it ; and, as immaculate and 
good as the pioneer fathers undoubtedly were, even among them 
there were wicked and vicious characters. The old log jail was 
unfit for use any longer; accordingly, in June, 1833, a new jail was 
ordered built on the northwest corner of the public square, on lot 
215. Samuel Cozard built it for !^()74. This structure stood for 
many years and held ])risoners rather loosely. In April, 1845, how- 
ever, it was burned down. There was a prisoner confined within it 
by the name of James Knott. His crime was the common one, at 
that time, of horse-stealing, Knott evidently concluded that he 
had been incarcerated long enough, and also that he would seek 
revenge upon the old prison for robbing him of his liberty as long 
as it had, and at the same time have some fun. xVccordingly, dur- 
ing the night and about the hour of twelve, he liberated himself, 
which seems not to have been an ovc-rlaborious task. He then set 
fire to the structure and fled. Soon the peaceful slumberers of the 
little village were aroused by the alarming cry of" fire." The mas- 
culine portion of the entire populace, and not a few women, rushed 
to the scene. Their jail was being licked up by the fire-fiend. 
Soon the greatest consternation prevailed. It was noised through 
the crowd that Knott was in the jail and would therefore perish. 
There was no key at hand, and as greatly as the early settlers des- 
pised horse-thieves their noble, generous hearts c(udd not see one 
perish in the flames without a desperate effort to rescue him. Im- 
mediately battering rams were being hurled against the heavv door 
by strong and resolute men. Every heart was bleeding with sym- 
pathy for poor Knott; and could he have had his trial at that time, 
"not guilty" would have been the speedy verdict. Soon the door 
gave way beneath the ponderous blows, and every eye was turned 
toward that spot of the burning structure, expecting to see James 
Knott, singed and burnt, run out; but no Knott came. Death-like 
silence ])revailed. A moment passed in this imj)atient waiting, when 
some, braver than the others, ventured into the burninu' buildino'; 
but James could not be found. Various rumors were then 
afloat about him. AViiat must have been their chagrin, when a few 


days afterwards the culprit was captured in the timber I He told 
the story of his escape and laughed at the joke he had played upon 

Clerk's Office. — At the same time the jail Avas contracted for, a 
Clerk's office was ordered built. The contract was let to Ephraim 
Brown for 8318. It was to be l)uilt upon lot 182. 

The Present Court- House. — During the latter part of 1836 and 
the early part of 1837, again the people began to agitate the ques- 
tion of building a new court-house. The county had grown rapidly, 
both in population and wealth. To further the plan a subscription 
was made by private individuals for the purpose. At the meeting 
of the Commissioners' Court, Friday, March 10, 1837, this resolu- 
tion was passed : " The Court being satisfied that the public inter- 
est demands, and the respectability and ]:>rospcrity of the people, 
require, the erection of a good, substantial court-house, suital)le to 
accommodate the present and future ]>opulation of the county, and 
the sum of S2,000 having been subscribed by the citizens of Fulton 
county towards defraying the expense of such a building, it is there- 
fore ordered that a court-h(juse be built on lots Xos. 181 and 214 in 
the town of Lewistown, and that said court-house be built of bricks, 
upon a suitable foundation of stone, and to be 40 by o3 feet on the 
ground with a projection of the roof of 12 feet, supported by four 
pillars of suitable material. It is further ordered that Xewton 
Walker, John McXeil, Erasmus D. Rice, Myron Phelps and John 
P. Boice be ap})ointed a committee to make a draft of the building 
and an estimate of the probable expense of such a building, and 
that they be requested to report the same to the Court to-morrow 
morning at ten o'clock." This committee ( and a better one could 
not have Ijeen selected, nor even at this day could it be excelled) 
reported that a building such as was desired would cost S7,ol7. 
Xewton AValker was then appointed agent to purchase material and 
make contracts for said building on behalf of the county. Xo con- 
tracts were ever let, hoAvever, hut AValker was chosen superintend- 
ent for the county, and he superintended the entire work. The 
total cost of the buildina; was 89,800. 

It stands in the center of a small square, which is set with many 
large and beautiful maple and other trees. The upper room, which 
occupies the entire second floor, is used for Circuit Court purposes. 
It is reached by two flights of iron stairways, Avhich are constructed 
in the portico, and land together on a platform in front of the door. 
This portico extends across the entire east end of the building, and 
is supported by four large stone pillars, nine feet nine inches in 
circumference, and extending to the top of the building. On the 
first floor there is a hall-way running through the building from 
east to west. On either side of this are offices for the county 
officials. Upon the south side are the County Judge's and Sheriff's 
offices. Upon the opjiosite side are two offices occupied by the 
County Treasurer and County School Superintendent. The Circuit 


and County Clork.s occupy a builclino; known a? the " iire-proof/' 
which is located west of the main buikling within the same square. 
This buikling is so constructed as to insure the public records from 
loss by fire. 

This building when erected was among; the finest and largest 
court-houses in the West, and for many years it stood foremost 
among the public buildings of Illinois, and was pointed to with 
pride not only by the citizens of Fulton county but by those 
throughout Central Illinois. It stood as a monument of the enter- 
prise of the pioneers of this section, and was one of the grandest 
evidences of the prosperity of the newly settled State. It stands 
to-day as solid as when first built. Every stone and brick is in its 
place, and every timljer has stood the storms of nearly half a cen- 
tury unshakem Around this old building cluster pleasant recollec- 
tions of the long-ago. Within its storm-beaten walls have been 
heard pleas as rich in eloquence as were ever presented to judge or 
jury. Within those old walls, made sacred by time and the mem- 
ories of some of the grandest characters and most gifted men known 
in the history of Illinois, many a scene full of historic interest has 
occurred, which, could we accurately picture them, would be read 
more as a romance than prosaic history. What numbers of 
trembling and downcast prisoners have stood before the 
learned tribunal within the old upper room, to plead " Guilty," or 
"Not Guilty!" Then the long, hotly-contested trial came; wit- 
nesses examined and cross-examined ; the wrangle and wordy wars 
between the lawyers; the appeal to the jury and addresses, which 
for logic, eloquence, touching, sympathetic eloquence, have not been 
excelled in all the broad land. How many times have the twelve 
jurors, sworn to be impartial, filed into their little secret room, to 
consult and decide the fate of the prisoner at the bar ! Then how 
often have the joyous words come forth, " Not Guilty ! " But, 
again, how very many have stood before the Judge to hear in meas- 
ured tones their sentence ! Sometimes it was thouoht Justice was 
outraged; that the Judge, jury and Prosecuting Attorney had pros- 
tituted their high positions, violated their sworn duty, and made 
easy the escape for culprits; yet, taking it all in all, the goddess of 
justice has shed no more tears over insults to her holy and righteous 
charge than she has at any other judgment-bar in the State. Law 
and justice have almost always been vindicated, and the oifender 

C/Ould these old walls speak and tell us of the eloquent andeflFect- 
ive pleadings of Lincoln, Baker, Richardson, McDougal, Brown- 
ing, Bushnell, Manning, Walker and others, orof the learned decis- 
ions of Douglas, A'oung, Thomas, Walker and Higbie, that they 
have listened to, how eagerly we would seek them ! We do not for- 
get that at the present time justice is as swiftly vindicated as ever 
before; that the Fulton county Bar is at its maximum in point of 
legal ability. It takes the mazes of time to add the luster of fame 


to the labors and character of most men. That which is of the past, 
or of the future, we are wont to believe possesses more merit than 
that which we have with us. Thus it is with our leual lights of 

PanneUa Fairchikl. — In June, 1838, it was "ordered, that the 
keeping of Parmelia Fairchikl [the second pauper] for the ensuing 
year be now offered by the Sheriff. Whereupon, afterwards the 
Sheriff reported that he had offered the keeping of said P. Fair- 
child and struck her off to Absalom Walters for the sum of §104, 
he being the lowest and best bidder and agreeing to take charge and 
maintain her for one year." 

First Temperance Tro/7;. — It seems that even among the pioneers, 
almost all of whom we are led to believe used intoxicating liquors 
more Qr less, there were temperance advocates. Pej-haps the first 
temperance work ever done in the county was in 1838. The good 
work was then inaugurated which has since driven out every saloon 
from the borders of Fulton county ; has lifted many of the fallen, 
and saved thousands of our young men from the inevitable ruin of 
body and soul that rum brings to the unfortunate one who tamjjers 
with it. 

June 7, 1838, we find this item on the records relative to the 
temperance labors of these noble pioneers, — pioneers both as to open- 
ing up a new and beautiful country and as to beginning to roll the 
temperance stone: "The petition of A. M. Culton and other citi- 
zens of Canton and Farmington and vicinity, requesting this Court 
to withhold licenses for the retailing of spirituous liquors, being 
presented in Court, and the prayer and object of the petition being 
fully considered and duly appreciated by the Court, it is considered 
by this Court that however desirable it may be to suppress and pre- 
vent the use of intoxicating liquors, yet the members of this Court 
are of the opinion that any respectable citizen has the right to re- 
quire, and the Court is bound by the exi.-tjng laws of the State to 
grant, licenses to keep public houses of entertainment, or taverns, 
and that the object of the petitioners can only be obtained by peti- 
tion to the Legislature." 

A Xeic Hegime in Choosing Commissioners. — Heretofore the terms 
of office of all three of the Commissioners had expired at the same 
time; but in 1838 a new rule was adopted, in compliance with an 
act of the Legislature. Xow they were to be elected for three years 
and one retire every year, thus leaving two experienced men in 
office. For the first terms, however, one of them should serve only 
one year, another two and the third three years. On convening at 
the fall term of this year they drew lots to decide the term each 
should serve. Three ])ieces of paper, upon which Avere written 
"one year," "two years," "three years," respectively, were put into 
a hat. Hiram Wentworth drew the one-year slip, John Johnson 
the one indicating two years, and John Baker the one for the three- 
vear term. 


Pauperfi f>okJ. — The old custom of letting out paupers singly was 
abolished in March, 1843, and a somewhat diiferent mode instituted. 
" They were all," as the record puts it, '' sold at the door of the 
court-house by the Sheriif, and Emsley Wiley being the lowest bid- 
der, they were struck oflP to him for the sum of |549." Whether 
the veteran pauper, Parmelia Fairchild, was among the number we 
know not, but presume she was, as she was bid off alone the year 
previous. She had been on hand for nigh unto twenty years, and 
had always been treated kindly by the Court. To support her had 
become a portion of its labor, and year after year we find she was " bid 
off," and the Commissioners as cheerfully paid bills for keeping her 
as they did their own salaries. 

The following year, 1844, the records say, in referring to letting 
out the paupers: ''Four were absolutely sold and two condition- 
ally." What they regarded as an "absolute sale" we do not 

A Xeir Jail Ordered Built. — In 1846 a jail with a jailor's residence 
was ordered built. However, the subject was discussed some 
among tlie ])eople, and it was a question whether a majority of the 
tax-payers favored the building of a new jail. The Commissioners, 
wishing to comply with the wishes of the majority, ordered the 
question voted upon at the August election of that year. This was 
accordingly done, and the measure defeated, and the order repealed. 

Ex-Sheriff Waggoner, when he resided where Judge S. P. Shope 
does at present in the city of Lewistown, which was about this time, 
the country to the north of his residence was thickly covered with 
hazel. During the trial of JS^ehemiah North up for tiie murder of Nor- 
man Beamas, he kept the prisoner at his house, there being no jail. 
Although it seems that he might have very easily effected his escape, 
yet he never attempted it. He was- admitted to bail by the Court, 
but never appeared for trial. He took this opportunity for making 
good his escape, and since has never been heard from. 

The Sheriff also tells us of a little Jllnglish prisoner whom he kept 
at his residence for some time. During the evening the Sheriff would 
leave him with his wife and go down town and remain often for 
several hours. The prisoner was unshackled and seemingly un- 
watched, yet he never attempted to make his escape while in the 
hands of Sheriff Waggoner. He was taken to Monmouth and con- 
fined in the jail there for a time, but soon made his escape. He 
broke jail there and was never recaptured. He wrote Major Wag- 
goner a letter some time afterw:trd, from New Philadelphia, ()., in 
which he stated that he didn't like the Monmovith jailor and didn't 
propose to stay there ; so left. He expressed great friendship for the 
Major and said he never would have attempted his escape while in 
his hands. 

Fird Poor Farm. — June 9, 1848, we find on the records this 
order : " Ordered, that the Clerk of this Court enter upon the 
records that there is a poor-house established in this county, and it 


is now ready for the reception of the poor of the county." This is 
the lirst mention made, upon the records, of a poor farm, and they 
are silent as to its cost or location. It was, however, located upon 
the northwest quarter of sec. 25, Cass township, and the east half 
of the northwest quarter of see. 36. The former tract cost 81,400, 
the latter §25. The paupers were cared for at this ]>lace for a while, 
when s(^me thought it too expensive and wished to return to the 
old mode. This they did, but to their sorrow, for they then found the 
expense per pauper was almost double Avhat it had been keeping them 
at the poor-house. 

Free Ferry. — June 5, 1846, 8100 was given Samuel Gilfry to run 
a free ferry for one year across Spoon river at AVaterford. Previous 
to this a license and a schedule of prices were given to govern the 
ferryman ; but the prices charged in later years were much lower 
than those given for Ross' ferry over the Illinois. 

The Lad Meeting. — The new Constitution which went into effect 
in 1849, abolished this Court, but before adjourning the Court or- 
dered a vote taken for or against township orgauiziitiou at the next 
election. On Oct. 11 the County Commissioners' Court performed 
its last official duties. Their last act was to allow Myron Phelps 
§1,888 for goods furnished the county. The Court then adjourned 
till "court in course," but never re-assembled. 



. ■ GEOLOGY.* 

Fulton county contains a superficial area of about twenty-four 
townsliips, or about 864 square miles. It is triangular in sh«pe, 
and is bounded on the north by Knox and Peoria eoiinties, on the 
east by Peoria county and the Illinois river, on the south by 
Schuyfer county, and on the west by Schuyler, McDonough and 
Warren counties. The principal streams in the county are the Illi- 
nois river, forming its main boundary on the east and southeast for 
a distance of about thirty miles ; Spoon river and its tributaries, 
which traverse nearly the whole extent of the county from north to 
south ; and CV)pperas creek, which drains a considerable area in the 
northeastern portion of the county. These streams drain the whole 
area of the county, and are from 150 to !:^:)0 feet below the general 
level of the highlands. 

Originally the surface was nearly equally divided into prairie and 
timbered lands, the former occupying the most elevated positions of 
the county, as well as a part of the Illinois-river bottoms, while 
the timber belts are restricted to the more broken lands skirting the 
water-courses. INIucli of the original timber, however, has been 
cleared away in developing the agricultural resources of the county, 
and splendid farms now occupy a large portion of the area which 
but a few years since. was covered with a dense forest. Much of 
the upland was originally timbered with a dense growth of sugar- 
maple, black-walnut, linden, hackberry, elm, honey-locust and wild 
cherry, indicating a very rich and productive soil. This growth of 
timber usually prevails where the Loess overlies the drift clays on a 
moderately level surface, and these lands iii their productive qualities 
are second to none in the State. Where the surface is broken into 
sharp ridges, along the borders of the smaller streams, black and 
white oak and hickory are the prevailing.timber, and the soil is a 
thin, chocolate-colored, or In'OAvn clay loam, well adapted to the 
growth of small grain, clover or fruit. 

The prairies generally have a rolling surface, though in the region 
about Fairview there are some quite flat prairies that require drain- 
ing in wet season^. The soil on the })rairies is a dark-ln-own or 
black mold, varying from one to three feet in thitikuess, Mitka sub- 

••■Taken from State Geologist A. H. Worthen's Report. 


soil of brown clay loam. The bottom lands on the western bank of 
the Illinois river are from one to fonr miles in width, and are mostly 
covered with timber, thongh there is some bottom })rairie near the 
month of Spoon river. A good deal of this bottom land is too low 
and marshy for cnltivation, bnt where it is sufficiently elevated the 
soil is of a rich, sandy loam, and 'very productive. 

The bluffs generally range from 125 to 150 feet in height, and 
are usually cut into sharp ridges by the valleys of the small streams 
that drain the adjacent country. The lower parts of these bluffs, to 
the height of 75 to 100 feet, consist of the stratified rocks of the 
Coal Measures into which the original valley was excavated, and 
their elevation has l)ecn subsequently increased by the accumulation 
(»f Drift clays and lacustrine deposits u})on them. The valley of 
Spoon river seldom exceeds a mile in w idth, and is excavated into 
the Lower Carboniferous limestone on that part of its course extend- 
ing from Bernadotte. The depth of this valley is about the same 
as that of the Illinois river, but the lower rocks are reached here, 
in consequence of the easterly dip of the strata, wliich brings the 
limestone nearer to the surface in the western portion of the county. 

Surface GeoIo</i/. — The surface deposits of Fulton county consist 
of Drift clays and gravel, with the subsequent lacustrine and alluvial 
accumulations. The Drift pro])er ranges in thickness from 30 to 00 
feet or more, and is usuqlly composed of thrown and bluish-colored 
clays with gravel, and boulders of metamorphic and igneous rocks, 
varying in size from a ])ebble to masses of several tons' weight. 
Usually the brown clays constitute the u])])er ])ortion of the deposit, 
and the blue clays the lower. In the vicinity of Utica a bed of 
ferruginous conglomerate, about two feet in thickness, underlies the 
Drift clays, and similar beds in local outliers have been met with in 
tlie same ])osition, at several localities in the State. This conglom- 
erate exactly resembles the bed at Metropolis in Massic county, on 
the Ohio river, which has been usually referred to the Tertiary 
period, and may be of the same age. 

On the west side of Big-creek bridge, near Canton, in grading the 
track for the T., P. & W. railroad, a band of black mold or soil, 
containing leaves and fragments of wood, was found below the 
Drift clays, which is no doubt a part of the ancient soil covering 
the surface anterior to the Drift epoch. A similar bed has been 
found in sinking shafts and wells in various parts of the State, and 
indeed in hundreds of places in Fulton county alone, indicating the 
prevalence of dry land over a considerable portion of the present 
area of the State during the Post-Tertiary period. Mr. John Wolf, 
of Canton, reports a similar bed of black, peaty soil, four feet in 
thickness, underlying the town of Fairview, at the depth of eleven 
feet. The heaviest deposits of Drift occur along the Illinois-river 
bluffs and in the vicinity of Lewistown, where the beds range from 
40 to 60 feet in thickness. 

The Loess caps the bluffs of the Illinois river, and extends back 


for three or four miles with a constantly diminishino; thickness. 
This deposit consists of buif or light-brown, loamy sand, imperfectly 
stratified, and locallv contains abundance of land and fresh-water 

Okkr Geological Formations. — The stratified rocks belong mainly 
to the Coal Measures, with a limited exposure of the St. Louis 
limestone in the valley of Spoon river. Nearly all of the uplands 
in the county are underlaid by coal, and Prof Worthen says that he 
has found the most comi)lete exposure of the productive Coal 
Measure in this county that he has met with in the State. He 
has, therefore, considered the section constructed in Fulton as a 
typical one, and has used it for the co-ordination of the coal strata 
throughout the central and western portion of the State. There 
were seven consecutive seams found here, and all exposed by their 
natural outcrop ; and all except the upper one have been worked 
to a greater or less extent. The aggregate thickness of these coal 
seams is about 25 feet, and' their individual range is from twenty 
inches to six feet in thickness. The three lower seams outcrop in 
the southern and western portions of the county, especially along 
the bluifs of Spoon river; and as the general dip of the strata is to 
the eastward, they pass below the level of the Illinois river, and 
are therefore not seen on the eastern borders of the county. The 
upper seams underlie nearly all of the central and eastern portions 
of the county, and one of them. No. 4, is found south of Spoon 
river, underlying the highlands in the vicinity of Astoria. 

These coal seams are numbered from the bottom upward. The 
onlv point in the county where No. 1 is sufliciently developed to be 
profitably worked is in the vicinity of Seville. The seam is worked 
here at two localities, one above the railroad bridge and the other 
below. At these mines the coal averages about three feet in thick- 

In the vicinity of Avon a seam of cannel coal occurs at about the 
same horizon as No. 1. This seam is only about 14 to 20 inches in 
thickness. It w^as extensively worked in 1859, for the distillation 
of coal oil. Ten retorts were then in operation at this locality, and 
the product was said to be 30 gallons from a ton of coal. However, 
the development of the oil wells of Pennsylvania shortly afterwards 
put a stop to the manufacture of oil from cannel coal in this State, 
and the mines were abandoned. This seam is underlaid here by 
about five feet of excellent fire-clay. 

Coal No. 2 is one of the most regular seams in the whole series, 
and usually ranges from two to three feet in thickness. It will be 
found everywhere in the bluffs of Spoon river, where the strata are 
well exposed, and its stmtigraj^hical position is about 40 or 50 feet 
above the horizon of No. 1, although at Seville the distance inter- 
vening between them is about 70 feet. The roof is almost invari- 
ably a blue clay shale, and in tunneling it requires to be thoroughly 
cribbed to prevent the falling of the roof In the south part of the 


coimtv this seam outcrops on Otter creek, about a mile and a half 
west of Vermont, where it has been worked since the earliest settle- 
ment of the county. It ranges in thickness from two and a half 
to three feet. A boring for oil was made in the valley of this creek 
bv Moses Matthewson. The boring extended to the depth of about 
800 feet, but no journal was kept of the diiferent strata passed 
through. In the bluif^ of Spoon river south of Lcwistown, as well 
as on some of the small tributaries of that stream in the same 
vicinitv, Xo. 2 is worked at many points, and also about half a 
mile west of that city. Half a mile east of Lewistowu this seam 
has been opened by a shaft 40 feet in depth on the lands of Mr. 
Hunter. "Two miles and a half southeast of liCwistown," Prof. 
AVorthen says, " we found a mine opened in this seam on the lands 
of Mr. AVm. AVinterbottom, on our first visit to the county in 1859, 
and at the same time it had been opened a mile nearer the town by 
Mr. Butler. In the vicinity of Beruadotte this coal is found at an 
elevation of about 80 feet above the river level, and the coal was 
mined bv Mr. Parks one mile and a half southwest of the village, 
in 1859." Xo. 2 usually affords coal of an excellent quality, freer 
from the bi-sulphuret of iron than the average of Illinois coals, and 
one that cokes well and contains more than an average of fixed 

Coal Xo. 3 has been mined but little in this county. It usually 
lies from 40 to 60 feet above Xo. 2. 

Coal Xo. 4 is a very persistent seam in its development, and was 
found at every locality in this county that Avas examined by the 
State Geologist. On the south side of Spoon river it underlies the 
highlands about Astoria, and it was opened here as early as 1859. 
The seam is here from four and a half to five feet in thickness, and 
is overlaid by about two feet oi black sliale that forms a good roof 
This seam is very extensively worked near Astoria, and at St. 
David and Canton. At Breed's Station a tunnel has been opened 
in this seam. The coal averages about five feet in thickness here. 
It is worked near Cuba, and northwest of Fairview it is Avorked at 
several points on the breaks of Coal creek. This may be consider- 
ed the most valuable of all the coals outcropping in this county, 
from its Avide extent and the average quality of the coal Avhich it 

Coal Xo. r is quite local in its deA'elopment, and is not worked to 
any extent except in the vicinity of Cuba, Avhere it ranges from 
four to fiA'e feet in thickness. 

Coal Xo. 6 is the highest coal in the series that has been Avorked 
to any extent in this county, and it affords an excellent coking coal, 
and also a better smiths' coal than is usually obtained from any of 
the lower seams. It Agarics in thickness from four to fi\'e feet. Prof. 
W. says of this seam: "On our first A'isit to this county in 1859, we 
found this seam opened at Piper's place, tAvo miles north of Canton ; 
at Barton's place, two and a half miles north of Farmingtou ; and it 

Vg^^irf <%,^,.- ^. 

^. <J5^ . <^M^x^^^^^ Z^ 




was also worked by Mr. Burbridge at that time, about three miles 
w^est of Farminerton, (in Little creek. More recently it has been 
opened by Mr. Johnson on land adjoining Piper's." Six miles 
northeast of Canton, on a branch of Copperas creek, this coal has 
been worked by tunnelling. It was worked at Powell's, near Nor- 
ris. Burbridge & Co.'s shaft, one mile w^est of Farmington, reaches 
coal No. 6 at a depth of ■2() feet. This seam lies about Ui) feet below 
the leyel of the town of Farmington. It is also mined two miles 
northeast of Fairyiew. This seam prol)ably underlies some three or 
four townships north and east of Canton, and may be reached any- 
where in that region at a depth yarying from 25 to 100 feet. 

Coal No. 7 is the highest coal stratum seen in this county, and 
l)eing usually only from IG to 20 inches in thickness no attempt has 
been made to mine it in competition witli thicker seams. 


Bititiidiious Coal. — The oreat mineral wealth of Fulton county, as 
must be apparent, consists in its almost inexhaustible beds of coal, 
which are so distril)ute(l as to be easily accessible to eyery portion of 
the county. The three lower seams outcroj) on all the principal streams 
in the southern and western ])ortions of the county, while coals 4, 5 
!Uk1 6, the thickest and most yahiable seams known in the northern 
jKirtion of the State, underlie the ceiitral and northeastern })ortions 
of the county. These coals underlie nearly or (|uite seyen townships, 
with an nggregate thickness of about 11 feet; and, throwing out of 
the calculation entirely No. o, which is more local in its deyclo})- 
ment than the other two, we still haye an aggregate of from nine to 
ten feet of coal, equal to 9,000,000 tons of coal to the square mile 
as the product of these two seams, from tlie central and northeastern 
portions of the county alone, and within loO feet of the surface at 
the general leyel of the j)rairie region. Taking the seyen townshi[)s, 
there would be, of these tMM) seams, 2,268,000,000 tons of coal finder- 
lying the sui'face. Who could calcidate the number of tons of all 
the seyen strata underlying the entire county? Coal-mining is yet 
in its infancy in this most highly fayorcd region. 

(Jannel (hal. — A thin seam of cannel coal occurs in the yicinity 
of Ayon, and before the discoyery of the yast deposits of oil in 
Pennsylyania it was mined for the distillation of oil. 

FIrr-Claf/. — A good l)ed of tire-clay, from three to fiye feet in 
thickness, occurs below the cannel coal at Ayon. At Andrews' coal 
bank, two miles and a half north of Marietta, there are from two to 
three feet of good iire-clay below the coal, and at many other locali- 
ties in the county. 

Iron Ore. — "Iron ore in ciuisiderable (piantities," says Prof W., 
" was met with at several localities in the county. In the yicinity 
ofSeyille there is a bed oi Limomie, from eight to twelye inches 
thick, immediately aboye the limestone that forms the roof of the 
lower coal." The same band of ore was seen in the yicinity of 



Avon. In the vicinity of Utica there is considerable impure car- 
bonate of iron. Iron ore is ahiiost universally disseminated through 
the Coal Measures in this State, but usually in too small quantities 
to be of any great value for the production of metallic iron ; but it 
is quite probable that the ores of this county may at some future 
time become valuable for this ])urpose. 

BulkUng-Stone. — The Coal Measures seldcjui afford large quanti- 
ties of limestone of sufficient thickness and of the right quality for 
good building-stone, and this material has to be sup})lied mainly 
irom the sandstones, which are usually the })rcvailing rock in the 
coal regions. There are some beds of limestone, however, in this 
county that furnish a suitable material for rough walls, though the 
supply is quite limited. 

Limestone for Lime. — The gray concretionary beds of the St. 
Louis group, which outcroj) in the valley of Spoon river from Se- 
ville to Bernadotte, will afford the best material for the manufacture 
of quick-lime to be found in the county. This rock is usually a 
nearly pure carbonate of lime, and the beds in the vicinity of Alton, 
which also belong to this group, aff'ord the purest and whitest of 
lime made in the State. The limestone above No. 7 coal is gener- 
ally a purer carbonate of lime than any other of the Coal Measure 
limestones in this county, and might be extensively used in the 
vicinity of Farmington for lime-burning. 

f^dud (uid Clay for BrU-h. — These materials are abundant on all 
the u])lands in the county. On the bluff' lands adjacent to the Illi- 
nois river the Loess affords an excellent material for this purpose, 
in wliich the ingredients are often mixed in just the right propor- 
tions. The subsoils of the prairies and of the oak ridges furnish an 
abundance of brown clay, which, mingled with sand that is abun- 
dant in the beds of the streams, forms a gocxl uiaterial for this ])ur- 
pose. These materials are so universally distributed that they may 
be readily found in everv neiy;hborhood, and on almost everv farm in 
tlie county. 

The reason whv timber soil is liy;hter and tiunner than that of the 
})rairie, is probably the fa(^t that grass outran the trees in taking- 
possession of the land, the latter coming slowly uj) the water courses 
and contending against the annual jirairie fires. The trees once 
upon the hill-sides and high land, shi.ding the ground, the grass 
and other herbaceous plants were so killed out that the surface easily 
washed down, rendering it still poorer for the latter while the trees 
held on l)y their deeper roots. 



Of the species of native animals that once roamed the flowery 
j)rairies and wild forests of Fulton county, but few of the smaller 
remain, iind none of the larjii;er. Of the latter we cannot even iind 
a specimen preserved in taxidermy. The buffalo which grazed u])on 
the verdant prairies has been driven westward. With or before it 
went the beaver, elk, badger, panther, black wolf and black bear. 
Some animals that were quite numerous have l)ecome very rare, 
such as the gray fox, the catamount," otter, lynx, and the beautiful 
Virginia deer. 

There still remain many of the different species, mostly inhabit- 
ing the country adjacent to the Illinois and Spoon rivers and a few 
of the other larger streams. These arc, however, fast disap]>earing, 
and ere long will be known only in iiistorv, as are the deer, the 
beaver, and the bison. Among those still to be found here are the 
gray wolf, which is numerous in some parts, the opossum, raccoon, 
mink, muskrat, the common weasel, the small brown weasel, skunk, 
woodchuck, or Maryland marmot, jjrairie mole, common shrew mole, 
meadow and deer mouse, and the gray rabbit. Of sijuirrels there 
are the gray timber s(|uirrel, the fox, chi])munk, the large gray 
j)rairic s(|uirrel, the striped and the s})otted prairie sipiirrel, and the 
beautiful Hying sipurrcl. The dark-brown and the reddish bat are 
common. Other small animals have been found lu'rc whicii have 
strayed from other localities. 


(Jf the o,()0() existing species of birds many have sojourned in this 
county, some temporarily and others for a considerable time. Many 
migratory species come only at long intervals, and therefore but little 
is known of them. 

There is not a more fascinating study than that afforded by our 
feathered friends. Their free movements through seemingly bound- 
less space, the joyous songs of many, and the characteristic tones of 
all, their brilliant colors, their lively manners, and their wonderful 
instincts, have from earliest ages made a strong impression on the 
minds of men, and in the infancy of intellect gave rise to many 


peculiar and mysterious associations. Hence the flight of birds 
was made tiie foundation of a peculiar art of divination. Relig:ion 
borrowed many symbols from tliem and poetry many of its orna- 
ments. Birds avail themselves of their powers of wing to seek 
situations adapted for them in respect to temperature and supply of 
food. The arrival of summer birds is alwavs a welcome sign of 
advancing spring, and is associated with all that is cheerful and 
delightful. Some birds come almost at the same date annuallv ; 
others are more influenced by the character of the season, as mild 
or severe. 

The following list is as nearly correct as can be compiled from the 
available information upon the subject : 

Ferchcrs. — This order of birds is by far the most numerous, and 
includes nearly all those which are attractive eitlier in plumage or 
in song. The ruby-throated humming-bird, with its exquisite 
plumage and almost ethereal existence, is at the head of the list. 
This is the humming-bird which is always the delight of the 
children, and is the only one found in Illinois. The chimney swal- 
low, easily known from other swallows bv its very long wings and 
forked tail, and which is a true swift, is quite numerous. Of the 
whipjioorwill family tliere are two representatives, — the whippoorwill 
proper, whose uote enb'vens the forest at night, and tlie night-hawk. 
The belted kingfisher, so well known to the school-boy, is the 
onlv member of its familv in this region. At the head of the flv- 
«^atchers is the king-bird, the crested flv-catcher and the wood 

Sub-order of -SVnf/c/'.v — Thrfishfdinilii. — Of this family arc the robin, 
the wood thrush, Wilson's thrush, the blue-bird, the ruby-crowned 
and the golden-crested wren, tit-lai-k. tlie black and the white 
creeper, blue yellow-backed warbler, vel low-breasted chat, worm- 
eating warbler, blue-wiuged yellow warl)lcr, Tennessee warbler, and 
golden-crowned thrush. S/triJ:r fami/i/. — This family is represented 
by the great northern shrike, red-eyed fly-catcher, white-eyed fly- 
catcher, the blue-headed and the yellow-throated fly-catcher. 
Siraf/ow famili/. — This family of birds are very numerous in Ful- 
ton county. Among them are the barn swallow, white-bellied 
swallow, bank swallow, clitf swallow, and purple martin. Wa.r- 
irinr/ faini/i/. — The cedar bird is the representative of the wax-wing 
in America. MofJ:!nf/-blriJ fdnulij. — The genera of this family ar(> 
the cat-bird, brown thrush, the house and winter wren. Finch and 
Sparrow familif. — The snow bunting and Smith's bunting appear 
only in winter. The purjile finch, the yellow bird and the lark 
finch inhabit this county. Of the passerine genus of this family 
are the Savannah -^j^arrow, the field and the chipping sj>arrow, the 
black snow-l)ird, the tree sparrow the song sparrow, the swamp and 
the fox-colored sparrow, the black-throated bunting, the rose- 
breasted gros-beak and the ground robin. Titmouse family is 
represented by the chickadee and the tufted titmouse. Creeper 


family. — There are two specimens of this lamily, — the white-bellied 
nut-hatch and the American creeper. Skylark family. — This melo- 
dious family is represented here by only the common skylark of the 
prairie. Black-bird family. — The rusty black-bird, the crow black- 
bird, the cow-bird, the red-winged black-bird, the meadow lark, the 
orchard and the Baltimore orioles of this family, are the most beau- 
tiful and brilliant of birds that inhabit this region. Croiv family. 
— The blue-jay and the common crow comprise the species of this 

Birds of Prey. — This order of birds comprises all those, with few 
exceptions, which pursue and capture birds and other animals for 
food. They are mostly of large size, the females are larger than the 
males, they live in pairs, and choose their mates for life. Most rap- 
torial birds have disappeared. Among them arc the golden eagle, 
which was always rare but now no longer seen here ; the bald eagle, 
or properly the white-headed eagle, once quite common, now scarce. 
Some well preserved specimens of this genus are in the county. 
This eagle enjoys the honor of standing as our national emblem. 
Benjamin Franklin lamented the selection of this bird as emblemat- 
ical of the Union, for its great cowardice. It has the ability of 
ascending in circular sweeps without any apparent motion of the 
wings or the tail, and it often rises in this manner until it disappears 
from view ; when at an immense height, and as if observing an 
object on the ground, it sometimes closes its wings, and glides to- 
ward the earth with such velocity that the eye can scarcely follow 
it, causing a loud rustling sound like a violent gust of wind among 
the branches of the forest. The Hawk family has eight or nine 
species, some but seldom seen, others common. The turkey-buzzard 
has almost, if not quite, disappeared. Of the owl genera are sever- 
al species, though all are but seldom seen because of their nocturnal 
habits. Among them are the ])arn owl, the screech owl, tlie long 
and the short-eared owl, the barred owl, and the snowy owl, the lat- 
ter being the rarest. 

Climbers. — But few of this order remain in the county, the most 
common of which are the woodpeckers. Of the various kinds are 
the golden-winged, the pileated, the hairy, the downy, the yellow- 
bellied, red-bellied and the red-headed. At an early day the Car- 
olina parrot was often seen, but he has now entirely deserted thU 
section. The yellow and black-billed cuckoos are occasionally seen. 

Scrafchers. — This order contains but few genera in this county. 
The wild turkey, the choicest of game, has almost entirely disap- 
peared, and was the only one of its family that ever sojourned here. 
In an early day they were in abundance, (rrousc fa/mily. — The 
chiefest among this family is the prairie chicken, which, if not care- 
fully protected, must ere long follow the wild turkey, never to re- 
turn. The ruffled grouse, wrongfully called "pheasant," has of late 
made its appearance. It is quite fond of cultivated fields, and, if 
properly protected and encouraged until it becomes fairly settled. 


will make a fine addition to the game, and fill the place of the 
prairie chicken. Partridge famUy. — The fate of that excellent bird, 
the quail, is only a question of a short time. The Dove family. — The 
wild pigeons continue to make their semi-annual visits, but not in 
such vast numbers as vears ago. Acres of forest were so often filled 
at night with these birds that the breaking of boughs and the flying 
of pigeons made a noise that could be heard for miles, and the shot 
of a sportsman's gun could not be heard at a distance of ten feet. 
Highly interesting is the description by Audubon of the enormous 
flights which he observed on the Ohio in the fall of 18J3; they 
obscured the daylight and lasted three days without interruption. 
According to a very moderate estimate of his, each flight contained 
the stupendous number of one billion, one hundred and fifteen 
thousand million, one hundred and thirty-six thousand pigeons. 
These flights caused a general commotion among the entire rural 
])opulation. Desirous of booty and anxious lest their crops should 
be spoiled, the farmers, arming themselves Avith rifles, clubs, poles, 
torches and iron pots filled with sulphur, proceed to the resting- 
places of the birds. The work of slaughter being accomplished, 
everybody sat down among mountains of dead pigeons, plucking 
and salting the birds which they selected, abandoning the rest to the 
the foxes, wolves, raccoons, opossums and hogs, whole herds of 
which were driven to the battle-field. The plaintive notes of the 
Carolina dove, commonly known as the turtle-dove, are still heard. 

Swimmers. — This order of birds, which formerly frequented this 
county in large numbers, have almost disappeared. They are mi- 
gratory, and in their usnal season would appear coming from the 
north or south, as winter passes into summer or summer into winter. 
Diver family. — The great northern diver, or loon, sometimes visits 
this section, but inhabits the frigid zone. Gull family. — Of this 
family are Wilson's tern and the silvery gull. Pelican family. — The 
rough-l)illed pelican was the only genus of this family that ever 
stopped in Fulton county, and it has now altogether ceased to 
make its visits here. Cormorant family. — The double-crested cor- 
morant, or sea raven, has been seen here. Duck family. — This 
family of migratory birds visited the ponds and streams of this 
county in large numbers before it became so thickly settled, both on 
their northern and southern passage, but now mostly confine them- 
selves to the Illinois, where large numbers are found. This family 
furnishes most game for sportsmen and for the table. There are the 
wood-duck, the big black-headed duck, the ring-necked duck, the 
red-head, the canvas-back, the dipper, the sheldrake or goosander, 
the fish duck, the red-breasted, and the hooded merganser, the mal- 
lard and the pintail, the green-winged and the blue-winged teal, the 
spoonbill and the gadwall, the baldpate, the American swan, the 
trumpeter swan and the white-fronted goose. 

Waders. — Probably less is known of this order of birds than of 
any other, because of their shyness and solitary habits. They fre- 


quented the marshes, but cultivation has drained their favorite 
haunts. Crane famili/. — The whooping crane, always rare, is now 
never seen. The sand-hill cranes stop on their journeys north and 
south. Heron family. — The great blue heron or crane, least bittern, 
the green heron, night heron and the American bittern, compose 
those of this family visiting this region. Ibis family. — The glossy 
ibis has been seen here. Plover family. — The golden plover, the 
killdeer and the king plover comprise this family known here. 
Phalarope family. — The Wilson's and the red phalarope have fre- 
quented the swamps of this county, l^nipe family. — \"arious birds 
of this family have been common in and around the swamps of this 
county. Among them were Wilson's snipe, gray or red-breasted 
snipe, the least and the semi-})almated sandpiper, the willett, the 
tell-tale, the yellow-leg, the solitary sandpiper, the spotted sand- 
piper, the field plover, long-billed curlew, the common rail, the clap- 
per rail or mud hen, and the coot. 

Reptiles. — All of the species of this class that ever inhabited this 
region are still to be found here except the poisonous snakes. The 
rattlesnake, of the genus Crotalus, is of a yellowish-brown color, 
and has a series of horny joints at the end of the tail, which make 
a rattling sound. These were the most venomous of all snakes 
found here, and were numerous in tlie early settlement. There are 
two kinds, the bandy, or striped, and the prairie rattlesnake, the lat- 
ter being still occasionally found. The copperhead was always rare. 
Among the harmless snakes are the water-snake, the garter-snake, 
the bull-snake, the milk-snake, the black-snake, and the blue racer. 

Many reptiles found here are erroneously called lizards, but are 
salamanders and other like innocent creatures. Lizards are never 
found in this county. Among the tortoises or turtles are found the 
map turtle, the snapping and the soft-shelled turtle. Of the batra- 
chian, or naked reptiles, there are a few, and, though loathsome to sight 
and touch, are harmless. The toad, the l)ull-frog, the leopard-frog, 
the tree-toad, with some tailed batrachia, comprise the most of this 
order. The Illinois-river bull-frog is as large as a man's head, often 
much larger, and his deep bellowing can be heard for a mile or more. 


Although fishes are the lowest class of vertebrates, their varied 
forms and colors, which often rival those of precious stones and 
burnished gold, the wonderful power and velocity of some, the 
wholesome food furnished by many, and the exciting sport of their 
capture, combine to render fishes subjects of great interest to the 
casual observer, as well as to the amateur and professional natural- 
ist. The number of known species of fishes is about ten thousand. 
The waters of this county are quite prolific of the finny tribe. The 
commerce in fish has become quite extensive along the Illinois. 
Sickle-backed family. — This family furnishes the game fish, and are 


never caught larger than lour pounds in weight. Tlie various gen- 
era found here are the black bass, goggle-eye, the croppy, or big 
black sun-fish, and the two common sun-fish. PU:c family. — There 
are but two species of this family, — the pickerel, weighing from 
five to twenty-five pounds, and the gar pike. Sucker fainily. — Of this 
tribe are the buifalo, red-horse, white sucker, two species of black- 
suckers, mullet ranick. Fisli of this family are found in all the 
streams of the county. They abound wherever there is water. 
Cat-fish family. — Of this voracious family the channel cat-fish, the 
mud cat-fish and two species of the small cat-fish inhabit the waters 
of this coiuity, and are caught ranging in weight from one to thirty 

The shovel-fish is yet abundant, and its fiesh, as well as its general 
appearance, resembles that of the cat-fish. ' 

Besides these varieties there are the chub, silver-sides and 
fresh-water herring, and large numbers of other species denominated 
minnows, which are found in the smallest spring branches, as well as 
the larger streams. 



Besides the mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the other lower orders, 
there are about a thousand s))ecies of plants growing within the 
bounds of this county. Having almost every variety of ground 
here, our flora is richer than that of most other counties in the 
State. On the following pages we give a list qf all the plants grow- 
ing here, except the mushrooms, mosses, etc., and indicate their rel- 
ative abundance by the letters a, abundant ; c, common but not 
abundant ; v, rare but not very rare ; and v r, very rare. These terms 
refer to the county at large. Some plants abound in certain situa- 
tions, as sand, swamps, ponds, prairie, etc., in certain parts of the 
county, which occur rarely if at all in other parts. 

As to the order in the list, we follow Gray's Manual, 5th edition, 
and give the English names instead of the scientific where they are 
to be had. Names in parenthesis are generally synonyms. We 
have not space to indicate medical ])roperties or other peculiarities. 
Nearly all the plants growing spontaneously in cultivated and waste 
grounds are "introduced," that is, they have been brought here by 
white settlers, — unintentionally, of course, with reference to most of 
the weeds. In the timbered section no j^articular weed is on the in- 
crease at the present day, but in the prairie section the garden pars- 
nip, common thistle, richweed (in the artificial gnn'es), toad-flax, 
wild lettuce and oxybaphus, a four-o'clock plant, are increasing 
rapidly. While the wild plants in the woods are about the 
same as originally, the prairie has changed its grassy clothing for 
cultivated crops and hundreds of different weeds. Before settlement 
by the whites the prairie was mostly covered by one or two kinds of 
grass. Several other kinds grew in patches here and there, notably 
the Indian grass and blue joint, which grew very tall. In wet 
places grew the slough grass and many sedges, and along the chan- 
neled sloughs al)Ounded several species of golden-rod, aster and wild 
sunflower, which in the latter part of the summer and during almost 
the whole autumn formed broad yellow stripes across the prairies, 
and were pecidiarly churming. Prairie clover, false wild indigo, 
several species of rosin-weed and a few other Meeds have almost dis- 
appeared with the original prairie, while a few of the modest straw- 
berry, star-grass and blue-eyed grass remain M-ith us as sweet remin- 
iscences of the past. 


Persons coming to this county in early day were struck with 
the high and rolling appearance of the prairie, which they had before 
always imagined low and level ; and this billowy character of the 
prairie, combined with its dreamy verdure, has inspired a native of 
this county to indite the followino' 


A liillowy ocean with green carpet spread, \ 

Which iiowers with beauty in abundance fedl 

With gUttering stars of amaryllis wliite, 

With violets blue and roses red and bright, 

With golden cinquefoil, star-grass, buttercups. 

With dazzing cardinal-tlowers and painted-cups. 

And bright-regaliaed meadow larks to sing, 

This grassy sea appeared in smiling spring. 

In summer came the stately compass-plant. 

As if to guide the wandering immigrant. 

Then asters, golden-rods and wild suntlowers 

O'erspread the vales in labryinthine bowers. 

Thus nature, clad in vesture gold and green. 

Brought autumn in and closed the flowery scene. 

In the forests the most valuable timber has been pretty cleanly 
cut out, as the walnut, ash, hickory and tlie neatest oaks, while gin- 
senof is the most notable of the herbaceous ])lants that has been nearly 
all taken. 

AVe venture to compile the following list of corrections from 
Grav's Manual : 


Sarsaparilla. Moonseed. 

Buttercups. Creeping Crowfoot. 

Ladies' Slippers (or Moccasins.) Touch-me-nots. 

Sheep Sorrel. AVood Sorrel. 

Ivy. Mrginia Creeper. 

Bittersweet. Climbing Bittersweet. 

Red Maple. White Maple. 

Pursley. Purslane. 

Black Haw. Sheepberry (mostly). 

Ox-eye Daisy. Conefiower. 

Canada Thistle. Common Thistle. 

Spanish Needles. Beggar Ticks. 

Carolina Pink. Cardinal Flower. 

Blue-Bells. Smooth Lungwort. 

Horsemint. Wild Bergamot. 

Peppermint. Wild Mint. 

Wild Morning-glorv. Hedge Bindweed. 

Ball (or Bull) Nettle. Horse Nettle. 

Lake Grass. River Club Rush. 

Moonseed is a smooth vine running u[) on bushes somewhat like 
a morning-glory, and has a round, bright yellow root, with a tonic 
bitter taste, while the true wild sarsaparilla of this country is a kind 
of large ginseng. The true l)uttercu])s of the P^ast arc not found 
in this county. Sheep sorrel has lance-shaped, sharp-pointed 
leaves, while wood sorrel has leaves like clover. Poison ivv has 
leaves like the box-elder, three leaflets to each leaf, and when the 
l)laut is voung it can be distinguished from tlie latter by its having 


no white bloom on the stem. The Virginia ereeper has five leaflets 
to each leaf, almost in a circle, and is quite innoxious. The true 
bittersweet does not grow wild here. It has sparingly escaped from 
o-ardens to roadsides. Red maple grows in Southern Illinois, but 
not here. Its flowers are quite red. There is the true black-haw in 
this county, very scarce, and differs but very little from the more 
common sheep-berry. Beggar-ticks differ but little from the true 
Spanish needles. Cardinal-flower is that dazzling scarlet-red flower, 
on a plant about two feet high in low grounds, July and August. 
The white-flowered wild " morning-glory " is hedge bindweed. The 
true Solomon's seal has greenish-white flowers along the sides of 
tiie plant, and the berries when ripe are black or blue; false Solo- 
mon's seal has white flowers at the summit, and speckled berries. 

The svcamore of the old world is very diflerent from our syca- 
more here (button-wood). The diflerent kinds of ash are difficult 
to distinguish, and some of the oaks hybridize so that the leaves of 
the same tree will often be various in shape, and the acorns of all 
intermediate grades. Some names, even in the books, are applied to 
two diflerent plants, as button snakeroot, black snakeroot, syca- 
more, goose-grass, etc. 



Crotrfoot Famil}!. — a, creeping crowfoot ; r, Virginian anemone, Pennsyl- 
vanian anemone, rue anemone, early meadow rue, purplish meadow rue, tall 
meadow rue, yellow water crowfoot, water plantain spearwort, small-Howered 
crowfoot, hooked crowfoot, bristly crowfoot, early crowfoot, false rue anemone, 
marsh marigold (cowslips), wild columbine, liver-leaf (liverwort, hepatica), 
dwarf larkspur, azure larkspur; /•, Clematis Pitcheri, virgin's bower, long-fruited 
anemone, false bugbane, wood anemone (wind-flower), yellow puccoon (orange 
root, turmeric root), white baneberry, black snakeroot ; rr, leather-flower, Caro- 
lina anemone, stiff water crowfoot, mouse-tail, red baneberry. 
CiixUml-AppJe Famihj. — r, pawpaw. 
Moonsei'd Fdinlly. — c, Canadian moonseed. 

Barherry F(nitih/. — a, May-apple (mandrake); r, blue cohosh (pappoose- 
root); (T, twin-leaf. 

Wnfrr-Lih/ Family.— c, tuber-bearing water-lily (the most common pond 
or white lily )j yellow pond-lily (spatter-dock, frog lily; r, water-shield (water 
target), yellow nelumbo (water chinquepin). 
Poppy Family. — c, blood-root. 

Fumitory Family. — c, Dutchman's breeches ; rr, climbing fumitory, squirrel- 
corn, golden corydalis. 

Mustard F((rnily.—a, hedge mustard, shepherd's purse, wild pepper-grass ; 
c, marsh cress, lake cress, pepper-root, spring cress, small bitter cress, winter 
cress (yellow rocket) tansy mustard, black mustard, Draba Caroliniana ; r, Arabis 
Ludoviciana, lyrata dentata, hirsuta and Canadensis; /•/■, nasturtium sessiliflo- 
rum, Arabis Ifevigatd and he?peridoides, wormseed mustard. 
Caper Fauiily — ;■, spider-flower; n-, polanisia. 

Vialrt Fa)uify.—a, blue violet; c, arrow-leaved violet, downy yellow violet, 
/■, handdeaf violet, larkspur violet, bird-foot violet(also var. bicolor), dog violet; 
/•/■, green violet, pale violet, pansy ( heart' s-ease). 

Rock-Rosr Family.— F'mweeAs; c, Lechea minor; /■, Lechea major, tenui- 
folia and racemosa, frostweed. 


St. John'' s-ivort Family. — c, Hypericum corymbosum and mutilura ; ir, great 
St. John's-wort, shrubby St. John's-AAort, common St. John's-wort, Hypericum 
Canadense, orange-grass (pine-weed), marsh St. John'.s-wort. 

Watrr-iroii FarniJij. — /•, Water-wort. 

Pink Fainihj. — «, Mouse-ear chickweed ; c, Ijouncing bet (soap-wortj, 
starry campion, sleepy campion, corn cockle, Arenaria lateriflora, common 
chickweed, long-leaved stitch wort, Cerastium nutans, forked chickweed; r, 
larger mouse-ear chickweed ; vr, cow-herb, Silene nivea. 

Purslane Farnih/. — a, Common purslane; c, spring beauty ; re, Claytonia 
Carol iniana. 

MalJou: Fa)nili/. — a, Common mallow (low mallow, cheese mallow); c, sida 
(spinosa), velvet-leaf (Indian mallow), bladder ketmia (flower of an hour); /■/■, 
high mallow, Callirrhoe, glade mallow, hallierd-leaved rose mallow. 

Linden Faniihj. — r, Bass-wood (lin. ) 

Flax Faniihj. — r, Linum sulcatum; rr, Linum Virginianum. 

Geranium Fantih/. — c, Yellow wood-sorrel; e, wild cranesbill (spotted gera- 
nium), Carolina cranesbill, pale and .spotted touch-me-not, violet wood-sorrel : 
'■/', false mermaid. 

Rue Family. — ;•, Northern prickly ash, hop-tree (shrub trefoil). 

Cashew Family. — o. Smooth sumac; r, poison ivy; rr, dwarf sumac, fra- 
grant sumac (possibly). 

Vine Family. — a, Virginia creeper; <■, winter grape (frost grape) ; rr, sum- 
mer grape (r at Canton landing, and Vitis riparia may be common along the 

Buckthorn Family. — e. New Jersey tea (red-root); rr, Rhamnus lanceolatus 
and alnifolius. 

Staff-tree Family. — r, Climbing bittersweet (wax-work), waahoo i burning- 

Soap-berry Family. — a, White maple (silver or soft maple) ; e, Ohio buckeye 
(fcetid buckeye), sugar maple (rock or hard maple), box elder (ash-leaved 
maple ) ; /•, American bladder-nut. 

Milkirort Family. — e, Polygala verticillata; /■, Polygala sanguinea, Seneca 
snakeroot; rr, Polygala incarnata, amlngua and polygama. 

False Family. — a. White clover; r, red clover. Astragalus Canadensis, tick 
trefoil (four species, viz : Desmodium acuminatum, nudiflorum, Canadense 
and sessilifolium), Lespedeza violacea and capitata (bush clover), marsh 
vetchling. Phaseolus diver.sifolius, hog peanut (wild pea-vinej, false or wild 
indigo (i?aptisia leucantha), Baptisia leucophoea, red-bud (Judas tree), par- 
tridge pea, honey locust (three-thorned acacia); /■, rattle-box, prairie clover 
(two species), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), lead plant, goat's rue, tick 
trefoil (four species, viz: Desmodium canescens, cuspidatum, paniculatum, 
Illinoense), Vicia Americana, ground-nut (wild bean), Phaseolus helvolus and 
pauciflorus, wild senna, Kentucky coflee-tree (coffee-bean); /y, stone clover 
(rabbit foot), buffalo clover, running buffalo clover, yellow melilot (yellow 
sweet clover), sweet clover (white sweet clover, white melilot i, Psoralea ono- 
brychis and floribunda, tick trefoil (four species, viz: Desmodium pauciflo- 
rum, Dillenii, ciliare and Marilandicumj, wild sensitive plant, Desmanthus 

Rose Family. — a, Wild black cherry, common cinquefoil (five-linger), straw- 
berry, common or high blackberry; c, wild yellow or retl plum, agrimony, 
Geum all)um (avens), Potentilla Norvegica and arguta, black raspberry (thim- 
l)le-berry), dwai'f wild rose, early wild rose, scarlet-fruited thorn, Ijlack thorn 
(pear thorn, red haw — two varieties), cockspur thorn, crab-apple; /■, choke 
cherry, nine-bark, meadow sweet, small-flowered agrimony, Geum strictum, 
dewberry (low blackberry), swamp rose; rr, queen of the prairie, goat's-beard, 
American ipecac, Canadian burnet, Geum Virginianum and vernum, Fragaria 
vesca (a strawberry), prairie rose, climbing, shad-busli (service or June 
berry) . 

Sa.rifraae Family. — c. Gooseberry (Ribes Cynosbati and rotundifolium), 
swamp saxifrage, alum root; rr, wild black currant (and red currant?), wild 
liydrangea, Parnas.sia Caroliniana (grass of Parnassus i, mitre- wort (l)ishop's 

Orpine Fahiily.— e, Ditch (or Virginia) stone-crop. 


WIfch Ilnzil FamUii. — '■/', Witch hazel. 

]V<ili'r-Milfnil /•Vni/iiV//.— /•, MyriophyHum verticillutum ; rr. M. heterophyl- 
lum and scabratum, mermaid weed, mare's-tail. 

Eirn'mg rriinrnxr FrDnllii. — r, Enchanter's nightshade, Epilobium coloratum, 
evening primroi^e, Ludwigia jiolycarpa, water purslane; r, gaura (biennis), 
Epilobium palustre, var: lineare, E. molle, OEnothera rhombipetala, sun-drops, 

Melastomn Famih/.~rr, Meadow beauty (deer grass). 

LooHf^trifc Faui'ifij. — c, Lythrum alatnni (loosestrife); *•, Amnuinnia latifolia. 
clammy cnphea; ry,' Ammaimia humilis and Nuttallii, swamp loosestrife. 
ho(ti<i( Faiiiih/. — '■/'. Mentzelia oligosi)erma. 

Gdiird Fniiiili/.— (;Wi\d balsam-apple (wild cucumber); c, one-seeded star 

Pdrdeij Fmnihi. — c, Rattlesnake master (button snakeroot); parsnip (garden), 
Thaspium aureum, spotted cowbane (water hemlock, poison hemlock, beaver 
poison, musquash root), water parsnip (Slum lineare), honewort, chervil; /•, 
black snakeroot (sanicle), Sanicula Marihindica, cow parsnip, Cicuta bulbifera, 
smoother and hairy sweet cicely, harbinger of si)ring (pepper-and-salt); n\ 
Polyta-nia Nuttallii, cowbane, great angelica, Thaspium barbinode (a meadow 
parsnip), Thaspium trifoliatum, Zizia integerrinla, water parsnip (Sium angus- 
tifoHum), poison hendock (?Conium luaculatum), Eulophus Americanus. 
(,'iiisi'iKj Finiiihi. — c, Spikenard; r, wild sarsaparilla and ginseng. 
ftiiijiriiixl Fnuiilii. — c, Silky cornel (kinnikinnik), rough-leaved dogwood, 
panicled, cornel (the common "dogwood): r, red osier dogwood, alternatedeaved 
cornel ; rv, flowering dogwood. 

Honciisnckir Fdmilji. — '/, Elder; c, yellow honeysuckle, fever-wort (horse 
gentian), sheepberry ; v, small honeysuckle; '/•, black haw, arrow-wood. 

Mddihr F<iniiJii.--i\ Cleavers (goose-grass), (Talium concinnuin, small bed- 
straw, sweet-scented bedstraw, wild liquorice [liquorice root), Ijutton-bush ; c, 
Galium pilosum, button-weed, Diodia teres (a button-weed). 
Vnln-idii Fmnihi. — c, Fedia radiata. 
CiWijxjxit/' F'linlh/. — <i, Boneset ithoroughwort), Aster miser (starved aster 
— WikkJ), horse-weed (butter-weed), hog-weed (rag-weed, bitter-weed, Roman 
wormwood), beggar-ticks (Spanish needles), sneezeweed, May-weed (dog-fen- 
nel), yarrow (milfoil), common thistle, burdock, dandelion; '■, Liatris cylin- 
dracea, pycnostachya and scariosa, Kuhnia eupatorioides, Eupatorium sero- 
tinum, white snakerf)ot. Aster sericeus, Ifevis, azurens, undulatus, sagittifolius 
larrow-leaveil aster — Tl'oo'/), multitlorus, dumosus, Tradescanti, simplex, car- 
nens, oblongifolins, Nova- AnglicC, Rolnn's plantain, common fleabane, daisy 
fieabane (sweet scabious), daisy fleabane (Erigeron strigosum), Diplopappus 
linariifolius, Boltonia glastifolia, golden-rods — Solidago latifolia, rigida, ulmifo- 
lia, Missouriensis, Canadensis, serotina, lanceolata, compass plant (polar plant, 
rosin-weed), Silphium integrifolium, cup-plant, Parthenium integrifolium, 
great ragweed, cockle-bur (clot-bur), ox-eye, purple conetiower (two species — 
F'A'hinacea purpurea and angustifolia), cone Hower(five species, — Rudbeckia 
laciniata, snl)tomentosa, triloba, speciosa and hirtai, Lepachys pinnata, Heli- 
anthus rigidus, occidentalis, grosse-serratus, struinosus, and doronicoides, 
Coreopsis palmata, tall coreopsis, swamp beggar-ticks, larger bur marigold, 
fetid marigoM (false dog-fennel), biennial wormwood, plantain-leaved ever- 
lasting, fire-weed, Cirsium discolor and altissimum, false lettuce (blue lettuce, 
three sj'ecies, viz: Mulgedium acuminatum, Floridanum and leucoph;eum, com- 
mon sow-thistle, spiny-leaved sow-thistle; /•, iron-weed (Vernonia Novebora- 
censis and fasciculata), blazing star (Lititris squarrosa, button snakeroot), 
trumpet-weed (Joe-Pye weed), Eupatorium altissimum, upland boneset, mist- 
flower. Aster Drummoniiii, cordifolius, ericoides, tenuifolius, testivus, longifo- 
lius, Erigeron divaricatum, Diplopappus umbellatus, golden-rods — Solidago 
speciosa, Ohioensis, Riddelii, neglecta, altissima, neinoralis, radula, gigantea 
and tenuifolia, Chrysopsis villosa. Ambrosia bidentata and psylostachya, 
FCclipta procumbens, wild sunflowers — Helianthus divaricatus, giganteus, de- 
capetalus, Actinomeris squarrosa and helianthoides. Coreopsis lanceolata and 
aristosa, smaller bur marigold, Leptopoda brachypoda, tansy, Artemisia cau- 
data, western mugwort, everlasting, purplish cudweed, pale Indian plantain, 
tuberous Indian plantain, golden ragwort (squaw-weed): swamp-thistle, Cyn- 


thia (Virginica), rattlesnake root (white lettuce, Nabalus al])us), Nabalus race- 
mosns and crepidineus, wild lettuce (two varieties); rr, Aster corymbosus, 
turliinellus, Shortii, puniceus, prenanthoides, amethystinus, anomalus and 
ptarmicoides, golden-rods — Solidago ctesia, patula and arguta, prairie dock, 
wild sunfiowers — Helianthus Ipetiflorus, mollis, hirsutus and tracheliifolius. 
Coreopsis lanceolata, tickseed sunflower, Coreopis discoidea, Cacalia suaveo- 
lens (an Indian plantain), great Indian plantain, pasture thistle, Canada this- 
tle, dwarf dandelion, Troximon cuspidatum, rough hawkweed, hairy hawk- 
weed, Nabalus asper. 

Lohdiii Fdiiiih/. — c, Cardinal flower, great lobelia, Indian tobacco (the medi- 
cal lobelia), Lobelia spicata; rr, Lobelia leptostachys and Kalmii. 

CanipanuJn F(i)iilli/ ( BeHirortt^). — r, Venus's looking-glass ; /', harebell, nuirsh 
l)ellflo\ver, tall bellflower. 

Ili'dtlt F((nil/i/. — r, Indian pipe (corpse plant); rr, low blueberry, bearberry. 

Holh/ FdiiiUi/. — rr, Black alcler ( winterberry). 

EhDiiji Fairilln. — r, Persimmon. 

Fliinfiiiii Fdirilhi. — r(, Common plantain; *r, Plantago sparsiflora, cordata, 
Virginica and pusilla. 

Primrose Fiunili/. — c Lysimachia ciliata and lanceolata; r, Androsace occi- 
dentalis, American cowslip (shooting star), Lysimachia longifolia, chaff-weed, 
water pin\pernel (brook-weed); rr, tufted loosestrife. 

BIdddrrirort FainUii. — c, Great bladderwort; r, Utricularia intermedia. 

Bi(/iio)ii(( Ffurillj/. — (', Trumpet creeper, unicorn plant. 

Hrooiu-rape F\imih/. — /', One-flowered cancer-root. 

Figirort Family. — c, Mullein, toad-flax (butter-and-eggs, ramsted), figwort, 
Gratioia Virginica (a hedge hyssop), false pimpernel, Culver's root (or physic), 
purslane speedwell, purple Gerardia, slender Gerardia, Gerardia pedicularia, 
lousewort (wood betony), Pedicularis laceolata ; /•, beard-tongue (Pentstemon 
pubescens), monkey flower, Conobea multifida, Herpestis rotundifolia, corn 
speedwell, downy false foxglove, smooth false foxglove, Gerardia integrifolia, 
grandiflora and auriculata, scarlet ]iainted-cup ; rr, moth mullein, wild toad- 
flax, innocence (Collinsia verna), turtle-head (snake-head), Pentstemon Digi- 
talis, Miinulus alatus and Jamesii, Gratiola spbaerocarpa, Synthyris Plough- 
toniana, water speedwell, American brook-lime, marsh speedwell, thyme- 
leaved speedwell, mullein foxglove, Gerardia aspera and setacea. 

Amutliiis Fdmili/. — /•, Ruellia ciliosa and strepens, Dianthera Americana. 

TVyvr//» Fdniihi.—((,'H.oary vervain, white, or nettled-leaved vervain ; c, blue 
vervain. Verbena liracteosa, fog-fruit; /■, Verbena angustifolia, lopseed. 

Mini Fdmih/.—d, Wild bergamot (horsemint), catnip, ground ivy (gill over 
the ground), self-heal (heal-all), motherwort; c, wood sage (American ger- 
mander, false pennyroyal, wild mint (often taken for peppermint), bugle-weed, 
Lycopus Europa'us, var. sinuatus, Pycnanthemum lanceolatum (a mountain 
mint, basil), American pennyroyal, giant hyssop, Lophanthus scrophularia'fo- 
lius, skullcaps— Scutellaria versicolor, parvula and mad-dog skullcap, hedge 
nettle (Stachys palustris, var. asi)era); r, Lycopus Europa'us, var. integrifo- 
lius, mountain mint (Pycnanthemum incanumand pilosum, Hedeoma hispida, 
Monarda Bradburiana, horsemint (Monarda punctata), Blephilia ciliata and 
hirsuta, false dragon-head, skullcap (Scutellaria canescens and nervosa), 
Stachys palustris, var. glabra (a hedge nettle); rr, bastard pennyroyal, spear- 
mint, peppermint, Pycnanthemum linifolium (mountain mint), Scutellaria 
galericulata (a skullcap), horehound, Stachys palustris, var. cordata (a hedge- 

HurcKje Fdinilij. — c, Lithospermum'latifolium, hairy jiuccoon, hoary puccoon 
(alkanet), smooth lungwori (Virginian cowslip), Myosotis verna, stickseed, 
hound's-tongue, l)eggar's-lice ; r, Onosmodium, Carolinanum and molle; rr, 
comfrey (escaped from gardens), Lithospermum angustifolium. 

Wdfrr-leqf Famili/. — c, Hydrophyllum Virginicum and appendiculatum, 
EUisia (Nyctelea); rr, Hydrophyllum Canadense. 

Fdlrm'niiiKvi (or Plilo.r) Fdiiiili/. — r. Phlox pilosa and divaricata; /■, Greek 
valerian. Phlox paniculata and glaberrima ; 't, wild sweet William, Phlox 
bifida. (All the Phloxes have been called sweet William). 

ConmlviUm Fn.mili/. — c. Smaller morning-glory, hedge bindweed, dodder 
(Cuscuta Gronovii, love-vine, and C. glomerata); r, Iponuea lacunosa, wild 


potatoe vine (man of the earth), Calyistegia si:»itham?ea, dodder — Cnscuta tenui- 
flora, infiexa, decora, arvensis, chlorocarpa and conipat'ta. 

XightalKidi' Fdmih/. — c, Common nightshade (black nightsliade), horse 
nettle, ground ground cherry, Physalis viscosa, jimson-weed (Jamestown-weed, 
thorn-apple, stramonium) purple thorn-apple; /■, Physalis Philadelphica ; vr, 
bittersweet (escaped from cultivation.) 

(icnthni Familif. — r, American Columbo, fringed gentian, closed gentian, 
Gentiana puberula; //■, Sabbatia angularis (American centaury), five-flowered 
gentian, buck-bean. 

Dogbane Faniihj. — c, Amsonia tabernsemontana, spreading dogbane ; /•, 
Indian hemp. ^ 

Milkiri'cd ludiilh/. — ((, Silkweed (milkweed); c, swamp milkweed, butterfly- 
weed (i)ieurisy root) whorled milkweed, Acerates viridiflora and longifolia 
(green milkweeds); r, Asclepias SuUivantii, poke milkweed, purjjle milkweed, 
Asclepias obtusifolia and paniculata, Enslenia albida; rr, Asclepias perennis 
and Meadii. 

Olire Fiuiiibj. — c, White ash, black, swamp or water ash; r, red ash, green 
ash, blue ash. 

Birthirod Family. — e, Wild ginger; /•, Virginia snakeroot. 

Foil r-o' dork FarinJy. — Oxyljaphus nyctagineus. 

Foh'weed FamlJi/.^c, Poke (scoke, garget, pigeonberry). 

(roo^efoot FamiJi/. — a, Lamb's-quarters (pigweed); c (in villages), atriplex 
patula (orache); r, maple-leaved goosefoot, Jerusalem oak (feather geranium) 
Mexican tea, wormseed, strawberry blite; '*• (if occurring at all), winged pig- 
weed, Ghenopodium urbicum. 

Atuarauth Faniih/. — a, Green amaranth (pigweed); r, white pigweed (tum- 
ble-weed); /•, Acnida tamariscina; cr, prince's-feather (escaped from gardens), 
thorny amaranth, Froelichia Floridana. 

Hiifkichedf {or Kiiofwced) Faiiiili/. — a, Sraartweed (water-pepper), water 
smartweed, knot-grass (goose-grass, door-weed — two varieties — in door-yards), 
black bindweed, curled or yellow dock; c, Polygonum Pennsylvanicum and 
incarnatum, mild water-pepper, water Persicaria, climbing false buckwheat, 
swamp dock; /■, prince's feather (spontaneous about gardens), Polygonum 
ramosissimum and tenue, arrow-leaved tear-thumb, pale dock, bitter dock, 
sheep sorrel (field sorrel); rr, lady's thumb, Polygonum Virginianum, great 
water dock. 

La inrl Faniih/. — '/, Sassafras; '/•, spice-bush (Benjamin bush). 

Mrzrrnim Faivily. — ir (if at all), Leatherwood, mooseAvood. 

Saitilal-irood Faniili/. — /', Bastard toad-flax. 

fjizariVii-tail Faniih/. — 't, Lizard's-tail. 

flornivort Family. — /•, Hornwort. 

Watcr-Starirort Family.- — Callitriche verna and autumnaiis. 

Spiiryr Family. — a, Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge), three-seeded 
mercury; c, Euphorbia hypericifolia and corollata; /•, Euphorbia humistrata, 
dentata, heterophylla and obtusata, croton (glandulosus), Phyllanthus Cana- 
densis; '/■, Euphorbia serpens, Kelioscopia and Cyparissias (escaped from gar- 

Nt'ttlr Family. — a, White elm, wood nettle, richweed (clearweed); r, slip- 
pery elm (red elm), hackberry (sugarberry), red mulberry, nettle, hemp, hop; 
/•, false nettle, pellitory ; /•/•, corky white elm, T^rtica ilioica. 
f'lanr-trrr Family. — r, Sycamore (button wooil). 

Wahiiil Family. — c, Butternut, l)lack walnut, pecan, shell- (or shag-) bark 
hickory, mockernut, (or white-heart hickory), pignut, or broom hickory, bit- 
ternut, or swamp hickory; /-, western shag-bark hickory. 

Oak Family. — a, White oak, bur oak (over-cup or mossy-cup white oak), 
hazelnut (filbert) ; r, laurel oak (shingle oak), black jack (barren oak), scarlet 
oak, black oak (yellow-barked oak, (luercitron), red oak, American hop-horn- 
beam (ironwood) ; ;•, post oak (rough or box white oak), swamp white oak, 
chestnut oak, yellow chestnut oak, swamp Spanish oak (pin oak), ironwood 
(American hornbeam, blue or water beech). 

Birch Family. — c. Red birch (river brich) ; rr, smooth alder. 
Willoir Family. — a, Prairie willow, black willow, cotton-wood (two si)ecies?) 
c, glaucous willow, heart-leaved willow, shining willow, long-leaved willow, 


Americau aspen (quaking-asp) ; /•, petioled wi]]oT\". large-toothed aspen ; n-. 
hoary willow, silkly willow, Salix amygdaloi'les, myrtle willow. 

Pirn Family. — '/•, Red cedar (savini. 

Arum Fnm'ihi. — a, Indian turnip (Jack-in-the-pulpit) : ;■, green dragon 
(dragon root), skunk cabbage, sweet flag (calamus i; 't, arrow arum. 

Dijcl-irfied Famllif. — /•, Lemna trisulca, minor and polyrrhiza, Wolffia Co- 
1 umbiana. 

Cat-t(iU Family. — c. Cat-fail (reed rnace),Sparganium eurycarpum (bur-reed). 

PoiHl-nrfid Family. — '■, Potamoget'on natans, pusillus and pectinatus; <■, 
Naias tlexilis, Potamogeton Claytonii. hybridus, gramineus and pauciflorns; 
»■/•, horned pond-weed, Potamogeton pulcher and compressus. 

Water-Pjant'tin Family.— o, Water plantain, arrow-head (Sagittaria varia- 
bilis) ; c, Sagittaria heterophjdla, Echinodorus rostratus ; rr, Sagittaria caly- 
cina and graminea, arrow grass, Scheuchzeria. 

Fii>rj\t-hit Family. — r\ Water-weed; /•. tape-grass (eel-grass). 

Orchid Family. — /■, Rein orchis ^ Habenaria virescens), Calopogon pulchel- 
lus, adder's-mouth, twayblade (Liparis liliifolia and Loeselii), larger yellow 
lady's slipper; 't, showy orchis, coral-root, putty-root (Adam and Eve), small 
white lady's slipper, smaller yeliow lady's slipper, showy lady's slipper. 

Amarylliii Family. — c. Star-grass. 

Blofxiiioit Family. — r. Colic-root (star-grass). 

Iris Family. — r; Larger blue flag, blue-eyed grass. 

Yam Family. — r, Wild yam (root). 

Smila.r Family. — r. Carrion-flower; /•, greenbrier, Smilax hispida. 

Lily Family. — r, Trillium 'recurvatum); (\ false spikenard. Solomon's .seal 
(great and smaller), wild leek, wild garlic, bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora); /•, 
bell wort i Uvularia perfoliatai; Smilacina stellata (and probably one or two 
other species, rare), wild orange-re<l lily, white dog's-tooth violet, eastern 
quamash (wild hyacinth), Allium striatum; n-, purple trillium (birth-root), 
dwarf white trillium, bunch flower, wild yellow lily, Turk's-cap lily, wild 

Riixh Family.— a. Juncus tenuis (bog rush); c, .Tuncus acumiuatus, vars. 
legitimus and robustus; *■, .Juncus nodosus, var. megacephalus; n-, common, 
or soft rush, .Juncus marginatus and brachycarpus. 

Piclrrrl-ireerl Family. — /•, Water star-grass; '/•, pickerel- weed. 

Spidrrnort Family. — ^, Spiderwort: /■, day-flower (('ommelyna Virginica), 
Tradescantia pilosa. 

Srdy< Family.— a. Great bulrush, Carex straminea and vulpinoidea : r-, Cy- 
perus diandrus, inflexus. strigosus, Dulichium spathaceum, Eleocharis obtu.s^a 
(a spike rush), palustri \ tenuis, acicularis, river ciul>rush, Scirpus atrovirens, 
lineatus, Carex stipata, arida, scoparia, lagopodioides, cristata, aperta, stricta. 
granularis, grisea, laxiflora, Pennsylvanica, i)ubescens, lanuginosa, hystricina. 
Grayii, lupulina, sfpiarrosa. utriculata ; /■, Cyperus erythrorhizos, phymatodes, 
Miciiauxianus, Engelmanni, .Schweinitzii, flliculmis, ovularis, Hemicarpha 
subsquarrosa, Eleocharis Woltii,, intermedia, Scirpus pungens (a 
bulrush or club-rush), FimV»ristyli.'< autumnalis, Rhyncospora alba, nut rush 
(Scleria triglomerata), Carex Steudelii, siccata, disticha, teretiuscula, crus- 
corvi, sparganioides, cephalophora, rosea, .<terilis, stellulata, limosa, Shortiana, 
panicea var. Meadii, tetanica, Davisii, virescens, triceps, digitalis, oligocarpa, 
Hitchcockiana, varia, riparia, trichocarpa, comosa, tentaculata, lupuliformis; 
'■/•, Fimbristylis spadicea var. castanea, Carex polytrichoides, conjuncta, 
cephaloidea, Muhlenbergii, crinita, Buxbaumii, conoidea, umbellata, Richard- 
.sonii, intumescens, monile, buUata and longirostris- 

GrasK Family. — <^', Timothy, blue grass (Kentucky blue grass, etc. i, crab 
grass (finger-grass), old-witch grass, barnyard grass, foxtail (Setaria glauca); c, 
white grass, rice cut grass, Indian rice (water oats), floating foxtail, rush grass 
( Vilfa aspera and vagina-florai, hair grass, red-top, wood reed-grass, dropseed 
Muhlenbergia Mexicana and diffusa, blue joint grass, porcupine grass, fresh- 
water cord-grass, Koeleria cristata. fowl-meadow grass, Glyceria fluitans, low 
spear grass, (Poa annua i, wire (Poa compressai, Eragrostis reptans, pilo- 
sa, Frankii, fescue (Festuca tenella), Festuca nutans, chess (cheat), Br omus 
ciliatus, reed, wild rye (lyme grass, Elymus Virginicus), Elymus Canadensis 
and var. glaucifolius, bottle-brush grass, reed canary grass, Panicum glabrum. 


l^p^'SsiSJv.n 1 : 





V 'i^^i.f: 

. i 






virgatum, pauciflorum, difhotomum and depauperatum, green foxtail (bottle 
grass) beard grass, Andropogon scoparius, Indian grass (wood grass); r, fiy- 
cateh grass, meadow foxtail, Vilfa Virginica, dropseed grass (Sporobolus hete- 
rolepis and eryptandrus), thin grass, dropseed (nimble will, Muhlenbergia 
sobolifera, gloinerata, sylvatica and Wildenovii), Brachyelytrum aristatum, 
poverty grass, Aristida oligantha, purpurascens and tuberculosa, muskit 
grass, Bouteloua curtipendula, dog's-tail (wire grass: about yards), sand grass, 
Diarrhena Americana, Eatonia obtusata and Pennsylvanica, melic grass, false 
red-top (fowl-meadow grass, Poa serotina), Poa sylvestris, Poa alsodes, Era- 
grostis poieoides and var. megastaehya, Eragrostis capillaris, pectinacea (and 
var. speetabilis), wild chesE, Lepturus paniculatus, Hordeuni pratense, wild 
oat grass, velvet grass, Paspalum setaceum, Panicum filiforme, anceps, agros- 
toides, proliferum, latifolium elandestinum, Setarla verticillata, gama grass; lu; 
white bent grass (florin), Calamagrostis longifolius, mountain rice (Oryzopsis 
melanocarpa), Aristida gracilis, tall red-top, Eragrostis tenuis, taller (or mead- 
ow) fescue, upright chess, squirrel tail, Elymus striatus. 

Horsetail Famibj. — a, Scouring rush (shave grass); c, common horsetail; 
r, Equisetum limosum, hi'vigatum and variegatum. 

i'Ve/Ks' — c. Maiden hair, ])rake, Asplenium Filix-fcemina, Cystopheris fra- 
gilis, sensitive fern, Osmuuda Claytoniana ; /•, polypody, shield or wood ferns — 
Aspidium Thelypteris and Goldianuni, moonwort (Botrychium Virginicuni) ; 
/>;■, lip fern (Cheilanthes lanuginosa), beech fern, shield or wood ferns— Aspid- 
ium spinulosum and acrostichoides, royal flowering fern. 

Clvlt-Miixx Family. — rr, Selaginella rupestris and apus. 

Ifi/dfiijtlcridcs. — (T, Azolla Caroliniana. 





In 1847 a State election was held for members of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, which Convention prepared and submitted to the 
people a new constitution, which was adoj^ted by a large majority. 
By this constitution, in place of the Commissioners' Court a County 
Court was organized in each county. This Court consisted of a 
County Judge, and, if the Legislature saw proper to so order it, two 
Associate Justices. This the Legislature favorably acted upon. 
The last meeting of the County Commissioners' Court was held 
Nov, 7, 1849. After the transaction of such business as properly 
came before them, they adjourned until court in course, but never 

On the 3d of December of the same year the first regular term 
of the County Court was held. The duties of the Court in a legis- 
lative capacity were precisely tiie same as those of the County Com- 
missioners' Court. In addition to the legislative power the mem- 
bers of this Court were permitted to exercise judicial authority, 
having all the rights and ])rivileges of justices of the peace, together 
with all probate business. This Court consisted of a County Judge 
and two Associate Justices. The Judge and Associate Justices acted 
together for the transaction of all county business, but none other. 
The Justices had an ecjual vote with the Judge, and received the 
same salary while holding court, which was ^'2 per day. Two of 
the three constituted a quorum. 

Erasmus D. Rice was chosen the first County Judge, being 
elected Nov. 6, 1849, — the first November election held. The first 
Associate Justices were Parley C. Stearns and Jesse Benton. Dur- 
ing the existence of this Court the people were agitating the ques- 
tion of township organization. Many counties of the State, since 
the new constitution, had adopted that mode of conducting county 
affairs. The constitution gave counties the privilege of adopting 
either the County Court or the Board of Supervisors. At the fall 
election in 1849 a vote was taken '' for " or "against" township 
organization, which resulted in favor of the new measure. 

The following is an abstract of the vote upon this question at 
that time : 



Astoria 89 ... Point Isabel 6] 1 

Vermont 170 18 Waterford 44 

Farmer's 110 ... Lewistown 156 10 

Marietta 41 ... Centerville 7:'> 

St. Augustine 49 ... Mill Creek 80 

Otter Creek 48 2 Fairview 75 

Howard's 62 6 Liverpool 78 7 

Bernadotte 99 1 Buckheart 69 8 

Spoon River .33 13 Canton 353 12 















Wiley 57 4 Farmington 177 

Ellisville 55 4 Utica 95 

Boyd 48 ... Copperas Creek 44 

West Point 33 2 Independence 59 

Total 2,258 93 

For some reason not given the vote of Boyd precinct was thrown 

The measure being carried, Hugh I^amaster, Henry Walker and 
John Bloomfield were appointed by the Court to divide the county 
into townships. This duty was performed in the early part of 1850. 
They divided the county into twenty-six townships, the number that 
still exist, but the names given to some were different from those 
they now bear. For instance, the present township of Putnian Avas 
christened Center. Banner was named Utica, and Young Hickory, 

Many citizens of the county were strongly opposed to the town- 
ship system, and a petition was circulated in 1852, to call an elec- 
tion upon the question of repealing the township organization and 
taking up their old way of running the county. The question was 
voted upon in April of that year and defeated by 1,630 majority. 

The building of a fire-proof structure for County and Circuit 
C^lerks' offices was agitated about the time the County Court came into 
power. Feb. 12, 1850, the Court appointed Henry Walker and 
Edwin Littlefield to make a draft for this building. It was then 
ordered that contracts be let for its construction. This was done 
March 8, 1850, and was awarded to John Tompkins. 

The County Court had but a short existence, as the county early 
in 1850 was organized under the township-organization law. 


This system of county government is so entirely different in 
origin and management from the old mode by County Commission- 
ers, which had such a long and favorable run, that we deem a brief 
synopsis of the differences quite pertinent in this connection. 

Elijah M. Haines, in his " Laws of Illinois Eelative to Town- 
shi]) Organization," says the county system " originated with Vir- 
ginia, whose early settlers soon became large landed proprietors, 
aristocratic in feeling, living alone in almost baronial magnificence 
on their own estates, and owning the laboring part of the popula- 
tion. Thus the materials for a town were not at hand, the voters 

2S4 iii.sT(ji;v <»F I ri/i()N col-nty. 

being thinly tlistrihiited over a great area. The eounty organization, 
where a few influential men managed the whole business of the 
eommunity, retaining tlieir jilaees almost at their ]»leasnre, seareelv 
re:?I)onsil)le at all exeept in name, ami permitted to eonduet the 
county concerns as their ideas or wishes might direct, was, more- 
over, consonant with tlieir recolleeti<tns or traditions of the judicial 
and social dignities of the landed aristocracy of England, in descent 
fntm wiiich the Virginia gentlemen felt so much j)ri<le. In IT.'M 
eight counties were organi/A'd in Virginia, and the system extending 
throughout the State, spread in all the Southern States and some of 
the Northern States, unless we except the nearly similar division 
into 'districts' in South Carolina, and that into 'parishes' in Louisi- 
ana from the French laws. 

" Illinois, which with its vast additional territory became a county 
of Virginia on its conquest by Gen. George Rogers Clark, retained 
the countv oruanization, which was formerlv extended over the 
State l)y the constitution of 1818, and continued in exclusive use 
until the constitution of 1848. Under this system, as in other 
States adopting it, most local Inisiness Avas transacted by three com- 
missioners in each county, who constituted a County Court, with 
(juarterly sessions. During the period ending with th.e Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847, a large })ortion of the State had become 
filled up with a po]ndation of Xew England i)irth or character, daily 
growing more and more compact and dissatisfied with the comj)ara- 
tively arbitrary and inefficient county system." It was maintained 
by the people that the heavily ]Ki]iulated districts would alwavs con- 
trol the election of the Commissioners to the disadvanta<re of th(> 
more thinly j)opulated sections, — in short, that under the system 
"e(jual and exact justice " to all parts of the i-ftunty could not be 
secured. The townshij) system had its origin in Massachusetts, and 
dates back to Kl.'*'). 

De Toc(pieville, in his work entitled "American Institutions," in 
speaking of our political system, very j)roperly remarks that two 
branches may be distinguished in the Anglo--Vmeriean family which 
have grown uj> witiiout entirclv commingling, — the one in the South, 
the other in the North. He discovers the causes whit-h led to this 
conditiitn of things, which are apparent to the most casual observer. 
"They arise," he says, " not from design, but from the force of cir- 
cumstances at the betrinniu"'. The plantinir of the oriirinal colonv 
of \'irginia at Jainestown luid for its design the single and naked 
object of j>ecuniarv jirofit to the proprietors. Its mission inv<dyed 
no princi]>le for the benefit of mankind. It recognized the crown 
of (ireat Britain, from whence it derived the charter of its existence, 
as the source of j)olitical power. There was no recognition of the 
jtrinciple (tf self-govennnent. 

" Rut the circumstances attending the first settlement of the Col- 
<»nies of Xew England, so called, were of an entirely different char- 
acter. The earlv colonists in this instance were non-conformists, or 


dissenters from the Church of P^ngland. They came as exiles, flee- 
ing from the wrath of ecclesiastical tyranny, whose displeasure they 
had incurred, — cast out as public offenders, ' as profane out of the 
mountain of God.' Whilst the colonists of Virginia came with the 
law, those of New England came against the law, or perhaps, more 
properly speaking, without law. Thereupon arose on the part of 
the latter a positive necessity for the establishment of law for their 
mutual protection. The result was a written compact, — this being 
the first written constitution extant, based upon the general good. 
It was the first time since the 'morning stars sang together' that 
the people themselves met in council and framed a government 
based upon ctpial rights." 

The supervisor is the chief officer and representative of the town- 
ship, and it is his duty to prosecute and defend all suits in which 
the township is interested. The township clerk keeps the records 
of the township, and the treasurer takes charge of the funds. The 
establishment, vacation and repair of the public roads is conuuitted 
to the three commissioners of highways. The supervisor, the two 
justices of the peace whose terms of office soonest expire, and the 
township clerk constitute a township board for examining and audit- 
ing the accounts of the town. 

Since 1H~() the business afliurs of the county have been under 
the guidance of a Board of Supervisors, at present composed of 27 
members. It would be unprofitable, as unnecessary, to present in 
detail the numerous orders, rcj^orts, resolutions, etc., of this body. 
Their proceedings partake a great deal of the nature of a legislature. 
Among so many men there are always some cool business lieads, as 
well as a good many glib tongues. Some of them are practical, in- 
dustrious workers, others are of the buncombe order, always ready 
to make a s])eech or a volumiiu)us report. This has always been 
the case with such assemblies, and we suppose always will be. 

June 10, 1850, the Board of Su[icrvisors of Fulton c(»unty first 
assembled. There were present with their proper credentials the 
following gentlemen : George Bandbrd, Jesse Smith, (Jeorgc An- 
derson, N. Walker, Jacob Mans, Jacob Hand, Levi II. Jiradbury, 
Joel Piersol, Xathaniel Veatch, J. H. Martin, John L. Jenkins, 
11. L. Hyatt, A. G. Downing, Jonas llawalt, J. P. Montgomery, 
John Wallick, J. Farris, G. Jones, David Markley, Ira Johnson and 
Geo. L. Curtis. David Markley was chosen on the follow ing dav 
ti) preside over the assembly. 

Nov. 13, 1850, Supervisor Rawalt offi'red the following resolution, 
which was prompted by several petitions for saloon licenses being 
presented: ''J!<. so/red^ That selling spirituous licpior by the small 
in any connnunity is productive of c\il ; aud as a l^oard of Supei'vis- 
ors, acting in the (uipacity of agents fi)r the peo])le of Fulton county, 
should not grant license for evil to the community for the sake 
of county revenue, or for any other purpose." This very important 
([uestion was most earnestly discussed, and finallv the resolution 
was defeated. 


The subject of building a jail was again brought up Nov. 15, 
1850, by Supervisor N. Walker. It was done in a very modest 
way, however, for the rebuke the old County Commissioners' Court 
received at the polls upon the same subject was fresh in the minds 
of everybody. Supervisor Walker's resolution is as follows : '' As 
it has been made by law the duty of the Board of Supervisors of 
every county in the State to provide a place for keeping in confine- 
ment persons charged with violation of the laws of the State, be it 
therefore resolved by the Board that in their judgment some action 
is necessary and right to be given to the subject of building a good, 
substantial jail, in respect to the wants and wishes of the people of 
Fulton county." A committee of three — Supervisors Walker, 
Rawalt and Bradbury — were appointed to investigate the matter. 
A remonstrance was liere presented, containing 527 names, against 
the county making any appropriations till a vote could be taken at 
the spring election. Nevertheless,* the committee reported favor- 
ably upon the subject and recommended the building of a jail, say- 
ing that "while they acknowledged the right in the fullest sense of 
the word for the people to direct their agents in the performance of 
their official duties where those duties rest by a positive rule of law 
on mere matters of expediency, yet your committee believe that 
they are bound l)y positive enactment in sec. 12, act 14, of the or- 
ganization law, to build a jail when necessary ; and your committee 
cannot entertain a single doul)t of the necessity of a suitable jail, 
nor of the ability of the county to build one without an increase in 
the ordinary amount of tax." The contest was Ion": and hot, but 
the jail was ordered built. The site of the present prison was 
selected and a jail erected 24 feet square, at a cost of $4,214.22. 

The task of keeping the poor at the county's farm seemed to be 
burdensome and extravagant. Accordingly, in 1851, the poor farm 
was ordered sold. L. F. Ross was the purchaser, at $1,425. It 
was soon found, however, that the expense of keeping paupers was 
much greater under their new mode than when they were kept at 
the county farm. So, in September, 1852, it was resolved to buy 
a farm and build a suitable house thereon for the accommodation of 
the county's unfortunate. In 1854 a farm was purchased within 
two miles of Canton, upon which the necessary buildings were 
erected, and since then the poor have been provided for there. 

The subject of building railroads was agitated as early as 1836; 
but upon the explosion of the great internal-improvement system 
inaugurated by the State, nothing more was done in this direction 
for some years. During the decade between 1850 and 1860, how- 
ever, railroads were projected in almost every direction. In 1853 
the Board ordered a subscription of $75,000 to be made to the Mis- 
sissippi & Wabash Railroad, and to the Petersburg & Springfield 
road. As neither of these roads, or others of the jirojected ones, 
were built no bonds were issued to them. In 1857, Oct. 15, $100,- 
000 in bonds were issued to the J. & S. Railroad, bearing 8 per 


cent, interest. Aug. 10, 1858, a like amount was issued to the 
Peoria & Hannibal R. R., and again Oct. 15, 1859, another $100,000 
in bonds were given to the same company, bearing 7 per cent, 
interest. These lines now constitute the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad. Thus we see the county has given $300,000 to 
railroad companies, which is the sum total of all subscriptions made 
by the county. There are many townships in the county, however, 
which have given largely to aid the construction of roads. The 
first of these bonds were redeemed in 18(30. Five of them were 
bought for $600 each. They fell lower the following year, and the 
county called in four, for which they gave $590 each. In 1862 
they went still lower and live were purchased for $2,900, or $580 
apiece. From that time forward our bonds advanced rapidly in 
value, and in 1874 were worth all their face called for. That year 
the county paid $3,000 for three of them, and the following year 
paid $20,000 for twenty. To date of Sept. 10, 1878, 210 of these 
bonds had been redeemed, for which the county paid $196,570. 
Ninety of them still remain outstanding. The present vear, how- 
ever, provision is made for redeeming fifteen of these, and the re- 
maining seventy-five were refunded for a long period with privilege 
of redeeming after three years. 

The Board let the contract for building the present safe and com- 
modious jail structure in February, 1867, to E. Kirkbride and 
Jackson Wiley for $28,300. An additional lot was purchased 
adjoining the one already owned by the county and upon which the 
old jail stood, for $350. The entire building is in height two sto- 
ries, with basement. The architectural design is modern, very neat 
and well proportioned, presenting as light and cheerful appearance 
as a prison well can. The jailor's residence is constructed of red 
brick, and the jail part of limestone. In the Sheriffs residence are 
eight cheerful rooms, with closets, wardrobes and halls. In the 
jail part there is an eight-foot corridor extending from east to west 
through the entire south end of the jail. This was once used as a 
dining hall. Facing a small corridor on the west side of the build- 
ing are eight cells, four below and four above. Three of these on 
each tier are about 5x8 feet in size and one 7x8 feet. Fronting east 
are four cells. Up-stairs on this side is the women's department, 
consisting of two large rooms. The jail is one of the most substan- 
tial in this part of the State. 

We append here a table of the expenses of carrying on this large 
county for a period of six years. The Circuit Clerk, it will be observ- 
ed, is of but little or no expense to the county directly. He makes 
his own salary from fees charged for services, and not only that, but 
turns over to the countv no little revenue. 




1872. 187.3. 1874. 

Poor-house and farm $4,200 S4,150 $.3,514 

County poor 3,370 3,194 3,435 

Criminal 2,2H8 3,8.3S .3,190 

Circuit Court 2,773 2,374 4S7 

County Court 3,404 3,493 1,732 

County Clerk 4,034 4,080 3,465 

Circuit Clerk 90 105 

Superinten. lent of Schools 1,480 1,404 .368 

Board of Superyisors 1,790 1.2S1 1,128 

Records and blanks 2,679 2,258 2,042 

Public grounds and buildings.. 673 1,093 452 

Elections. 1,577 2,758 1,253 

Roads and bridges 8,790 2,625 1,024 

Ferries 1,929 1,662 1,804 

Jurors 2,261 1,584 1,179 

Wolf scalps 940 250 820 

Miscellany ()3 275 504 

Total current expense.^ 42,381 36,319 26,502 

Bonds receiyed 28,700 25,000 paid 16,994 12,260 11,852 

Total paid out 88,075 48,579 63,354 



























































74,284 67,369 59,914 



In 1831 Black Hawk and his band crossed to their old homes on 
Rock river, bnt negotiated a treaty and retnrned to the west side of 
the Mississippi, promising never to return. But April 6, 1832, he 
again crossed the Mississippi into Illinois with his entire baud. It 
was not on a war raid that brought him over in 1832; but as there 
is a diversity of opinions in regard to his motives we will briefly 
give a few of the most credible. It is claimed that he was invited 
by the Prophet to a tract of land about forty miles up Rock river. 
()thers say he crossed with no hostile iutentions, but to accej^t an 
invitation of a friendly chief, Pit-ta-wak, to spend the summer with 
him. Still others, who agree that he did not come to light, say that 
when he retired to the Avest side of the Mississippi the previous 
year he received a large quantity of corn and other provisions, but 
in the spring his provisions were gone, his followers were starving, 
and he came back expecting to negotiate another treaty and get a 
new supply of provisions. 

There is still another explanation, that may enable the reader to 
harmonize the preceding statements and to understand why Black 
Hawk returned in 1832. It is well kuown that in nearly all the 
treaties ever made with the Indians, the Indian traders dictated the 
terms for their allies and customers, and of course received a large 
share of the annuities, etc., in payment for debts due to them. Each 
tribe had certain traders who supplied them. George Davenport 
had a trading post at Fort Armstrong. His customers were largely 
the Sacs and Foxes, and he was held in high esteem by them ; in 
fact his word was law. It is said that Black Hawk's band became 
indebted to him for a large amount and were unable to pay. They 
did not have good luck hunting during the winter, and he was like- 
ly to lose heavily. If IMack Hawk, therefore, could be induced to 
come to this side of the river again and the people so greatly alarm- 
ed that a military force would be sent in pursuit of him, another 
treaty could be made ; he might assist in making terms and get his 
pay out of the payments the Government would make, and all 
would be well. Mr. Amos Farrar, Avho was Davenport's ])artner 
for some years, and who died in Galena during the war, is said to 


have declared, while on iiis death-bed, that tiie " Indians were not 
to be blamed ; that if they had been let alone there would have 
been no trouble; that the band was owinjj: Mr. Davenjiort and he 
wanted to fjet his pay, and would if another treaty iiad been made." 

Altliou<»h Black Hawk's movement across the Mississippi was at 
onee construed as a iiostile demonstration, and Davenpoit skillfullv 
cultivated the idea, he was aecompanied by his old men, women and 
children. Xo Indian warrior ever went on the war-path incumbered 
in that way. More than this, it does not a]>pear, from the fJth of 
April until the battle of >Slillmau's Run on the 12th of ^lay, that a 
singula settler was murdered, or suiFered any material injury at the 
hands of Black Hawk or his band. In truth, Hon. H. 8. Townsend, 
of Warren, Jo Daviess county, states that in one instance, at least, 
wlien they took corn from a settler they ])aid him for it. Capt. AV. 
B. Green, of Chicajro, writes : " I never heard of lilaek Hawk's 
band, while passing up Rock river, eommittinf)' any dejiredations 
whatever, not even petty theft." Frederick Stahl, Esq., of Galena, 
states that he was informed by the veteran John Dixon that "when 
Black Hawk's band passed his post, before the arrival of the troops, 
they were at his house. Ne-o-pope had the young braves well in 
hand, and informed him that they intended to commit no depreda- 
tions, and should not fight unless they were attacked." 

We do not wish to upiiold Black Hawk in the depredations he 
committed upon the whites. We do, however, desire to record events 
inijjartially. AVe believe Black Hawk's motives were greatly mis- 
understood, and it is due to his fame as well as to posterity to record 
the facts of this war as impartially as it is in our power to do. What- 
ever his motives migiit have been, it is the unanimous testimony of 
the survivors now residing on the old battle-fields of that day, that 
except the violation of treaty stipulations and an arrogance of man- 
ner natural to the Indian who wanted to make a new trade with the 
"Great Father," the Sacs and Foxes at first committed no serious 
acts of hostility, and intended none, until the alternative of war or 
extermination was presented to them by the whites. 


N(j sooner had volunteers l)eeu calleil for than recruitinu' beuan in 
Fulton county. Gen. Stillman began to muster his men at Cantor, 
and ere long was off" to the seat of war. Ca})t. D. W. Barnes 
raised and commanded one company; ('aj)t:iin Asa F. Ball another. 
Asa Langsford was First Lieutenant of the former eomj)anv and 
Thomas Clark Second Lieutenant. These men furnished tiieir own 
horses and j)rovisions. They moved to Peoria, which was to be a 
rendezvous for troo])s. Here they remained for ten days, and one 
old silver-haired veteran tells us he had as fine a time there as he 
ever has had in his life. There they found Stephen Stillman, a 
brother of Major Stillman, who kej)! a "tavern" and consequently 
had plenty of" lieker." Stephen was a soldier of the war of 1812 and 


had lost one leg, hut had provided himself with a wooden one, which 
answered this jovial tavern-keeper very well. He was liberal with 
his whisky to the boys, and all they had to do for ten days was to 
take care of their horses and have a jolly good time drinking Still- 
man's whisky, and now and then, merely to break the monotony, 
have a fight. When the ten days had passed they were joined by com- 
panies from McLean, Peoria and Ta/ewell counties. There was a 
question now who should have command of these battalions, Col. 
Bailey or Major Stillman. Col. Bailey claimed it on the ground of 
seniority, but as they were old friends tliis contention did not last 
long. It was agreed that both should command, — take turn about. 
On reaching Dixon Gen. Gaines found them both jolly good fellows, 
and the men all liked them; and so they decided to hold equal rank 
and both command. 

Col. Bailey lived at Pekin and died several years ago in that city. 
Gen. Stillman was born in Massachusetts in 1792 ; came to Sangamon 
county, 111., in 1824, and to Canton, Fulton county in 1830. He 
was a Commissary in the war of 1812, and when residing in New 
York was Captain of an artillery company. He was a tall, finely- 
appearing man, and especially did he ])resent an im])osing appear- 
ance when adorned in military costume. He broutrht the first 
goods at Copperas-Creek Landing and engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness at Canton for six years. He located Copperas-Creek Landing, 
and it was recognized as his although he never really owned it. It 
was known as the "lost land," and could not be bought. On Jan. 
18, 1818, he was married to Hannah Harwood, a daughter of Oliver 
Harwood, a native of the old Bay State, and who came to New York 
early in life. He was in the Revolutionary war, was wounded and 
taken ])risoner, and the British were preparing to execute the death 
penalty u})on him when he was captured by the Americans. Mrs. 
Stillman, who resides at Canton at present, was born in Herkimer 
county, N. Y., April 25, 1799. They had two children when they 
came to the State and two born to them afterwards. Of these but 
one is living, namely, Mrs. Mary Barber, wife of Norris Barber, of 
Elmwood, Peoria county. 

Gen. Stillman was a brave officer and one who had the esteem of 
all the men he commanded. The accounts of the famous "Stillman 
defeat," as generally recorded in histoj-y, does this brave command(n- 
great injustice. Many attribute the cause of that disaster to his 
lack of judgment and eagerness to meet the foe when really he was 
forced to go against his will and better judgment. The soldiers 
became impatient to rout the Indians, and Gov. Reynolds ordered 
Major Stillman with his command to move on and meet them. 
This he objected to doing, saying with his small force of raw militia 
he could only meet with defeat. The Governor urged him, and then 
he asked to have Capt. Henry of Springfield accom})any him, which 
he refused to do; and it only remained for Major Stillman to obey 
the orders of his superior. His men were undisciplined, and many 


of them had just came from the East and South and had never seen 
an Indian, and none were familliar with the Indian mode of warfare. 
The consequence was that as soon as they saw tlie long line of painted 
redskins and heard their terrible war-whoop, they were so frightened 
that they could not shoot their loaded guns. The Major and some 
of his brave officers tried to restore the panic-stricken ranks to order, 
but in vain; and it was only the superior generalship of their cool 
and deliberate commander that prevented the slaughter of half his 
command. While Gen. Stillmau's name will ever be coupled with 
this disastrous defeat, let no word of reproach be spoken of him for 
the cause of it. It was a defeat, an ignoble one ; but had the com- 
mander been less able, less cool, less brave, indeed less a general, 
many more of those frightened pioneers would have fallen in their 
own blood on the field of " Stillman's defeat." 

Major Isaiah Stillman, afterward promoted to General, died at 
Kingston, Peoria county, April 1(3, 18(31. 

stillman's defeat, 

Dixon was the point where the regular and volunteer troojjs were 
to meet. Major Stillman with his men reached Dixon, May 10th. 
The steady, careful movements of the regulars made the volunteers 
very impatient, and the latter were also exceedingly anxious to ob- 
tain the laurels to be won. The men under command of Major 
Stillman were particularly anxious to "ketch" the Indians before 
they could get away. They said the regulars would come cj'awling 
along, stuffing themselves with beef, and the Indians would never 
be "ketched." The officers yielded to the impatience and jealousy 
of the men, and requested Governor Reynolds to let them go out 
and reconnoitre the country and find the Indians. Captain Eads, 
from Peoria, insisted very strongly that they should be allowed to 
go. The other caj)tains all volunteered, for they did not wish to be 
termed cowards. The question with them was not whether the mat- 
ter was prudent and necessary, but whether they dared to go. INIajor 
Stillman consented to go, against his Ijetter judgment. He asked 
Mr. John Dixon's opinion, and the latter told him very decidedly 
tliat the business of "ketcliing" the Indians would prove very dis- 
astrous for a little force of less than three hundred men. Major 
Stillman then said that as all his officers and men were determined 
to go, he niust lead them if it cost him his life. Stillman's force 
started, and just before night May 12, 1832, they encamped at 
White R<x'k Grove, in the eastern part of Marion township. Ogle 
countv, near what is now called Stillman's creek. He was verv near 
Black Hawk's cncamjjment, but did not know it. Soon after becom- 
ing iiware of the immediate ])resence of an armed force Black Hawk 
sent a small party of his braves to Stillman's camp with a flag of 
triice. On their approach they were soon discovered by some of the 
men, who, without reporting to their commander, and without orders, 
hastilv mounted and dashed down upon the approaching Indians. 

HISTORY OF FT^T/rOX <'()UNT\'. 293 

The latter not understanding this sudden and apparently suspicious 
movement, all, save two who claimed to be Pottawatomies, retreated 
toward the camp of their chief. The whites killed two as they fur- 
ther ]uirsued the retreating Indians. The two Indians who refused 
to run were brought into camp. They said: "Me good Pottawat- 
omie," but pointed over the hill and said, "Heap of Sac." When 
Black Hawk and his war chief, Ne-o-pope, saw the volunteers dash- 
ing down upon their camp, their flag of truce disregarded, and 
believing their overtures for peace had been rejected, they raised the 
terrible war-whoo]) and prepared for the fray. 

At this juncture the volunteers formed and moved forward. Be- 
fore going far an Indian prisoner was brought into the camp and 
sent to the rear. The men moved on and made a halt near a slouirh. 
Here the ofticers went ahead and some kind of a parley Avas held 
with the Indians. The latter swung a red flag in defiance. Orders 
were then given to march forward, when Capt. Eads of Peoria came 
riding back, and said he was not easily fooled, and that there was 
not less than a thousand Indians coming. The men were then 
marched back in some confusion across the slough to high ground. 
There they formed, or tried to form, but were in bad order. The 
Indians then poured out of the timber, to the front, right and left, 
and l)oth parties commenced firing; but the whites were in such 
bad (>rd(M- that those in the rear were in danger of shooting those in 
front. The Indians came on whooping, yelling and firing, and en- 
circled around on both sides. Major Stillman ordered his men to 
mount and retreat and form a line across the creek, and also ordered 
them to break the line of the Indians on the left. Here was confu- 
sion, and one veteran says they did not go to the right or to the left 
but right straight fi)r home. When they arrived at the creek great 
effort was made bv the officers to halt "their men and fii^ht. The 


brave Oa})t. Adams cried out to his men, " Comeback, you cowards, 
and we will whip them." With eight men he made a stand and 
repulsed a squad of Indians each time, who made eight separate and 
distinct charges upon them. At last, seeing that with that little 
force he could do nothing, he told his men they would have to look 
out for themselves. Two brave soldiers were with him .at this time 
and soon saw him fall ; but he sold his life dearly. He had his 
horse shot from under him Avhen the retreat began. He bore a 
deadly hatred towards the Indians, as they had killed many of his 
relations. Major Perkins was overtaken and killed about a mile 
and half from the creek, and his body terribly mangled. The loss 
at this disastrous engagement fell most heavily ui)on this county. 
Of thirteen sturdy pioneers who fell at this the battle of the Syca- 
more, Bird Ellis, John Walters, Tyus Chi Ids and Joseph Farris 
were from Fulton county. There were three of the Farris boys in 
the company, and Jerry was with his brother Joseph when he was 
killed ; and he was fired at but escaped when the stalwart brave hit 
him over the head with his gun knocking him down. He crawled 
to a thicket of bushes and lay three days before he was rescued. 



After the fatal engagement Avhicli has since been known as 
"Stillman's defeat" or " StiUraan's run," the Indians began to com- 
mit great depredations upon the whites. Among other fiendish and 
murderous raids was one made upon a little settlement on Indian 
creek. Three families by the names of Davis, Hall and Pettigrew 
lived there. The Indians appeared in the day-time and massacred 
them in cold blood, taking a savage delight in their infernal deeds. 
Some of the inmates were immediately shot down, others were pierced 
through with s])ears or dispatched with the tomahawk. The Indians 
afterwards related with an infernal glee how the women squeaked 
like geese when they were run through the body with spears, or felt 
the tomahaw-k entering their heads. All the victims were carefully 
scalped, the children were chopped to pieces with axes, and the 
women were tied up by the heels to the wall of the house. There 
were two voung; ladies who tried to conceal themselves bv crawling; 
into bed. They were discovered by two young braves who deter- 
mined to have them for wives. Their names were Rachel and Silvia 
Hall, aged fifteen and seventeen. They were hurried by forced marches 
beyond pursuit. After a long and fatiguing journey with their caj)- 
tors through a wilderness country, with but little to eat, aud being 
subjected to a variety of fortune, they were at last rescued, §2,000 
being given as a ransom. It is said that the Indians exacted by 
far the largest ransom for the elder sister, as she was more quiet and 
gave the Indians less trouble ; but they let the younger sister go 
pretty cheap, as she was so saucy and impudent that she made her 
captors much trouble. The women are still living in the northern 
part of the State. AVe are told by a lady who saw the Misses Hall 
just after their release, that they related to her all the details of 
the horrible murder of their father, mother and little sister, and their 
neighbors. They said they could see the scalp of their little sister 
everv dav in the wio;:wam. After their rescue from the Indians, each 
of these voung ladies were given a section of land bv the United 

The account of these atrocities spread rapidly throughout every 
settlement, creating the greatest panics among the pioneers. Many 
of them were frightened out of their wits, although no hostile In- 
dians were within fifty miles of them yet ; with these flicts and rumors 
afloat, and the limited means of protection they had at hand, aud 
each cabin being almost entirely isolated, we do not wonder at their 
timidity. The scare the settlers of Fulton county received is most 
graphically described by ]Mr. Swan in his History of Canton, under 
the title of The Westerfield Defeat," which account we give below 
in full. 


In the spring of 183*2 the Black Hawk War was a source of great 
alarm to the citizens of Canton. Major Isaiah Stillman, of Canton, 


in command of a battalion of volnnteer infantry, was in the field, 
and had nndcr him most of the yonng men of the community. On 
the 13th of May, 1882, the force nnder his command met with a 
defeat above Dixon, in Lee county, on what has since been known 
as "Stillman's run," and the news soon reached Canton, coupled 
with the fact that Bird Ellis, Tyus Childs and John Walter, from 
the vicinity of Clinton, had been killed, and a number of others 
from here wounded. This news not only cast a gloom over the 
community, but created a feeling- of insecurity in the bravest of the 
settlers, and of decided alarm, amounting in many cases to absolute 
])anic. The settlers were certainly liable to attack from the red- 
skins, who were known to be in force and on the war-path to the 
north. There was n(j adecjuate force in reach to prevent any incur- 
sion they might feel disposed to make, when the "Westerfield De- 
feat," as it was called in derision, occurred. Perhaps never in the 
history of frontier life has there occurred so broad a farce with so 
many of the elements of tragedy and melodrama combined. The 
news of vStillman's defeat had reached Canton, and grief-stricken 
mothers were in the first anguish of their mourning for slaughtered 
sons, when rumors reached the settlement of a purj)ose on the ]:)art 
of Black Hawk and his warriors to move southward for an attack 
on scattered inhabitants. The excitement was intense. Stories of 
slaughtered families, of burnt homes, of captive women and children 
subjected to every fiendish indignity, were the current subjects of 
conversation at every gathering. Meetings were called in everv 
neighborhood, and preparations for defense or refuge begun. Bl(K'k- 
houses and stockade forts were erected, and scouts kept constantlv 
in the prairies to the northward to warn the people of the approach 
of the Indians. One of these forts was erected around the store and 
residence of Joel Wright, on the corner of AVood and Illinois streets, 
where Mrs. Wilst)n now resides. This fort consisted of two block- 
houses and a palisade inclosure of split logs. This was built by 
standing the logs on end in a deep trench, which was then filled up 
and the dirt well })onnded around the logs. 

In March, 1832, scouts were sent out by the people of Canton to 
see if any indication of hostile Indians could be discovered. These 
scouts had been out several days, but had brought in no report of 
an alarming nature, when one day toward the last of the month 
Peter Westertield, an old frontiersman, and Charley Shane, a French- 
man, determined to go on a scouting expedition on their own respon- 
sibility. They were both well mounted, and, crossing Big creek 
north of town in the prairie, rode nearly north until they reached a 
point nearly in tlie line between Farmington and Ellisville, on Spoon 
river. The morning before they started out a number of mounted 
white men had crossed the prairie from Peoria to Quincy, and their 
trail, of course, was fresh and showed very plainly in the dried 
prairie grass. They had ridden in single file ( Indian fashion,) and 
a better scout then even Peter Westerfield might have been deceived 


by their trail. Wlien Westerfield and ISliaue reached thit^ trail, thev 
both dismounted, examined it carefully, and both were satisfied that 
it had been made by a large party of mounted Indians. They cau- 
tiously followed the trail until their suspicion crystallized into com- 
parative certainty, when, remounting, they started back toward 
Canton to alarm the citizens, and take measures for the safety of 
themselves and femilies. 

As they neared Big creek — which by the melting of snow had 
risen until it M-as out of its banks — they had a new cause for alarm. 
Jonathan Buffum and Ed. Therman had holed a wolf, and Avere 
shooting into the hole. .They were in a direct line between Avhcrc 
Westerfield and Shane reached Big creek and Col. Barnes' place, 
where John Lane now lives. These bovs were not onlv shooting, 
but indulging in all sorts of unearthly yells, imitating Indians, 
screaming and hallooing. Another pioneer was squirrel-hunting in 
the same vicinity, and another party shooting at a mark in the same 

Westerfield and Shane listened to these noises with undisguised 
fear. That it was Indians there could be no mistake, — Indians at 
bloody work, shooting, tomahawking and scalping the families of 
Col. Barnes and Henry Therman. I^hey did not stop long to con- 
sider, but ])lunged headlong into the turbid waters of the raging 
Biir creek, and riuht i>allantlv did their nol)le steeds buifet the mad 
waves until the angry stream divided them from the dreaded foe. 
Their saddles were wet and heavy, and would load their beasts too 
much for the fearful race for life they were entering upon, and, with 
a coolness never too much to be admired, they dismounted and 
relieved their gallant steeds of the dripping leathern saddles, which 
were deposited for safety in a convenient thicket of hazel. This 
was the work of but a moment, when they remounted their bare- 
backed animals and were away over the smooth prairie, across the 
few ravines, and on, on to the. fort at Canton. As they jiassed the 
cabin of Wheaton Chase they shouted, '^Injins are killing Barnes' 
folks : flee for your lives ! " Soon Coleman's grocery was reached, 
and the cry of "Injins! Injins ! " reiterated. On, on to the fort 
they rode, and still their cry was "Injins! Injins!" "The Injins 
have killed everybody at Barnes' and Therman's ! " 

And now began a scene of the wildest confusion. Men shouted 
the dreaded alarm ; women screamed ; small boys, pale with fright, 
crept into the dense hazel-thickets and fled for their lives. Some 
of these boys were thus hiding for days and days, subsisting on 
roots, berries and elm-bark. "To the fort ! To the fort ! " was now 
the cry, and soon the people were gathering, a pale, nervous, 
affrighted throng, within the little wooden inclosure which was then 
their only hope of safety. To us, who from the distance of nearly 
fortv years contemplate the scene, it is a broad comedy ; but to those 
affrighted pioneers it was a tragedy, the denouement of which might 
■prove fatal to them and their loved ones. It was known that Keo- 



I *t ^1 C^ r H>^^ 

•.•^, --'• 



Lib;. Mil i 
. , 0^ THE 


kuk and three thousand warriors were encamped opposite the Yel- 
low Banks, held in check only by his promise of neutrality ; and 
who would believe the word of the treacherous red-skin ? Black 
Hawk's band, too, were on the war-path. They had defeated Major 
Stillman, and men from Canton were among the victims, while 
between here and the scene of that disaster there was no sufficient 
force for the protection of the infant settlement. All these facts 
were well known, and had been frequently canvassed among the 
settlers. Peter AYesterfield was a man, too, in whose word the most 
unbounded confidence was placed. He was a Baptist licensed 
preacher, a man of undoubted courage, and had had a considerable 
frontier experience. He believed the trail he had seen, and the 
yells and firing he had heard, to be the work of Indians, and had 
no doubt that Col. Barnes' family had been massacred. What won- 
der the defenseless people were frightened ! 

Preparations for defense, however, were not neglected. The 
women filled several large kettles with water, and determined to 
aid all they could in the common defense by using it on the foe ! 
There were incidents of broad comedy intermingled, even then, with 
the tragedy, that caused grim smiles to illumine even faces white 
with fear, — incidents that have served to enliven many a fireside 
description of those frightful days. 

Joel Wright was, by common consent, selected as the commander 
of the fort, and Isaac Swan as his second in command. Joel was 
dressed in a light suit, with a linen roundabout. During the excite- 
ment he was everywhere, — assuring frightened women, issuing 
orders for defensive prejmrations, and distributing powder and lead 
to the men. Be it understood, the women preserved their courage 
far better than their lords, as was evidenced by the fact that when 
no male hand could be found sufficiently steady to pour melted lead 
into bullet-molds, a woman volunteered to make the bullets, and 
made them without s])illing a drop of the metal. Mrs. Dr. (^oy- 
kendall was particularly noted for her coolness and courage on this 
occasion, and did most of the bullet-molding. 

To recount all the varied phases of this scare would itself recpiirt; 
a volume. Some were dramatic, most farcical, as viewed through the 
light of forty years, and by the knowledge that there was absolutely 
no danger. Among the amusing incidents of the day was the arriv- 
al, at the fort, of Jerry Coleman and 'S({uire McKim, who were at 
Coleman's mill, on Big creek, when Westerfield's news was com- 
municated to them. Jerry got the word a few seconds in advance 
of jMcKim, and being lame, set out at once. McKim, however, 
was not long in overtaking him. McKim wore an old-fashioned 
dress or swallow-tailed coat, and as he ran past the slow-paced Jerry, 
the coat-tails offered so tempting an aid to the boys's flight that he 
could not refrain from seizing hold of them with both hands. Mc- 
Kim was a large, portly man, who weighed nearly two hundred; at 
the same time McKim was a frightened man, and fright is ever self- 


ish. He wa.s not willing to be retarded by the weight of Jerry at- 
tached, like the weight to the tail of a kite, to his eoat-skirts, so he 
turned on Jerr}" and tried to disengage his hold ; but Jerry's grip was 
always good, and fear had turned it into a grip of iron : he would 
not let go. " For God's sake, Jerry, let me go, or we will both be 
killed I Please, Jerry, let me save my own life I" But Jerry heed- 
ed not his pleadings; like Sindbad's Old Man of the Sea, he could 
not be shaken off. McKim turned to run, but still the weight of 
the crippled boy would retard his speed, and he Mould turn again 
and plead and fight, and pray for deliverance from the tormenter. 
Jerry loved life and feared Indians too much to be influenced either 
by prayer, threats or blows. He hung on, and was still hanging on 
when McKim dashed into the fort. 

Jerry found his father gone and the store thrown wide open. He 
took possession and sold out the whole stock of powder and lead in 
a few moments, not stopping to take an account of sales or settle 
with customers. It had cost him nothing, and he sold at cost and 
was satisfied. 

Wm. Hannan, Charles Reeves and Williain Babbett, boys of per- 
haps a dozen years old, were so much infected with the contagion of 
fear that they determined to seek refuge in flight. They according- 
ly left town and took to the timljcr. They crossed Big creek north of 
Jacob Ellis' mill, and struck down the creek through the timber to 
a point \ve>t of Lcwistown, where they hid in a dense thicket. 
Young Reeves had on a pair of buckskin breeches, and during his 
flight he had got them completely saturated with water. When the 
])arty took to cover he ])ulled them off and hung them up on some 
brush to dry. This was a serious error on Charles's part, as the 
se([uel showed. He had not taken into his calculation the peculiar 
idiosyncrasy of buckskin, and found, to his chagrin, that the pants 
which had fitted exactly before they were wet, and been too large 
while saturated Avith the treacherous fluid, were in their dried state 
infinitely too small. — so much so that l)y no amount of stretching, 
coaxing or pulling could they be induced to come over his l)are 
limbs. He had to give it up in despair, and made the rest of his tri]> 
through brush and briers in a primitive toilet, more simple and con- 
venient than |)leasant. They were out all the day of the AVester- 
field scare, all the succeedina: night, and until the next night, sub- 
sisting on l)erries and elm-bark. How long th^y would have hidden 
no one can affirm — perhaps they would have been hiding until this 
day — had they nf>t been attracted by the sound of an ox-driver's 
•• \V(»-haw, Buck," and ventured to " interview" him, thus learn- 
ing that danger was over and that they could safely return to their 

At C'ol. Barnes' the news was tardy in coming that Westerfield 
brought. The colonel was out serving at the head of his company 
under Stillman. Stephen Babbett's wife heard the alarm sounded 
<»n the east side of Big ceek, and, gathering up one child and calling 


to her two remaining children to foUow, ran at her speed 
to Barnes'. Henry Andrews, then a hoy of perhaps fourteen years, 
saw her coming and called to know what was the matter. "Oh," 
she exclaimed, "the Indians are murdering everybody across the 
creek. The people are running and hallooing 'Indians! Indians!'" 
Andrews at once sent Col. Barnes' two younger boys over to old 
Mr. Swegle's to give them them the alarm, and in a short time they 
returned, bringing wntli them the old gentleman — who was fir ad- 
vanced in years — and his old lady and daughter. Mrs. Barnes now 
took the direction of affairs, and directed the party to seek shelter in a 
thicket at the head of a neighlxtring ravine. To reach this thicket 
the party were instructed to strike the ravine at a point considerably 
below, and then to follow up the b(xl of the stream, wading in the 
stream to hide their trail. The two small bovs led the wav, and the 
old gentleman and the women and children followed. There were 
fourteen persons in all, and oidy one boy, armed with a trusty rifle 
to protect them, Henry Andrews, brought up the rear; and as he 
followed he picked his flint and jirepared for the struggle for life and 
foi- the lives of the women and children who were confided to his 

"Oh, Henry," said Mrs. Barnes, "what can you do with so many 
of us?" "I Avill do the best I can and kill as many of them as I 
can," responded Henry. 

On reaching the cover of the dense hazel-thicket, the party took 
to cover, except Henry, who stood guard f)r a couple of hours ; and 
they seemed mortal hours to tiie boy, who looked each moment to 
have the red-skins pounce upon him. At last, grown tired of wait- 
ing, Henry determined to venture to Canton and see what the real 
condition of aifairs might be. He ])roceeded very cautiously, keep- 
ing in the cover of the hazel-brush as much as possible, until he 
reached the "Morse quarter" adjoining Canton, when he came upon 
John Huff", who was out on guard. Hufl" was frightened, and it 
was with difficulty Henry suticeeding in making himself known : he 
succeeded finally, and proceeded to the fort. Here he found the 
wildest confusion existing. All crowded around him, believing him 
sole survivor from among the settlers on the west side of the creek. 
Mutual ex})lanations followed, and at once the scare was at an end. 
This scare Avas named, in honor of its progenitor, "Westerfield's De- 
feat," and as such it is still known. 

The Westerfield scare was by no means confined to Canton, but 
spread through all the surrounding townships. In the Mallory set- 
tlement — now Putman township — were many settlers, among whom 
were the Mallorvs, Fellowses, Stricklands and Holcombs. There was 

./ 7 7 

an understanding between Isaac Fellows and Joel Coykendall, at 
(knton, that if any serious alarm was given, Joel should communi- 
cate the news to Fellows. No sooner had the word brought by Wes- 
terfield reached Canton, of proximity of Indians, than Joel mounted 
a fleet horse and rode at utmost speed to Fellows's, to warn him of 


danger, accordiug to his promise. The men in the neighborhood 
had met that afternoon to drill, the place of muster being near old 
Mr. Holcomb's. Thither Coykendall was directed by Mrs. Fellows, 
who, terribly alarmed, gathered up her two children, Penella and 
Stephen, and calling for her sister-in-law, Mrs. Cyrus Fellows, 
started for the same place. 

The company at drill were terribly excited when Coykendall com- 
municated his news, and at once, by common consent, separated, 
with the understanding that they would meet and fort at Holcomb's, 
whose house was the most roomy in the settlement. Holcomb's 
house was a cabin with two rooms, and situated on the prairie. He 
had no stable, but on the ground, ready for raising, had the logs for 
a small log barn. The men were wonderfully expeditious in collect- 
ing their little families at Holcomb's, — so expeditious, indeed, that 
not a man of them had thought of his arms. When all were asssem- 
bled, the scene would have beggared the pencil of Hogarth to paint 
all its serio-comic and tragic eifects. Women with disheveled locks 
were praying; men palsied with fear, and children screaming with 
affright. Some one suggested that a fort must be built about the 
house. The suggestion was grasped at, as drowning men grasp at 
straws. Old Mr. Holcomb siezed a spade, and rushing out before 
his door, began to excavate. "M'hat on arth are you a doin', old 
man?" shouted his wife. "Diggin' a fort." said he, as he frantically 
exhumed s])adeful after spadeful of the rich, black loam. 

It was soon discovered that the supply of barn logs Mould not be 
sufficient for a stockade ; so it was decided to build a breast-work. 
This was soon completed, and was only about three feet in height. 
Then was discovered a dire calamity. Here was a breast-AVork, and 
here were brawnv defenders, but there was onlv one irnn that was 
serviceable. Breast-works are a good thing in themselves, but with- 
out arms their strong points in defensive warfare could not be brought 
out to advantage. What was to be done? So much time had been 
occupied in ])re]>aring their fortifications that it was not probable 
there would be time to return to their homes for arms before the 
murdering savages would be upon them, and then, the women have 
since suggested, their lieges were too much — well, say demoral- 
ized, to venture so far from the fort. Some one suggested clubs ; 
and as there hap})ened to be a convenient thicket, the suggestion was 
at once adopted. Clubs, those primitive weapons of warfare, were 
cut in such abundance that Mrs. Isaac Fellows persists to this day 
in saying there were fully four wagon-loads, — enough to keep the 
Holcomb family in wood until long after corn-planting. 

While the vouno- and athletic men were euiratred in the club bus- 
iness, old Mr. Strickland, who weighed nearly three hundred pounds 
and was too fat to venture so far as the thicket, engaged in imi)ro- 
vising for himself a weapon more formidable than the club. Pro- 
curing a bayonet with about one-third of the jwint end broken off, 
he fastened it to a hoe-handle ; then stationing himself before a win- 


(low in an arm-chair, he poised his blunt spear, and with an expec- 
tant look, pronounced himself ready to send whoever of the red-skins 
should present himself at that window to his last account. As 
Strickland sat expectant, waiting, watching, he prayed, — for he was 
a religious man, — watched and prayed, determined to die at his 
[)()st, — and no Indian within fifty miles ! While Strickland was 
preparing his formida])le weapon, old Mrs. Stewart, who weighed 
nearly as much as that old hero, was loading and doubly loading the 
only serviceable gun. 

Still the Indians did not come, and men and women began to 
breathe easier. Finally one bold pioneer volunteered to go down 
the road toward Canton and see if he could discern any signs of 
the enemy. He soon returned with hair erect and eyes dilated, and 
declaring that the " Injins" were coming, marching in solid column, 
at least a thousand strong ; and now Pandemonium was a quiet place 
compared with Fort Holcomb. Men, women, children, all were 
screaming, all were praying, all were — but why attempt to describe 
what is indescribable? Had Black Hawk, with any of his braves, 
been within a mile, the noise then and tliere would have frightened 
them out of the country. 

Still the Indians did not a})pear. Dark came, lights were extin- 
guished, and in darkness and doubt the frightened people watched 
and waited. Twelve o'clock, and still no ruthless savaofe. Dawn, 
rosy dawn, came, and still the wary savage failed to make morn 
hideous with his terrible war-cry. And now came a suspicion, faint 
at first, but gradually growing stronger until it crystallized into con- 
viction, that the scare was without foundation, and then, all at once, 
men became l)rave. Messengers were now found willing to go to 
Canton to learn the extent and cause of the alarm. Thev soon re- 
turned, bringing the good news that there was not an Indian within, 
perha|)s, one hundred miles of the county line ! 

The Westerfield scare was communicated to the Moores' Grove 
settlement by a runner, who crossed below the Lewistown bridge 
and made his way to Harvey Crosswait's. Crosswait communicated 
the alarm at once to his neighbors, inviting them all to take refuge 
at his new log house, which was (piite roomy and tolerablv well cal- 
culated for defense. Between Crosswait's and Joshua Moores' there 
was a ravine that, on account of the melting snow, had been con- 
verted into a raging torrent. Crosswait went as nearly to Moores' 
as this torrent would permit, and hallooed across to old Mrs. Moores. 
The old gentleman was now ([uite old, and Walters, his son-in-law, 
had just been killed at Stillman's defeat. Old Mr. Moores gathered 
up his sick wife in his arms and, followed by his daughter Jennie, 
her sister, and their four children, they started for the expected 
])lace of safety. On arriving at the slough, they waded in across 
the bottom for some distance to a foot-log across the small stream, 
Mr. Moores carrying his wife, the two daughters wading, each carrv- 
ing a child and leading one. When the foot-log was reached, Mrs 


Moores expressed her belief that the alarm was false, and insisted on 
being taken back home ; but at length, yielding to the entreaties of 
her children and the expostulation of her husband, consented to go 
forward. The whole party crossed over, the old folks by crawling 
on their hands and knees, and the vouug-er women bv wadinir 
through the swift current, carrying one child and dragging the 
other. This was not accomplished without danger, as the water was 
deep and the current swift. 

When the two young women reached the shore, they noticed close 
behind them a neighbor woman, Mrs. Robinson, with two children, 
wading through the overflowed bottom toward them, and at once 
determined to wait for and assist her across. When Mrs. Robinson 
reached the foot-log, Mrs. AValters called to know where he was. 
Mrs. Robinson replied, "T don't know. He and his brother 
were with me until we got to the creek, and then disappeared : I don't 
know what has become of them." It proved that both men, 
who were young, stout and hearty, had deserted the poor 
woman to her fate, and in company had started, as fast as their 
frightened limbs would carry them, for Spriugfield. They did not 
return for more than three weeks. Mrs. Walters and her sister aided 
Mrs. Robinson to cross the stream, and accompanied her to Cross- 
wait's where the company, with many of their neighbors, remained 
until dark, when another runner arrived from Jacob Ellis's, inform- 
ing them that there had been no danger. 

John Orendorff, Esq., relates the incidents of the W^esterfield 
scare occurring east and south of Canton. Orendorff and Richard 
Addis had started to Hazael Putman's place — since known as the 
"Woods Farm," — to attend the muster of their militia company. 
On the way- across the Canton Prairie, and when near the mound, 
they met Richard Tompkins, who informed them that Peter Wester- 
field had just come home, and brought word that the Indians were 
killiny; evervbodv north of Canton ; that Barnes' folks had all been 
killed, and the danger was imminent. "Who has seen Westerfield ?" 
asked Orendorff. "George Anderson," was the reply. Orendorff 
expressing doubt of the truth of Anderson's statement, to some ex- 
tent re-assured Tompkins, and he consented to return and go with 
Orendorff and Addis to Westerfield's house. Westerfield resided on 
what is now known as the "Capps Farm." On arriving at Wester- 
field's they found the place deserted, Westerfield having fled to the 
woods with his family for shelter. They accordingly turned and 
rode over to Putman's. Here they found the militia company in 
consultation as to the course to be pursued. Esquire Orendorff was 
called upon for his opinion, and, after questioning Anderson, who 
w^as the only person present that had seen Westerfield, he ex- 
pressed himself in favor of sending a messenger at once to Canton 
to ascertain the facts, and volunteered to go himself on that errand. 
Addis at once volunteered to accompany him. The company agreed 
to remain together at Putman's until their return. 


Orendorff and Addis set out at once on their mission, and -had 
scarcely struck the high prairie before they discovered Peter West- 
erfickl coming from toward his place, and evidently with the inten- 
tion of joining them. AVesterheld was mounted, bare-backed, on v 
sorrel, raw-boned animal ; his head was "enturbaned" with a red 
bandana handkerchief; he carried his rifle and shot-pouch by his 
side, and wore a look of grim determination. He was evidently going 
tc^war, and his courage would not fail him. Westerfield communicated 
his news to Urendorlf and Addis, said he had hid his family, and 
was going to the fort at Canton to aid in its defense. 

On arriving at Canton they found the scare had subsided, Henry 
Andrews having come in from the Barnes farm with news of their 
safety, and that no Indians were in that vicinity. When Westerfield 
heard this, he grasped Orendorff's arm and exclaimed, "I tell you, 
Orendorff, it is true, I know. Didn't I hear them and see their 
trail ?" It was no use telling Westerfield that his senses had be- 
trayed him. 

Orendorff and Addis now I'ode back to Putman'sto notify the com- 
pany that the danger was imaginary ; but on arriving there they 
found that the valiant militia, taking a new scare, had run to their 
homes and were hiding out their families. 

Thus ended the most exciting day in Canton's pioneer history. 


The war went on, resulting in the defeat of the Indians and the 
capture of their leader. The rangers came home and were dismissed 
from service. They received therefor the remunerative sum of 
H6 cents per day for self and horse. Afterwards the general 
Government was kind enough to give each ])articipant 80 acres of 


The following incident was related by one of the few remaining 
veterans of the war: One day the General (Stillman) and some of 
the officers started out reconnoitering on a high hill. Some of the 
boys thought this presented an excellent oj)portunity to play a good 
joke on their commander and officers. Accordingly they fixed 
themselves up in blankets to look like Indians, skirted the hill and 
appeared to the scouting party from the bushes. The General and 
party of course thought them Indians, discharged their guns at them 
and started on a general stampede into the camp, yelling, "Indians ! 
Indians !" and immediately called all the men into line. On dis- 
covering their mistake the boys had a merry time over the scare, and 
it was a standing joke on the officers as long as the campaign 

Theodore Sergeant was Lieutenant of the Canton militia company 
during the Black Hawk war, and in that capacity for a considerable 
period of time had command of the com])any. After Stillman's de- 



feat, an order came from the Governor to Sergeant for seven men 
from the Canton company. Sergeant at once mnstered his men in 
front of Child & Stillman's store, and read the requisition, calling 
upon those who would go to fall in after the music, which was at 
the same time ordered to march and counter-march. Up and down 
tramped the musicians before the company, but not a man fell in 
behind them. Sergeant was equal to the emergency. Ordering the 
music to cease, he went into the store and bought two gallons f)f 
whisky, which he passed down the ranks treating every man. "Now 
boys," said he, "I've got to have seven men or I'll draft them. 
Music ! forward, march ! Boys, fall in, you who want to go." Either 
the whisky or the threat, or patriotism, proved potent, and nine 
more than the required number at once fell in. 



The criminal record of Fulton county, as the dark contents of this 
chapter will clearly show, brings her to the front rank in this partic- 
ular, as she stands in every noble one. Since the day wicked Cain 
slew his brother Abel in the very morning of the world's history, 
the earth has been bathed in human blood shed by jealous, angry or 
infuriated human brothers. In Fulton county it seems that life 
has been held as of little value by many of our people. Men and 
women for slight pretenses have taken the life of their fellow creatures. 
The knife, pistol, gun, poison and other weapons have been used 
with a prodigal hand. For the most trivial offense the knife has 
l)een plunged to the vitals of the victim, the fatal bullet sent to his 
heart, or the deadly lotion dealt out. By the observant it will be 
noticed as a significant fact that in the following list of murders com- 
mitted the oiFense to cause the deadly act to be done has been gener- 
ally slight. Seldom justifialjle, it seems to an impartial observer, 
yet it will be noticed that the punishment meted out to the criminal 
has invariably been light. Not one in the long list of murderers 
has been punished with the death penalty. We are not claiming 
that in any particular case such should have been done, but wish to 
record the facts impartially as we find them. As above mentioned, 
it would seem from this state of public sentiment that life is looked 
upon as not very sacred or valuable by many persons of this county. 
To illustrate further the slight value placed upon life by some, aside 
from the terrible facts recorded below, we will refer to a trial once 
brought before a justice of the peace of Liverpool township. Two 
neighbor women were brought to trial and prosecuted for the attempt 
upon the life of another neighbor woman. One of these, while 
making soap in the open air, had contracted with the other for a 
verv small sum of monev, only a few dollars, to kill the third woman 
referred to. The committal of the dark deed was thoroughly dis- 
cussed, and plans laid to carry it into execution. The woman who 
for a few dollars had bargained to take the life of one of her neigh- 
bors intended committing the deed with a garden hoe. We do not 
wish to reflect upon the high moral standing of the citizens of 
Fulton county in general, but as faithful historians we must impar- 
tially record things as they exist. 

We have not attempted to give a list of the persons who were in- 


dieted for manslaughter. There is a \'erv long list of these, many 
of whom are not murderers simply because they failed in aim, not 
because they did not intend to commit the deed. We give every 
case where a person was indicted and tried for murder. 

James Off den. 

In 1840 there was a house-raising at John Morris', in Union 
township, near Troy Mills. Among those present was James Og- 
den. While at dinner Ogden thought he was insulted by 

another party, and being of an irritable temperament he became 
very cross, angry, abusive and profane. George Morris, a young 
man, became incensed at Ogden's abusive manners, and made his 
feelings known. The two soon got into a tight. Ogden kicked 
Morris very hard during the tussle. When parted, Morris remarked 
that he was badly hurt. He was taken into the house and laid upon 
a bed, no one supposing that he was seriously hurt ; but within 
fifteen minutes he died. After some time had elapsed Ogden gave 
himself up to Sheriff La master, was tried, found guilty and sentenced 
to the penitentiary for one year. He served a portion of his time 
and was pardoned by Gov. Carlin. We are told that his treatment 
while at the penitentiary was very mild, he being permitted to drive 
a team through the streets of Alton and do general outside work. 

Neheiaiah Northup. 

About noon one day in the summer of 1847 or '48, Norman Bea- 
mas was married in Liverpool, In the evening of that day, Xehe- 
miah Xorthup, a resident on the north side of Liverpool island, got 
to carousinu; around with women's clothes on. and endeavoring to 
be a whole "shivaree" of himself. He was not known to have any 
particular charge against either Beamas or his new wife ; but when it 
was about dusk he met Beamas on the common, passed a few words 
with him and started off with a gun on his shoulder, waving it up 
and down. At the distance of a few rods, walking with his back 
still turned toward Beamas, he fired off the gun, and lo ! the shot 
struck the bridegroom on the neck and lower part of his face, shat- 
tering his louver jaw to pieces and killing him instantly. Xorthuj) 
was arrested and bound over to court under a moderate penalty, 
but he finally left the country and has since never been heard of. 
It is related that only a half-hour before the death of Mr. Beamas, 
the bride was dozing in a rocking-chair and had a very distinct 
dream of seeing her husband murdered! 

Jackson Louderback, Daniel Louderback and John Curless. 

These parties were indicted March G, 1849, for the murder of 
Abraham Ijittlejohn, of Woodland township. The history of tlic 
case, as we have been informed, is as follows: Some time previous 
to the murder two brothers l)v the name of Baldwin came into the 


neighborhood preaching a new religion. They were formerly fish- 
ermen, we are told, and came from Havana. Their education was 
limited, bat what they lacked in knowledge they made up in zeal 
and earnestnes, and consequently found many converts to their 
views. Among them were many of the best and most respected 
peo])le of that portion of the county. In derision their followers 
were called Baldwinites, but Union Baptists was the name they 
claimed. Thov were infatuated with their new relip-ion and held 
meetings \'ery often. It was at one of these meetings that Little- 
john lost his life. It was held at a school-house, or church, and he 
was appointed to keej) order. It seems that the Louderbacks and oth- 
ers came to this meeting expressly to create a disturbance ; at any rate 
they did so, and while Littlejohn was putting one of their number 
out of the house Jackson Louderback reached in from without and 
cut him in the abdomen with a knife. From the wound made he 
soon died. Jackson made his escape and never has been captured. 
Daniel and John Curless were arrested and liberated on bail. Dan- 
iel's case was postponed from time to time until the November term, 
1851, when he came to trial. Julius Manning assisted the prosecu- 
tion. Wead (Sz Goudy and I^ewis Ross defended. The case was a 
sharply contested one. He was acquitted. The other cases were 
then stricken from the docket. 

Nancij Wilcoxen. 

Nancv Wilcoxen, a woman of questionable character, was in- 
dicted, March 17, 1852, for the killing of William Weston. She 
went from her home in Liverpool townshij) to Liverpool on the day 
of the night of the murder, and purchased a knife for the avowed 
purpose of killing Weston. He was at her house, and it is said he 
bore but a little better re])utation than the woman. That night she 
killed him. Her attorneys were Manning, lioss and Blackwell, 
while Wead c\: Goudy assisted the prosecution. She was found 
guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to the penitentiary for six 
years. She was pardoned, however, before her term of service was 
completed, came back to this county, and subsequently went to 
Sangamon county, where she died. 

Rebecca Dj/e. 

This was a case brought from McDonough county on a change of 
venue, but it was the most exciting trial ever held in the county. It 
lasted nine days. The court room was crowded at every session, 
many ladies being constantly in attendance. On the evening of the 
27th of May, 1854, Mrs. Dye killed her husband, James Dye, as it 
was alleged. David R. Burress was arrested as an accessory to the 
crime, but broke jail before trial. INIrs. Dye was tried at the 
April term of the Circuit Court, 1855. The prosecuting attorneys 
were Messrs. Goudy, of Fulton, Wheat, of Adams, and Schofield & 


Mack, of Hancock. For the defense, Messrs. Manning, of Peoria, 
Kellogg and Ross, of Fulton, and Cyrns Walker of McDonough. 
Probably a more able array of counsel could not have been procured 
in the entire State. William C Goudy opened the ease for the 
people and Cyrus Walker for the defense. Some eighty or ninety 
witnesses were examined. The case was given to the jury after 
able arguments on l)Oth sides. It remained out for fifteen hours and 
l)rought in a verdict of guilty, and fixed the punishment at confine- 
ment in the penitentiary for five years. She was pardoned long be- 
fore the expiration of her term, returned to ^lacomb, and died 
in 1874. 

Willi a III Taif. 

In Novemljer, 1857, AVm. Tait was indicted for the killing of 
Hamilton Brown at Astoria. One night while passing along the 
street Brown was struck upon the head with a stone or a piece of 
iron. From the wound inflicted he died. Tait was supposed to 
have thrown the stone and therefore was indicted for the murder. 
He was liberated upon bail fixed at S500. He was tried and ac- 
quitted. Cyrus Walker was his attorney. 

Simon H. 0. and John W. HanJij. 

A fracas occurred in the little village of Slabtown Wednesday, 
April 27, 1S.j9, in which Daniel Richardson was instantly killed 
and John O. Hardy severely wounded. There had been a lawsuit 
that day in which Richardson was interested, and it not termin- 
ating to please him, and, it is said, he being somewhat intoxicated, 
became quarrelsome. He attacked, as it was claimed, John O. Hardy, 
an elderly gentleman, and struck him two or three times, when 
young Hardy approached ; and as he attempted to draw a pistol Rich- 
ardson threw a stone, which struck the weapon, causing it to discharge 
its contents into the young man's thigh. The old man then drew a 
knife and stabbed Richardson to the heart, killing him instantly. 
The two Hardys were l^rought to trial at the June term, 1859, on 
the charge of murder. From 96 men a jury was chosen and the 
case given intr) their hands. They rendered a verdict of "not 

Isaac H(irri><. 

A young man l)y the name of Vaughn was murdered at \'ermont, 
Tuesday, July 15, 1860, by Isaac Harris, another young man. 
The weajion used was a club. The young men had always been 
warm friends. They were traversing a road near Vermont, and 
Vaughn became so helpless from excessive drinking that he fell 
upon the ground and could not get up. Harris tried to arouse liini 
by pounding him with a stick, but without success. He then took 
a fence stake and literally pounded the prostrate man to death. 


Vaughn was taken home and died that same evening. It seems 
that there was no ill-feeling between the two men : they were only 
drunk. Harris Mas indicted for murder and tried at the October 
term of the Circuit C(»urt, found guilty of manslaughter and sent to 
the penitentiary for fifteen years. 

Jackson Bolcn. 

In Nov., lX(j'2, BokMi klHcd James Mahary, of Vermont. Tliis 
occurred during the war, and it seemed the latter had charged the 
former with being a Missouri jay-hawker and thief. Bolen hearing 
of the charges, went to Mahary fn- satisfaction, when a collision en- 
sued, which resulted in Mahary being stabbed to death. Bolen was 
indicted Feb. 26, 186.'>, and tried at tlic March term of the Circuit 
Court and acquitted, the jury believing he committed the deed in 

Thomas Wrlf//if 

was brought to trial at the March term of the Circuit Court, 18()2, 
for the killing of a Mr. Helm. The case was dismissed during trial 
by the prosecution for want of evidence. 

Geon/c W. Pofh. 

Friday, -lau. l(J, 18()."), at Apple's school-house, four aud a liaH' 
uiiles east of I^ewistown, Zachariah Shaw, jr., met his death, bv b(>- 
ing stabbed with a bowie-knife in the hands of Geo. W. Potts. A 
spelling-s(>hool had been in session at the school-house, and imme- 
diately after its close an aftVay occurred between several i)ersons, 
resulting in Shaw's death. Potts made his escape. He was indicted 
Feb. '28, 1863, for manslaughter, but he could not be found. The 
case ran along from term to term until Dec. 14, 1860, when it was 
stricken from the docket. 

I'J/i Watkius, Ahra/taiit l^'lhatii, Henrij iSchrodcr and Jackson Welch. 

These })arties, who resided in Menard county, killed an innocent 
and inoffensive boy near Havana, Mason county, and were brought 
here on a change of veuvu' from that county. They were taking a 
drove of cattle through the county, and stoj)]ied at Havana and be- 
came intoxicated. They met their victim, who was a CJerman boy 
of twelve or fifteen years of age, in the road, and ordered him off, 
and without further provocation shot him down. Thev were 
all acquitted. 

Ira (Uh. 

This man killed a Mr. Baker, of Woodland township. Both 
l)arties were respected, and well-to-do citizens. They got into a 
fuss, however, over the difference of only fifty cents in making a 
settlement with each other, and Cobb shot Baker with a pistol. 


The ball entered the head of its victim and proved fatal immediately. 
Cobb was indicted for murder Sept. 29, 1864. He took a change of 
venue to Peoria county, was tried, found guilty of manslaughter and 
sentenced for ten years. A new trial was granted, and by agree- 
ment the case was returned to this county, here he broke jail and 
was gone four years. Shortly after his escape he was captured in 
Indiana. Sheriff Waggoner hurried forward to get his prisoner, but 
ere he arrived Cobb had again escaped. This time lie evaded the 
authorities for about four years, w^hen Sheriff Waggoner caught him 
in Kansas. When he returned he was brought to trial, but the 
prosecution was compelled to beg for a continuance, as everv wit- 
ness for the State had either died or left the State. He pleaded 
guity, we believe, and was sent to the penitentiary for one year, but 
was soon pardoned. 

Thoriuoi BicharcUon. 

In June, 1805, the village of Marbletown was thrown into con- 
siderable excitement by the announcement of the murder of Daniel 
Lash. Lash was a farm-hand at the time in the employ of Hiram 
Marble. Richardson, a cripple, kept what was familiarly known as 
a "jug grocery," — in other words, a saloon. Lash, who was a des- 
perate fellow and regarded as an outlaw, came to this saloon using 
threatening language toward Richardson, and soon endeavored to 
strike him. Richardson in the mean time secured a hatchet, and 
when opportunity [)resented struck Lash a hard blow, which |>roved 
fatal. Lash exclaimed "He has killed me!" and after walking 
about seventy yards fell. Richardson was arrested for the murder, 
but the grand jury refused to indict him, and he was set at 

(.Vftheriiie Lorix, itlidx Cutlicrinc ToclrJ, and Robert Todd. 

These parties were indicted April 20, 1865, for committing mur- 
der by poisoning ; they were tried at the November teriii of the 
Circuit Court, 1865, and found not guilty. Rol)ert, however, was 
not discharged until April 20, 1866. A further account will be 
given in the history of IMeasant townshij), where the murder was 

Willidin A. Jonea. 

The victim of this fracas, which occurred in Bryant, was Wesley 
Pittman. Jones was indicted April 21, 1866, found guilty of man- 
slaughter April 18, 1867, and sent to the penitentiary for two years. 
He killed Pittman with a rock. Sheriff Waggoner took him to 
State's prison, where he died. 

John Yanu'/I. 

This man was indicted April 23, 1867, for killing City Marshall 
James P. Goodwin, of Lewistown. He took a change of venue to 


McDonough county and was sent to the penitentiary for fourteen 
years. He, however, only served f.bout eighteen months, when he 
was pardoned. 

Oscar Craig. 

Craig shot and kiHed Thomas Brown, in Otto, and seeminglv 
without any provocation whatever. He was indicted for murder 
Aug. 25, 187(J, took a change of venue to Tazewell county and was 

Lemuel Furdy, Pitts Lawrence Purdy n)id Samuel JVicholson. 

These parties were indicted Aug. 29, 1871, for the murder of a 
Swede. The fatal affair occurred on the night of the 4th of Julv, 
1871, at a saloon called Shoo Fly, one mile east of Lcwistown. A 
majority of the crowd at this place that night were intoxicated. The 
Swede had hut recently come to this cotintry and is said to have 
been a very (piiet, inoifensive man. In a fracas that occurred he 
was struck down with a club, and he died from the effects of the in- 
juries received. Nicholson was tried at the April term, 1873, and 
found "not guilty." Pitts L. Purdy took a change of venue to 
Schuyler county, where he also was acquitted. Lemuel Purdy took 
a change to Macon county, tried, found guilty of manslaughter and 
sentenced for five years. He was pardoned at the end of three vears. 
All of these parties were accounted good, respectable citizens. 

John Marion (Jhesiteif. 

(Jhesney killed a negro at Abingdon, Ivnox county, in 1873. He 
was indicted for murder in the fall and a change of venue was 
taken to this county, where, at the Decendier term, 1873, he was 

William Odrll. 

Odell was indicted for murder Aug. 1, 187o. He was a consta- 
ble and lived at Havana, Mason county. He levied upon a boat 
belonging to a man by the name of Patterson, who lived near the 
Copperas-creek dam. Patterson was a bad character and a desper- 
ate man, which fact was known to Odell. He attem])ted to retake 
the b(xit from Odell, and in the attempt Odell began shooting at 
him, and fired four times, killing him instantly. ()dell was tried in 
tins county and acquitted. 

Jonathan B. Berry. 

About sundown July 10, 1876, Jonathan B.Perry shot and killed 
John J. liulicker, of Pleasant township. Berry had married a 
widow lady named Maggie Shuman, and on the evening of the 
murder Berry was whipping one of her boys ; and to help control 


him she sent one of her sons, Willie Shnman, a boy of a dozen sum- 
mers, to Mr. Lalioker's, who lived near, for assistance. Mr. L. 
hurried over according to the request, and as the two entered the 
yard Berry warned Lalicker not to enter the house. Berry fired at 
him through a window and again in the house, one of the shots 
proving fatal, killing Lalicker almost instantly. Berry was indicted 
at the August term of Circuit Court, 1876, and tried at the Decem- 
ber term, found guilt\' and sent to the penitentiary for ten years. 
He is now confined there. 

liichrirf} B. Heather. 

In 1876, Oct. 26, Richard B. Heather killed S. Peter Jnhnson, at 
Abingdon, Knox county. His bail was fixed at §15,0<X), and he took 
a change of venue to this county, was tried at the April term and 
convicted of manslaughter and sent to the penitentiary, but the fol- 
lowing Xovember pardoned. This was one of the most exciting 
trials that ever occurred in the county. 

Joseph May all. 

Mayall and AVillis were both plasterers by occupation and resided 
in Ipava. It appeared that \Vm. Collier had a job of plastering 
which both parties wanted to do. Finally AVillis was awarded the 
work, which Mayall thought was obtained by defaming him a>s a 
workman. An altercation ensued between th«im. Willis had a 
hatchet in his hand and seemingly made some movement with it 
toward Mavall, when the latter said. " You are not sroinii; to hit 
me with the hatchet, are you ?" Willi* threw the hatchet down and 
they both walked toward the gate. Upon arriving at the gate ^layall 
pulled out a knife and cut Willis, from the wound of which he died. 
Mayall was tried at the December term of the Circuit Court, 1876, 
and acquitted. 

Jaeoh Mabett. 

Mabes was indicted for murder Sept. 1, 1877, for the killing <>f 
Br\-an Daily, in Orion township. Both men were intoxicated and 
were each driving a wagon along the road. Mabes tried to drive 
around Daily, which the latter prevented. He then struck him with 
a missile, the blow killing Daily. Mabes was admitted to bail 
Dec. 7, 1877, the amount of the bond being S3,0<X). He wastried 
at the April term of the Circuit Court, 1878, and found "not 

/Stephen Joy. 

At Bernadotte, about 5 o'clock p. m., Saturday, July 19, 1879, 
Dr. Sylvester O. Hall, the leading physician of the village, met his 
death at the hands of Stephen Joy, an old and respected citizen, 
and phenomenally zealous in his religion. The tacts as gleaned from 
the evidence at the Coroner's inquest, the trial of Joy not having 



S o 






yet occurred, were about as follows : On the morning of the mur- 
der Mr. Joy agreed with Dr. Hall that, if he would buy a pony 
offered for sale by Perry Jones, he would take the animal off his 
hands at $20 cash. The doctor accordingly made the trade, took 
the pony to Joy's store and notified him that the animal was ready 
for him. Joy told him to hitch the animal and come in, which 
Hall did. Joy hesitated for a little while and then backed squarely 
out of the trade. This greatly enraged the doctor and some very 
bitter words passed, resulting in the doctor commencing a suit 
against Joy for damages. The trial was set for July 26, before 
'Squire Shipton. All this occurred before noon. The parties dis- 
cussed the question publicly during the day, and the very air seemed 
impregnated with bad blood. 

Between four and five o'clock in the afternoon Hall sauntered 
around to Joy's store, and sat down upon the sidewalk at the south- 
east corner of the building, while Joy occupied a bench near by. 
Hall sat several inches hnver than Joy and they were not luore 
than four feet apart. Some bitter words ensued, when Hall called 
Joy a hard name. Joy had been whittling with a large pocket 
knife, and at this moment reversed the knife quickly, blade down- 
ward, and saying, "This must be settled," struck a quick blow at 
Hall's bare neck, when a huge stream of blood spurted eight or ten 
feet away. Hall seized his neck as if to stay the blood, and said, 
" He's killed me ! " Within five minutes after the stab he died. 
The wound severed the left carotid artery and jugular vein. Quite 
a large nund)er of })ersons were sitting around the two men when 
the tragedy occurred, and the blow could easily have been stayed 
liad there been any suspicion that one would even strike the other. 
But it was all done in a Hash — in the twinkling of an eye. The 
cjiithct uttered by Hall, the response by Joy, and the instant thrust 
with the knife, — all took ]>lace while the disputants were rising to a 
half-standing ])osition. 

Stephen Joy was indicted for murder August 21, 187 J), and his 
trial ])ostponed. Friday, Septembei' o, 1879, Joy was brought be- 
fore Judge Shope, on a writ of hahatx corpaK, to have an examiu- 
ation with the object of securing his bail. After a very 
full hearing the Judge admitted him to bail in the sum of |25,OOr3, 
which was given, and the trial set for the next term of Court. 





We shall, in this t'liapter, give as clear and exact description nf" 
pioneer life in this county, as \ve can find language to picture it in, 
commencing with the time the sturdy settlers first arrived ^itli their 
scantv stores. They had migrated from older States, where the 
prospects for even a com])etency were very poor, many of tlicm 
coming from Kentucky, for, it is sup])osed, they found that a good 
State to emigrate from. Their entire stock of furniture, imple- 
ments and family necessities were easily stored in one wagon, and 
sometimes a cart was their only vehicle. 

As the first thing after they arrived and found a suitable location, 
they would set about the building of a log cabin, a descri})tion of 
which may be interesting to the younger readers, and esjiecially 
their descendants, who may never see a structure of the kind. 
Trees of uniform size were selected and cut into pieces of the de- 
sired length, each end being saddled and notched so as to bring the 
logs as near together as possible. The cracks were ''chinked and 
daubed" to ])revent tlie wind from whistling tiirough. This had to 
be renewed every fall before cold weather set in. The usual height 
was one story of about .<even or eight feet. The gal)les were made 
of logs gradually shortened up to the top. The roof wa> made by 
laying small logs or stout ])oles reaching from gal)le to gable, suit- 
able distances a])art, on which were laid the clapl)oards after the 
manner of shingling, showing tAvo feet or more to the weather. The 
clapboards were fastened l)y laying across them heavy poles called 
"weight poles," reaching from one gable to the other, being kept 
apart and in their place bv laying pieces of timber between them 
called "runs," or "knees." A wide chimney ])lace was cut out of 
one end of the cabin, the chimnev standinu- entirelv outside, and 
l)uilt of rived sticks, laid up cob-house fashion, and filled with elay, 
or built of stone, often using two or three cords of stone in building 
one chimney. For a window a piece about two feet long was cut out 
of one of the wall logs, and the hole closed, sometimes with glass 
but oftener with greased paper pasted over it. A doorway was also 
cut through one of the walls, and the door was made of spliced clap- 
boards and hung with wooden hinges. This was opened by pull- 


iiig- a leather latch-string which raised a wooden latch inside the 
door. For security at night this latch-string: was pulled in, but for 
frieuds and neighbors, and even strangers, the "latch-string was 
always hanging (nit," as a welcome. In the interior, upon one side, 
was the huge tire-place, large enough to contain a back-log as big as 
the strongest man could carry, and holding enough wood to supply 
an ordinary stove a week ; on either side were poles and kettles, and 
over all a mantle on which was placed the tallow dip. In one cor- 
ner stood the larger bed for the old folks, under this the trundle- 
bed for the children; in another corner stood the old-fashioned, 
large spinning-wheel, witli a smaller one by its side ; in another the' 
pine table, around which the family gathered to partake of their plain 
food ; over the door hung the ever trustful rifle and powder-horn ; 
while around the room were scattered a few splint-bottomed chairs 
and three-legged stools; in one corner was a rude cupboard holding 
the table ware, which consisted of a few cups and saucers and blue- 
edged plates, standing singly on their cd:ges against the back, to 
make the display of table furniture more conspicuous. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted 
peojdc. They were strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night or desirous of spending a few days in 
the conununity, if willing to accept the rude offering, was always 
welcome, although how they were disposed of at night the reader 
may not easily imagine; f>r, as described, a single room was made 
to serve the purpose of kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room, bed- 
room, and parlor, and many families consisted of six or eight mem- 
bers. Soon finer and more costly buildings were erected. Mr. 
Swan in his History of Canton describes the first frame building 
erected in that city as follows : 

"The first frame house erected on grounds now within the j)res- 
cnt city limits was l)uilt for Deacon Nathan Jones, in the spring of 
1S30. Isaac Swan was the 'boss carpenter,' and was aided by the 
deacon. This building is still standing, on the south side of Jones 
street, between Wood and Lewistown streets, and is now occupied 
by Mrs. Dean. It is a two-story frame house. The frame, of the 
' old-fashit>ned ' variety, was built without any sawed stufl'; the 
joists and studding being split out of heavy tind)er, the sills and 
plates hewed, and the weather-boarding of split boards, shaved. The 
weather-boarding was not jointed, but the ends of the clapboards 
were shaved thin and la})ped. The roof was laid with split and 
shaved oak shingles. The floor, door-frames, corner-boards and 
stairs, were alone of sawed hunber. When the carpenters had fin- 
ished their work, Mrs. Jones took the job of painting, and did 
quite a respectable job, too, painting it Venetian red. This house 
was considered the most stylish in the country. As Deacon Jones 
was Postmaster and kept the postoflice at his house, it became the 
place of resort for the most intelligent of the pioneers, who would 
congregate here and discuss educational and religious topics. This 


building was not on the original town plat, however, being then 
considered out of town. The first frame erected on the original 
town site was built in 1831, and was the property of Joel Wright. 
This building was, in fact, but an addition to an already existing 
cabin. Isaac Swan was also the builder of this. It was occupied 
bv Mr. Wright as a store-room, and was situated on the southeast 
corner of Wood and Illinois streets. This building is still stand- 
ing, but has been removed from its original site, and is now standing 
on First street, between Illinois and Cole streets. It was occupied 
until recently by David Will, as a wagon-maker's shop." 


For a great many years but few thought it advisable to attempt 
farming on the })rairie. To many of them the cultivation of the 
prairies was an untried experiment, and it was the prevailing opin- 
ion that the timber would soon bec(une very scarce, — a fear soon 
proven to be without foundation. Another obstacle that was in 
the way for a great many years, was that no plows suitable for 
breaking the prairie land could be had. The sod was very much 
tougher then tiian it was in after years when the stock had ]iastured 
the prairies and killed out the grass to some extent. It would be 
astonishing to the younger residents to see the immense crops of 
prairie grass that grew u})on the fields which are to-day in such a 
high state of cultivation. It grew in places six to twelve feet high. 
It was these immense crops of grass that furnished the fuel for the 
terrible fires that swept over the j)rairies during the fall. Then, 
again, there was so nuich of the prairie land that was considered 
too wet to be ever suitable for cultivation. Many of the older set- 
tlers now living well remember when farms that are now in th<> 
highest state of cultivation were a vast swam]). There was another 
draw'back in the settlement of the prairies, and that was the great 
labor and cost of fencing. But the princi[)al reason fx)r locating in 
the tind)er was that many of their cabins were poor, half-finished 
affairs, and protection from the driving storms was absolutely re- 
quired. The timber also sheltered stock until such times as sheds 
and out-buildings could l)e erected. That the time should soon 
come when intelligent, enterprising farmers would see that their in- 
terest lay in im)>roving ])rairie farms, and cease clearing fields, 
when there were boundless acres presenting no obstacle to the most 
perfect cultivation, argues nothing in the policy of sheltering for a 
tim(^ in the woods. In regard to the pioneers settling along the 
timber, we often hear remarks made as though the selection of such 
locations implied a lack of judgment. Those who are disposed to 
treat it in that manner are asked to consider carefully the above 
facts, when they will conclude such selection argued in their favor. 

Clearing of timber land was attended with much hard labor. The 
underbrush M'as grubl)ed up, piled info heaps and burned. The large 


trees were in many cases left standing, and deadened by girdling. 
This was done by cutting through the bark into the wood, generally 
through the "sap," all around the trunk. 


Not the least of the hardshi})s of the pioneers was the procuring 
of bread. The first settlers must be supplied at least one year from 
other sources than their own lands. But the first crops, however 
abundant, gave only partial relief, there being no mills to grind the 
grain. Hence the necessity of grinding by hand power, and manv 
families were poorly provided with means for doing this. Another 
way was to grate the corn. A grater was made from a piece of tin, 
sometimes taken from an old, worn-out tin bucket or other vessel. 
It was thickly perforated, bent into a semi-circular form, and nailed, 
rough side upwards, on a board. The corn was taken in the ear 
and grated before it got dry and hard. Corn, however, was eaten 
in various ways. 

Soon after the country became more generally settled, enterpris- 
ing men were readv to embark in the millinii; business. Sites alono; 
the streams were selected for water-power. A person looking for a 
mill-site would follow up and down the stream for a desired loca- 
tion, and when found he would go before the County Commis- 
sioners and secure a writ of ad (jiiod (Janunivi. This would enable 
the miller to have the adjoining land officially examined, and the 
amount of damage by making a dam was named. Mills being such 
a great public necessity, they were permitted to be located ujion any 
person's land where the miller thought the site desirable. 


John Coleman established a mill nortli of the Fairview bridge. 
This mill was celebrated for " makino- haste" — and meal — "slowlv." 
It was said that it ran so slow that the dogs were in the habit of 
chewing in two the band while the mill was running, when Cole- 
man would call to Jerry, who drove the team, to know what was the 
matter; and Jerry would respond that the "dod-durned dogs had 
chewed the band in two again." Jacob Ellis erected a water-mill 
between Canton and Lewistown about 1824, which did a good busi- 
ness. He erected another mill near Canton, on Big Creek, al)out 


The wild animals infesting this county at the time of its settle- 
ment were the deer, wolf, bear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, wood- 
chuck or ground-hog, skunk, mink, weasel, muskrat, opossum, rab- 
bit and squirrel; and the principal feathered game were the quail, 
prairie-chicken, and wild turkey. Several cf these animals furnished 
meat for the early settlers ; but their principal meat did not consist 


long of game. Pork and poultrv were .soon raised in abundance. 
The wolf was the most troublesome animal, it being the common 
enemy of the sheep. It was quite difficult to protect the sheep from 
their ravages. Sometimes pigs and calves were also victims of the 
wolf. Their howlings in the night would often keep fomilies awake, 
and set all the dogs in the neighliorhood to barking. Their yells 
Avere often terrific. Says one settler: " Suppose six boys, having 
six dogs tied, whipped them all at the same time, and you Mould 
hear such music as two wolves would make." To eifect the destruc- 
tion of these animals the county authorities oifered a bounty for their 
scalps ; and, besides, big hunts were inaugurated for their destruction, 
and " wolf hunts" are prominent among the memories of the early 
settlers. Such events were generally turned into a holiday, and 
everA'body that could ride a nag or stand the tramp on foot joined in 
the deadly pursuit. A large circuit was generally made by the 
hunters, who then closed in on every side, driving the hungry wolves 
into the center of the corral, where they were despatched. The 
return home with the carcasses was the signal for a general turn-out, 
and these " pleasure parties" are still referred to by old citizens a,< 
among the pleasantest memories of early life in Fulton county. 
Many a hungry wolf has been run down on the prairies where now is 
located a town or a hue farm residence. This rare old pastime, like 
much of the early hunting and tishing the pioneers indulged in here, 
departed at the appearance of the locomotive. 


During the early settlement of this part of the State, one of the 
prevailing customs of the pioneers was " bee-hunting," Often a 
small company would travel many miles into a wild, unsettled 
country, in search of the sweet, flavored honey of the wild bee. 
Large trees containing many gallons, and often a barrel, w'ere fre- 
quently found by bee-hunters. The little, busy bees would be 
carefullv watched as thev flew heavilv laden with the richest extract 
of the flowers that were purely native and unknown to the present 
generation. They always took a "bee-line" for their homes. This 
was a correct guide to the sturdy hunter, who had studied with care 
the ways of the bee and by their knowledge took advantage of the 
little insect. Once on t e trail, good bee-hunters were almost certain 
to capture the rich prize. After the bee-tree was discovered it was 
no trouble to get possession of the honey. The tree was felled, and 
the hunters would rush for their booty ere it was lost by running 
out upon the ground. 


The pioneer was more freely and heartily social with his friends, 
and cold toward his enemies, than we seem to be at~the present day ; 
and he showed Mhat race he belonged to by his efforts to establish 
religious, philanthropic and educational institutions. The young 


folks, we have no doubt, found many ways of robbing; old Time of 
loneliness. It would be unfair to suppose them, especially the 
ladies, destitute of fashionable aspirations, but the means for gaudy 
display were very much eircumscril)ed in those days. The male 
attire consisted chietly of buckskin, or homespun cloth, — we might 
add home-woven, the loom being tar more common in or near their 
rude huts than the piano or organ. They were not, however, desti- 
tute of musical taste, and many of their vocal performances would 
compare favorably with our present choirs. We may safely say 
they sang with the spirit. Most of the ladies, also, wore homespun, 
which they manufactured from wool, flax, cotton, and the bark or 
lint of the nettle, colored with such ingredients as nature provided, 
without the aid of art. A few even adopted buckskin. How many 
yards of the latter article were required for a fashionable dress in 
those times, or in what particular style it was cut and trimmed, we 
are not informed, and must leave the ladies to draw their own con- 
clusions. These dresses certainly were durable, and shielded the 
wearer in out-door exercises incident to the planting, attending and 
gathering of crops, in which pursuit the ladies in all new couutries 

Another of the prevailing fashions was that of carrying fire- 
arms, made necessary by the presence of roving bands of Indians, 
most of whom were ostensibly friendly, but like Indians in all 
times, treacherous and unrelial)le. These tribes were principally 
Pottawatomies. There were also in the northern part of the State 
several tribes of hostile Indians, ready at any time to make a mur- 
derous, thieving raid upon the white settlers ; and an Indian war 
at any time was an accepted prol)ability ; and these old settlers to- 
day have vivid recollections of the Black Hawk and other Indian 
wars. And, while target practice was nuich indulged in as an 
amusement, it was also necessary for a ])roper self-defense, the 
settlers finding it necessary at times to carry their ji-uns with them 
when they went to hoe their corn. In some instances their guns 
were stacked in the field and the laborers worked for a certain dis- 
tance around them, and then moved the guns to a certain position 
and again proceeded with their work. 

These were only a few of the hardships incident to pioneer life, 
which was largely made up of privations, inconveniences and dan- 
gers. They had few labor-saving machines and no reliable markets. 
Even communication by letter with their distant friends and rela- 
tives was rendered difficult for want of proper mail facilities, and 
sometimes for the want of money to pay the postage on the letters 
sent to them, — the postage then being twenty-five cents for a single 
letter, many of which remained in the office for weeks on account 
of the inability of the persons addressed to pay the postage. 



The early settlers were not entirely without preaching. Says an 
old pioneer on this subject: "The ministers of the Gospel of the 
Savior of the Avorkl hunted us up and preached to what few there 
were ; therefore we did not degenerate and turn heathen, as anv 
community will where the sound of the gospel is never heard. I 
shall not give their names, though sacred in memory, for they were 
not after the fleece, but after the flock, because they had but little 
to say about science and philosophy, but spoke of purer things." 


Though struggling under the pressure of poverty and privation, 
the early settlers planted among them the school-house at the ear- 
liest practicable period. So important an object as the education of 
their children they did not defer until they could btiild more come- 
ly and convenient houses. They were for a time content with such 
as corresponded with their rude dwellings, but soon better build- 
ings and accommodations were provided. As may readily be sup- 
posed, the accommodations of the earliest schools were not good. 
Sometimes school was taught in a small log house erected for the 
purpose. Stoves and such heating apparatus as are now in use were 
unknown. A mud-and-stick chimney in one end of the building, 
with earthen hearth and fire-place wide and deep enough to take in 
a four-foot back-log, and smaller wood to match, served for warm- 
ing purposes in winter and a kind of conservatory in summer. For 
windows, part of a log was cut out in either side, and may be a 
few lights of eight-by-ten glass set in, or just as likely as not the 
aperture would be covered Avith greased paper. Writing benches 
were made of wide planks, or likely puncheons, resting on pins or 
arms, driven into two-inch aus^er-holes, bored into the logs beneath 
the windows. Seats were made out of puncheons, and flooring of 
the same material. Everything was rude and plain ; but many of 
America's greatest men have gone out from just such school-houses 
to grapple with the world and make names for themselves, and 
have come to be an honor to their coiuitry. Among these we 
can name Abraham Lincoln, our martyred President, one of the 
noblest men ever known to the world's history. Stephen A. Doug- 
las, one of the greatest statesmen of the age, began his career in 
Illinois teaching in one of these primitive school-houses. 

James H. Murphy, who taught school at Canton in an early day, 
will probably remember the time he was asked for a holiday by his 
scholars and he refused to grant it. The following morning four 
of his scholars, J. L. ^Murjihy and three Fenton lioys, went to 
the school-house quite early, entered, locked and barred the door, 
and refused the teacher admittance when he came, ludess he would 
grant them the desired holiday. He expostulated, but the boys 
Avere obdurate. He resorted t<» the chimney, covering the top ot 


smoke the boys out, but this proved useless. Fiually he broke 
through a window and eifected an entrance, when the boys pitched 
into him and proved the stronger. They bound him with ropes, 
yet he wouki not promise the holiday. At last they threatened to 
duck him in a pond that was near unless he promised. This was 
to severe for him ; so he yielded and gave the school the holiday. 

But all these things are changed now. We no longer see log 
school-liouses. Their places are filled with handsome frame or 
brick structures, which for elegance and beauty of design rival 
those of older-settled countries; and in place of the "masters," 
who were " looked up to " as su])eri()r beings, and were consulted 
on all matters of law, physic and religion, there are teachers of 
liberal culture, intelligent and ])rogressive, many of whom have a 
broad and comprehensive idea of education, and regard their labor 
as something more than teaching merely in order to make a living, 
— more than a knowledge of a great number of facts in the uni- 
verse of mind and matter. It means culture, the educating, devel- 
oping and disci])lining of all the faculties of the human mind. It is 
the comprehension of the entire being of liian ; and the school or 
teacher who takes charge and care of the young should provide 
the means and methods for carrying forward the process in all 
departments of their comjilex natures, physical, mental and 


The earliest settlers of the county went to St. Louis with what 
little produce they had to sell, and the merchants bought all their 
goods in that city. Soon, however, Peoria became a market, and pro- 
duce was wagoned to that city and from there sent south on the river. 
There was at that time no sale for corn, or comparatively none, and 
wheat would bring but a small price; so that really there was no 
impetus given to the raising of grain of any sort, except for home 
consum])tion, until the advent of the railroad. At that time improev- 
ment began. The great resources of the county which had scarcely 
supplied more than home demand were then turned to supply the 
wants of thousands. That occasion, the advent of railroads, was 
the commencement of agricultural development. It was the com- 
mencement of the manufacturing institutions the county can now 
boast of; it was the building of her thriving cities and towns ; 
indeed it was the beginning of ])rogress. 

One of tlje earliest steam-boats in the Illinois-river trade was the 
steamer " Exchange," which plied l)etween St. Louis and Peoria. 
She was familiarly known as "the Shingle Weaver," so called from 
the fact of her carrying upon her hurricane deck a machine for cut- 
ting shingles, which was operated by the machinery of the boat, 
cutting whenever the boat was in motion. Shingle timber w(tuld 
be obtained at the wood-yards along the river, and market found 
for the manufactured goods either at St. Louis or Peoria. This 


boat was an especial favorite with the people of tins county, many of 
whom would, when desiring to take a trip by river, wait for her 
coming, and most of the early stocks of goods were shipped on her ; 
she also carried most of the county's "beeswax" and other products 
to their market. 

" When the iirst settlers came to the wilderness," says an old set- 
tler, "they all supposed that their hard struggle would be principally 
over after the first year ; but alas ! we looked for ' easier times next 
year ' for about ten years, and learned to bear hardships, privation 
and hard living as good soldiers do. As the facilities for making- 
money were not great, we lived ])retty well satisfied in an atmos- 
phere of good, social, friendly feeling, and thought ourselves as good 
as those we left behind when we emigrated West." 


One of the greatest obstacles to the early settlement and prosper- 
ity of this county was the "chills and fever," or "ague," or " Illinois 
shakes," as it was variously styled. This disease was a terror to 
new comers. In the fill of the year everybody was afflicted with 
it. It was no respecter of persons ; everybody shook \yith it, and 
it was in pvery person's system. They all looked pale and yellow 
as though they were frostbitten. It was not contagious, but was a 
kind of miasma floating around in the atmosphere and absorbed 
into the system. It continued to be absorbed from day to day, and 
week to week, until the whole body corporate became charged with 
it as with electricity, and then the shock came ; and the shock was a 
regular shake, with a fixed beginning and an ending, coming on 
each day, or each alternate day, with a regularity that was surpris- 
ing. After the shake (^ime the fever, and this "last estate was 
worse than the first." It was a burning, hot fever and lasted for 
hours. When you had the chill you couldn't get warm, and when 
you had the fever you couldn't get cool. It was exceedingly awk- 
ward in this respect ; indeed it was. Nor would it sto]) for any sort 
of contingency. Not even a wedding in the family would stop it. 
It was imperative and tyranni(!al. When the appointed time came 
around everything else had to be stopped to attend to its demands. 
It didn't even have any Sunday or holidays. After the fever went 
down you still didn't feel much better. You felt as though you had 
g-one throuo;h some sort of collision and came out not killed but 
badly demoralized. You felt weak, as though you had run too far 
after something, and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, stupid 
and sore, and was down in the mouth and heel and partially raveled 
out, so to speak. Your back was out of fix and your appetite was 
in a worse condition than your back. Your head ached and your 
eyes had more white in tiiem than usual, and altogether you felt 
poor, disconsolate and sad. You didn't think much of yourself, 
and didn't believe other people did either, and you didn't care. You 


didn't think much of suicide, l)ut at the same time you almost 
made up your mind that under certain circumstances it was justi- 
fiable. You imagined that even the dogs looked at you with a 
kind of self-complacency. You thought the sun had a kind of 
sickly shine about it. About this time you came to the conclusion 
that you would not accept the whole State of Illinois as a gift, and 
if you had the strength and means, you jucked up Hannah and the 
baby and your traps, and went back "yander " to Injianny, Ohio, or 
old Ka in tuck. 

'■ And to-lay the swallows flitting 

Rouml my rabin see nie sitting 

Mocjilily within tiie sunshine, 
Just inside my silent door, 

Waiting for the ' ager,' seeming 

Like a man forever dreaming ; 

And the sunlight on me streaming- 
Throws no shadow on the floor ; 

For I am too thin and sallow 

To make shadows on the floor — 
Nary shadow any more I " 

The above is no picture of the imagination. It is simply recount- 
ing ^vhat occurred in hundreds of intances. Whole families would 
some times be sick at one time, and not one member scarcely able to 
wait u})(m another. One widow lady on the Illinois river informs 
us that she lost nine children from this dreaded disease ! 


To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would 
alike surprise and amuse those who have grown up since cooking- 
stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles were hung over the large 
fire, suspended on trammels which were held by strong poles. The 
long-handled frying-pan was used for cooking meat. It was held on 
the fire by hand; or, to save time, the handle was laid across the 
back of a chair. This pan was also used for baking short-cake. A 
better article was a cast-iron spider, which was set upon coals on 
the hearth. But the best thing for baking bread was the flat-bot- 
tomed bake-kettle, of greater dej)th, with closely fitting cast-iron 
cover, and commonly known as the " Dutch oven." With coals 
over and under it l)read and biscuit would quickly and nicely bake. 
Turkeys and spare-ribs were sometimes roasted before the fire, sus- 
pended by a string, a dish lacing ])laeed underneath to catch the 


The agricultural implements used by the first farmers here would 
in this age of improvement be great curiosities. The plow used 
was called the bar-share plow. The iron point consisted of a bar 
of iron about two feet long, and a broad share of iron welded to it. 
At the extreme point was a coulter that passed through a beam six 
or seven feet long, to which were attached handles of eorresjiond- 


ing length. The mold-board was a wooden one split out of wind- 
ing timber, or hewed into a winding shape in order to turn the soil 
over. Sown seed was bruslied in by dragging over the ground a 
sap])ling with a bushy top. Tn harvesting the change is most strik- 
ing. Instead of the reapers and mowers of to-day, the sickle and 
cradle were used. The grain was threshed with a flail, or trodden 
out by horses or oxen. 

avomp:n's w^ork. 

The men were not called upon to endure alone all the hardships 
and labor of frontier life. The women also had their physical labor 
to perform, and much of it was quite arduous. Spinning was one 
of the common household duties. This exercise is one which few 
of the present generation of girls have ever enjoyed. The wheel 
used for s})inning flax was called the " little wheel," to distinguish 
it from the " big wheel " used for spinning yarn. These stringed 
instruments furnished the principal music of the family, and were 
operated by our mothers and grandmothers with great skill, attain- 
ed without pecuniary expense, and with far less practice than is 
necessary for the girls of our period to acquire a skillful use of their 
costly and elegant instruments. 

The loom was not less necessary than the wheel. Not every 
house, however, in which spinning was done had a loom ; but there 
were always some in each settlement who, besides doing their own 
weaving, did some for others. Settlers, having succeeded in spite 
of the wolves in raising sheep, commenced the manufacture of 
woolen cloth ; wool was carded and made into rolls by hand-cards, 
and the rolls were spun on the " big wheel." We occasionally find 
noAV, in the houses, of the old settlers, one of these big wheels, 
sometimes used for spinning and twisting stocking yarn. They are 
turned with' the hand, and with such velocity that it will run itself 
while the nimble worker, by her backward step, draws out and 
twists her thread nearly the whole length of the cabin. A common 
article woven on the loom was linsey, also called linsey-woolsey, the 
chain being linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was used for 
dresses for the girls and mothers. Nearly all the clothes worn by 
the men were also home-made. Rarely was a farmer or his son seen 
in a coat made of any other. If, occasionally, a young man appear- 
ed in a suit of " boughten " clothes, he was suspected of having 
gotten it for a particular occasion, which occurs in the life of nearly 
every man. 

Not until the settlers had supj)lie(l themselves with the more use- 
ful articles of clothing and with edibles of various kinds, did wheat 
bread become a common article of food. It is true they had it 
earlier, but this was only served (Ui extra occasions, as when visitors 
came, or on Sundays ; and with this luxury they would have a little 
"store coffee." "The little brown jug" found a place in almost 


every ' liome, and -was often brought into use. No caller was per- 
mitted to leave the house' without an invitation to partake of its 


The historv of pioneer life generally presents the dark side of the 
picture; but the toils and i)rivati()ns of the early settlers were not a 
series of unmitigated sufferings. Xo ; for while the fathers and 
mothers toiled liard, they were not averse to a little relaxation, and 
liad their seasons of fun and enjoyment. They contrived to do 
something; to break the monotony of their daily life and furnish 
them a good, hearty laugh. Among the more general forms of 
amusements were the " quilting-bee," "corn-husking," "apple-par- 
ino;," '' loff-rolling " and "house-raising." Our young readers will 
doubtless be interested in a description of these forms of amuse- 
ment, when labor was made to afford fun and enjoyment to all ])ar- 
ticipating. The "quilting-bee," as its name implies, was when the 
industrious qualities of the busy, little insect, that "improves each 
shining hour" were exemplified in the manufacture of quilts for the 
household. In the afternoon ladies for miles around gathered at an 
a])pointe(l ])lace, and while their tongues would not cease to play, 
tlieir hands were as busily engaged in making the quilt ; and desire 
was always manifested to get it out as quickly as possible, for then 
tlie fun would begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, and the 
hours would then pass swiftly by in playing games or dancing. 
" Corn-huskings " were when both sexes united in the work. They 
usually assembled in a large barn, which was arranged for the oc- 
casion ; and when each gentleman had selected a lady partner the 
luisking began. When a lady found a red ear she was entitled to 
a kiss from every gentleman jiresent ; when a gentleman found on(» 
he was allowed to kiss every lady present. After the corn was all 
husked a good supper was served ; then the " old folks " would 
leave, and the remainder of the evening was spent in the dance and 
in having a general good time. The recreation afforded to the 
young people on the annual recurrence of these festive occasions 
was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as the amusements of 
the present boasted age of refinement and culture. 

Mr. Swan in describing the pioneer dwelling and habits and cus- 
toms, says : 

" The furniture of the cabin was as primitive as the occupants. 
In one corner — perhaps in two or three corners — were the bed- 
steads. These were your genuine 'cottage bedsteads,' made by bor- 
ing one hole, say four feet from one corner of the cabin, into a 
' house-log,' another hole, say six feet from the same corner, on 
another side ; opposite these holes was set an upright post, usually 
a section. from the body of a peeled sapling; in this post two holes 
would be bored at any desired height, and at right angles Avith each 
other ; poles were inserted in these holes, making in this manner a 


square frame ; over this frame was laid a covering of clapboards, or, 
as some denominated them, 'shakes/ and on top of this platform 
the bed was spread. The chairs were not exactly chairs, but 
three-legged stools or puncheon benches. The cupboard was 
literally a cupboard, being a puncheon supported by pins driven 
into holes in the house-log"^ at some convenient corner. The boxes 
which had held the family dry goods while eii rotife to the new 
country generally furnished the table, and a trough or troughs the 
meat and soap barrels. Hollow logs sawed into sections and pro- 
vided with a puncheon bottom furnished a receptacle for meal, 
potatoes, beans, wheat, ' and sich like truck' — to ukjc the pioneer 
vernacvdar. The table Avas bounteously supplied with ' samp,' ' ley 
hominy,' ' corn pone,' honey, venison, pork, stewed pumpkin, wild 
turkey, ])rairie chicken and other game. Wheat l)rcad, tea, coffee, 
and fruit — exce])t wild fruit — were luxuries not to be indulged in 
except on special occasions, as a wedding or gala day. 'Samp' was 
quite a frequent dish. It was made by burning a hole into some 
convenient stump in the shaj)e of a mortar; this hole was filled 
with corn and pounded by a large i»estle hung like the old-fashioned 
well-sweep pendent from a long ])ole, which was nearly balanced on 
an ui)right fork. This ])olc had a weight attached to one end and 
the pestle to the other; the weight would lift the pestle, while man- 
ual f)rce was expected to bi'ing it down. When the ' sam]>' wa'^ 
]»oun<led sufHciently, it was \\ashed and boiled like rice. 

"The traveler always found a welc<tme at the pioneer's cabin. It 
was never full ; althcjugh there might already be a guest for every 
puncheon, there was still 'room f()r one more,' and a wider circle 
would be made for the new-comer at the log fire. If the stranger 
was in search of land, he was doubly welcome, and his host would 
volunteer to show him all the 'first-rate claims in this neck of 
woods,' going with him for days, showing the corners and advan- 
tages of everv 'Congress tract' within a dozen miles from his own 

"To his neighl)ors the pioneer was equally liheral. If a deer 
was killed, the choicest bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a 
half-dozen miles away, perhaps. When a 'shoat' was butchered, 
the same custom prevailed. If a new-comer came in too late for 
'cropping,' the neighbors would supply his table with just the same 
luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal (piantity, until a 
a crop could be raised. When a new-comer had located his 
claim, the neighbors for miles around would assemble at the site of 
the new-comer's proposed cabin and aid him in 'gittin' itu]).' One 
partv with axes Avould fell and hew the logs ; another with teams 
would ha\d the logs to the ground ; another party would 'raise the 
cabin'; while several of the old men would 'rive the clapboards' for 
the roof. By night the cabin would be uj) and ready for occupying, 
and by the next day the new-comer was in all respects as well situ- 
ated as his neighbors. 


"Saturday was a rcgnilar holiday, in which work was ijjnored and 
everybody went t) town or to some place of general resort. When 
all were together in town, sport began. Of course Avhisky circula- 
ted freely and every body indulged to a greater or less extent. 
(Quarrels were now settled by hand-to-hand encounters ; wrestling- 
matches came off or were arranged for the future; jumping, foot- 
racing, and horse-racing filled up the interval of time ; and every- 
body enjoyed the rough sports with a zest unknown among the 
more refined denizens of the present good city of Canton. 

"The fleetest runner among the pioneers was Stephen Coleman; 
the champion wrestler was Daniel Babbett ; while at fisti-cuffs the 
belt was contested for between Stephen Coleman and Emsley Fonts. 
C(deman and Fonts were nearly equally matched, and on several 
occasions waged des])erate war, with varying fortunes, until thev 
held their last great battle, which will never be forgotten by the 
pioneers. It was on election day, in the fall of 1831. For weeks 
before it was understood that they were to fight. On election day, 
accordingly, they met on Union street, in front of Tyler's Tavern, 
and, surrounded by an immense crowd of their respective friends, 
proceeded to settle their difficulty. The fight was fierce, long, and 
bloody. Coleman, it was claimed, struck Fonts before he was en- 
tirely divested of his coat, and bv this means beo;an with the ad- 
vantage in his favor, which advantage he was able to maintain until 
Fonts, after a gallant struggle, was forced to yield. Coleman's 
friends raised him on their shoulders, and marched with him a tri- 
umphal march to the j>ublic square and back. 

"Fonts was defeated, but, as he believed, not fairly, and he de- 
termined to renew the contest on another occasion. This was also 
understood, and the final struggle was looked forward to by the 
settlers with even more expectant interest than the first. Accord- 
ingly, a few weeks later, one Saturday, Fonts came to town for the 
purpose of meeting Coleman, He stopped at Dickev Johnson's, 
where he left his coat and put himself in fighting trim. Johnson 
accompanied him to town and acted as his friend and second. Fonts 
soon met Coleman, and informed him that he had come to town ex- 
pressly to settle their little trouble. Coleman began to draw his 
leather coat, but before it Avas ofi^ Fonts took the same advantage 
Coleman had taken in the previous fight, and struck him. This 
advantage was all he desired, and vigorously did he follow it up. 
Coleman was not easily handled, however, and soon was stripped 
and in fighting trim. The fight was a des])crate one, and it was 
soon apparent that neither would acknowledge defeat. Fonts, how- 
ever, had so well followed up his advantage that Coleman's friends 
parted them, and ever after neither could be induced to attack the 

"Foot-racing, jumping, and wrestling were also indulged in on 
Saturdays, and among the pioneers were men of .fleet foot, strong- 
arm, and sinewy limb, John Anderson, a saddler who worked for 



Bryant L. Cook, was credited with the fleetest foot prior and up to 
the storm of 1835 ; while Alexander Cumming, a brother-in-law of 
Jacob Weaver, was said to excel all others in juni2:)in!u:;. In 1830 
and immediately succeeding years John Scurlock and Abram Put- 
man were the champion runners, and Putman the champion jumper. 
Occasionally the sport Mould be varied by a horse-race, while 
whisky and jokes were freely indulged in. Some of these pioneers 
were rare old jokers, too. The point of their jokes would some 
times rub a raw place in their victim, but for that so much the 









Perhaps no district of country in the West contains more of the 
traces of that mysterious pre-historic people known to us only as 
the "Mound-Builders" than does Fulton county. There is not a 
township of land in the county which does not contain more or less 
of these traces, and in some of them arc works which in extent and 
character will compare with any in the West. 

These works of the Mound-Builders here are of four different 
classes: 1. Mounds, varying in size from two or three feet in 
diameter to immense pyramids, like one near Waterford, containing 
over an acre of ground, and of an altitude of over forty feet in its 
original condition, and the one in Otter Creek Valley near Otto, 
which looks in the distance like an immense hay-rick and is over 
two hundred feet long and between forty and fifty feet high ; 2. 
Excavations usually circular, in regular lines in most cases, some 
small, others of great size and considerable depth ; 3. Regular for- 
tifications, square, elliptical, or following the accidental configura- 
tion of the ground ; 4. Terraced hills. 

One of the most interesting pre-historic points in the county is 
located on sections 31 and 32 in Kerton township. Here, on the 
summit of a high blulf, is a field on the land of a Mr. Fisher, knoAvn 
as the " Mound field," containing, perhaps, twenty-five acres, that 
may properly be called a city of the dead. In this field there is a 
level space of five or six acres enclosed by two rows of circular, 
cup-shaped depressions, inside of which is one large mound which 
must originally have been thirty or forty feet high. To the south 
of this level the bluff" line, with its indentations, forms the border 
of the field, and here are the remains of not less than one hundred 
and fifty thousand human beings buried literally by the cord ! 
Where the bluff" begins to descend, it appears as though a step had 
been cut with the bluff face not less than ten feet high, and here 
were corded skeletons laid as one would cord wood, but with the 
bodies arranged just as one would preserve the level of the file 
best without regard to direction. This burial place follows the 
bluff' line for some distance, where the skeletons appear to have 
been covered by a peculiar light-colored clay, which must have been 
brought from a considerable distance, as it is not found in the locali- 
ty. There are also two pits near the brow of the bluff on the side- 



hill, which appear to have been (triginally about forty feet in diam- 
eter and of jjreat depth, which have been walled uj) i)v placing 
skeletons around the outside, as one would wall a well, coveriui: the 
work with the same clay as in the other burial place. These skele- 
tons are excellently preserved, in many cases the smallest processes 
of bone beini; in as sound a condition as though buried but a year 
ago. Over the entire surface of this field — which is in cultivation 
— the human hand l)e placed without ])lacing it on broken 
pottery, bones or shells. 

At one point near the large mound an area of about two acres, 
which is evidently a " kitchen midden," or refuse heap, covered 
with broken j)ieces of the bones of animals, broken household uten- 
sils and broken tools, to a considerable dej)th. In this refuse heap 
are the bones of nearly every animal known to have inhabited this 
country. Back of the square spoken of are a considerable num- 
ber of ordinary mounds, arranged without much regard to order. 

Just oi)posite and north of Duncan's mill, on the north blufP of 
Spoon river, are extensive and in many respects singular remains 
extending for two or three miles. After leaving the Spoon river 
bridge going north on the Lewistown road, one observes running 
nearly parallel witii the j)resent road what ai)|)ears to be an old dis- 
used road going up the bluil'. A closer inspection discloses a ridge 
of earth several feet in height, extending from near the foot of the 
blutf to very near the summit, with a dei)ression running j)arallel 
with it. On the crown of the blutit' are mounds of earth. built out 
from the brow of the hill, not elevated above the surface level but as 
though they were dumps of earth for some projected railroad. These 
mounds continue close together for nearly a mile; on the blutf 
back of them runs a low ridge of earth which follows the tortuous 
outline of (he bluff, and still back of this ridge circular depressions, 
some of which are fully fifty feet in diameter and from three to five 
feet deep. Xear this line of works is a low natural ridge on the top 
of which an earth-work exists, being an artificial atldition to the 
ridge, building it uj) for a distance of two hundred yards, fully 
thirty feet higher than the natural elevation of the ridge. From 
the north end of this ridge the same class of uKUinds and embank- 
ment spoken of again apjH'ar, extending nearly a mile further uj) the 
river bluff. 

In these mounds — which are in the woods — considerable excavat- 
ing has l)cen done in a desultory way, and many objects of interest 
exhumed, among which are wedges of hardened copper, — stone 
turned into the shaj)e of a sleeve-button with a long shank, and 
plated with (!oj)j)cr as skillfully as a modern jeweler could jdate with 
silver. These works do not apjK^ar to have been purely (lefensive, 
as but few imi)lcments of warfare are found in or al)out them, while 
domestic tools and implements of peace are found in great abund- 

In Bernadotte township on the Dyckes farm is a low hill, ellip- 


tical ill form, which is terraced in a .singular manner. All around 
the side of the hill at the same elevation is a terrace perhaps twelve 
feet wide, and rising from this a second terrace about four feet high. 
These terraces are uniform, of the same height, width and grade, 
with places on the upper terrace where the hill has been leveled back 
a few feet in a circular form. Near this terraced hill are the remains 
of ancient pottery works, the mis-shaped and over-burned fragments 
filling the side of a hill fn- an area of one or two acres. North of 
the village of Bernadotte about one mile there is an elliptical ditch 
which appears to have been a fortification, containing within the 
ditch fifty or sixty acres of ground. This ditch, although the plow 
has aided in filling it for years, is still quite deep and clearly defined. 
Near this place a stone was observed projecting from the earth, and 
parties guided by the dictum of a spiritual medium dug it up expect- 
ing to find buried treasure under it; but did find a flat stone hearth 
at a depth of several feet, on which were fragments of burned wood 
and charcoal, showing that it had been used for fire. 

At AVaterford and in its vicinity are a great many ancient mounds, 
one of which is pyramidal with a road up the east side. There 
are also several ancient burial places near here, but none on so 
extensive a scale as that in Kerton township. 

Liverpool township is also rich in pre-historic remains, including 
several very large mounds ; and some artificial hill terraces at Pol- 
litt's farm above the plank road, one on quite an extensive scale. 

One of the most interesting archaeological relics in this county are 
the ancient furnaces, evidently for the working of ores or metal. 
One of these in Kerton township was discovered by citizens engaged 
in cutting a road-way around a side hill. This furnace was built 
up with rock laid up in a circular form, and was surrounded by 
scorisB and some metallic slag. There are several other furnaces of 
the kind in the county, one of which, on the old Dilworth farm in 
Farmer's township, shows by its immense quantity of cinder, coal, 
clinkers and metallic scoriae that extensive works of some kind 
were carried on here with coal for the fuel supply. 

Just north of Seville, on a bluff of Spoon river, are quite exten- 
sive Nvorks supposed to be defensive in their character, but which 
have not been fully investigated. Near London Mills in Young 
Hickory township, are quite extensive works, mostly mounds, 
which have received but little attention. In fact there is scarcely a 
stream in the county the banks and i>lufl's of which do not show 
traces of prehistoric po])ulation. 

The mounds in this county are evidently of three classes : Sacred 
mounds, which were used for the sacrificial fires ; burial mounds, 
which were erected over the last remains of important personages ; 
and mounds which were used for domestic habitations. In the lat- 
ter class hearths are frequently found, and domestic utensils. These 
were probably residences similar to those of some tribes of our 
present Indians. First, poles or logs set up in a circle, then covered 


with brush or grass, and the whole with earth to a considerable 
depth. The sacrificial mounds always contain burnt earth, burnt 
bones and frequently, too, the charred bones of human beings. In 
the burial mounds only the bones of a few persons are found, prob- 
ably of some chief and his immediate family, and usually near them 
are utensils of the kitchen, arrows, pottery and such articles as were 
most prized in life by the departed. 

In some localities immense shell heaps exist, while it is not 
uncommon to find in a mound shell from the sea, notably the conch 
shell and sea periwinkles, the latter very common. Implements of 
both hardened copper and copper in its soft state are often found, 
and a metal resembling iron in color and texture, but hard enough 
to cut glass, and which resists the action of almost all the acids. 
The writer has specimens of this metal which show under the action 
of acid only that copper enters into their composition. No file will 
affect this substance, yet it yields readily to the grindstone and can 
be sharpened to carry a fine but brittle edge. This metal was prob- 
ably a composition of copper and one or two other metals, tempered 
by a process not now known to the scientific world. Xorman But- 
ler, a blacksmith in Toulon, Stark county, 111., one day in 1853 
accidentally tempered brass so that it would turn a file, — an experi- 
ment which he never afterward could successfully imitate. 

That these Mound-Builders were not of the same race as our 
Indians, is at once apparent from the bones of the latter being of 
a reddish hue, while those of the Mound-Builders are of a differ- 
ent shade and much larger. Dr. Schenck, of Duncan's Mills, has 
a large collection of these prehistoric bones collected with especial 
reference to diseased bones and surgery. Some of these specimens 
show fractures which have been set with considerable skill ; some 
indeed which would not disgrace the average surgery of this age. 
Some of these skeletons belonged to men who were giants, some over 
seven feet high ; some have skulls equal to the average European 
skull in shape and brain capacity, while the general average is much 
superior to the Indian or negro skull. 

It is our opinion that the Mound-Builders were a pastoral 
people who had made considerable progress in civilization. 
In the winter, doubtless, they drove their flocks and herds to the 
bluffs and rich, sheltered bottoms where they could obtain shelter, 
and in the summer drove them to the prairies for pasturage. Doubt- 
less, like the Chinese of to-dav^^ thev esteemed their native hills 
sacred and sought to be buried there no matter where the iron hand 
of death overtook them ; and their friends, respecting this 
desire, were in the habit of bringino; the bones of each familv or 
tribe to these sacred burial places, after they had been stripped of 
their flesh, for permanent burial. 

Perhaps some future archieologist will delve among these ancient 
ruins and find a key to the mystery of the builders of whom we to- 
day know next to nothing ; and unless some means are taken by the 



Government or societies organized for the purpose, and these meas- 
ures at no distant day, they will have become so far obliterated by 
the plow and by unskilled diggers that the slight clues they con- 
tain will be buried in an oblivion greater than now enshroud the 
history of their builders. 




When war was deelared against Mexico in 1846 by oiir Govern- 
ment, enlistment of troops immediately l)egan all over the conntry, 
but nowhere was greater promptitude manifested than in Fulton 
county. Several other companies were raised and offered beside 
the one accepted, but were refused by the Governor, the quota of the 
State being already more than filled. Capt. Lewis W. Ross raised 
Co. K, tendered it to the Governor, and it was accepted and assigned 
to the Fourth regiment. Col. Ed. D. Baker commanding. The 
company was mustered in at Alton July 4, 1846, and moved to Jef- 
ferson Barracks, Mo., and then proceeded to the front, where no 
company did more valiant service for our country than Companv K, 
of Fulton county. Veterans never fought more nobly or effectively 
than did the volunteers to the Mexican war from this county. Their 
brave commander, Col. Baker, won for himself and men a never- 
perishing name. 

At the gk:»rious capture of Vera Cruz and the not less famous 
storming of Cerro Gordo, these troops did valiant service. In the 
latter action, when, after the brave Gen. Shields had been placed 
hors de combat, the command of his force, consisting of three regi- 
ments, devolved upon Col. Baker, this officer with his men stormed 
with unheard-of prowess the last stronghold of the Mexicans, 
sweeping everything before them. Such, indeed, were the intrepid 
valor and daring courage exhibited by Illinois volunteers during 
the Mexican war, that their deeds should live in the memory of 
posterity through future ages. 

Many of the veterans of this war enlisted a few years later to 
defend the same old flag from the insults of a domestic foe that 
thev had so bravelv against a foreign one. Amono- them were Col. 
Baker, who fell at Ball's Bluff, and Lieutenant Boss, who became 
Brigadier General and won laurels that will wreath his name with 
honor for generations after he has passed from earth. 

The Company was mustered out at New Orleans, La., May 26, 
1847, and returned to their homes and resumed the various occupa- 
tions which they had quit a year previous to defend our country. 

In rumaging through the old records and papers on file and 
stowed awav in the Countv Clerk's office we were fortunate enouo;h 
to find a complete official muster roll of the men of this company, 
which we give below. 



In the list e. stands for enlisted, m. o. for mustered out, res. for 
resigned, dis. for disability, and disch. for discharged. 

4tli REGT. ILL. INF. VOL. 


Lewis W. Ross, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26, '47. 

First Lieutenants. 
Geo. W. Stipp, e. July 4,'46, res. Aug. ."0,'4G. 
Leonard F. Ross, e. July 18,'46, m. o. May 26, '47. 

Second Lieutenants. 
John B. McDowell, e. July 4, '46, res. Aug. 30,'46. 
Robert Johnson, e. July 4, '46. res. Dee. 20,'46. 
Joseph L. Sharp, e. July 4,'46, m. o. May 26, '47. 


Marvin Scudder, e. July 4,'46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Stephen B. Webb, e. July 4,'46, died at Matta- 

moras, Oct. 24, '46. 
Robert Carter, e. July 4,'46, disch. Nov. 9,'46, 

Samuel D. Revnolds, e. Julv 4, '46, m. o. Mav 

26. '47. 
:Milton C. Dewey, e. July 4,'46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Jas. B. Anderson, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26,'47. 


Thomns W. Head, e. Julv 4, "46, disch. Nov. 26, 

'46. dis. 
Tracy Stroiid, e. July 4. '46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Jas. \V. Anderson, e" Julv 4, '46, m. o. Mav 26, 

Edward Brannon e. July 10, '46. m. o. May 26, '47. 
Siuioon Cannon, e. July 4,'46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Jas. Dunsmore, e. July 4, '46, died Oct. i,'46, at 


Ackerson, Garrett, e. July 4, '46, m.o. May 26, '47. 
Andrews, Hanuon, e. Julv 4,'46, m. o. Mav 26, 

Bennington, Geo., e. July 4, '46, mo. o. Mav 26, 

Bervard, John, e. July 4,'46, ditch. Dec. 20,'46, 

Beadles, 'Wm., e. Julv 4, '46, di.sch. Mar. 7. '47, 

Bristow, Isaac M., e. Julv 18. '46, ra. o. Mav26,'47 
Clark, David, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Crittenden, Uriah, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26, '47 
Crawford, Jas., e. July 4,"'46, ra. o. May 26, '47. 
("ollins, David, c. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Carter, Simeon, e. July 2.'46, m. o. May 26.'47. 
CooTi, Ross, e. July 4'46, m. o. May 26, '27. 
Cannon, John, e. Julv4,'46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Carter John S. S., e. July 4,, 46, died Oct. 27, '46, 

at Carmago. 
Dalley, Chas., e. July4,'46, m. o. May 26,'47. 

Dobson, Joseph, e. July 4. '46, disch. Feb. 8,'47' 

Dobbins, John F. P., e. Julv 4,'46, disch. Nov. 

9, '46, dis. 
Deiter, John, e. July4,'46, disch. Aug. 24,'46, 

Deiter. Joel, e. July 4,'46, disch. Aug. 24,'46, dis. 
Ellis, John, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Ellis, Jacob, e. Julv 4,'26, m. o. Mav 2(;,'47. 
Engle, Wm, H., e. July 4, '26, m. o."Mav 26,'47. 
Foot, Zach., e. Julv 4, '46, m. o. Mav 26,''47. 
Freeborn. Philip T., July 4,'46, m. 6. May26,'47. 
Fitzpatrick, Michael, e. July4,'46, m.o. May 

26, '47. 
Gregory, Jesse, July 20,'46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Hoover, Richard e.July 20, '46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Hannum, Joshua B., e. Julv 4, '46, ra. o. May 

26, '47. 
Kelly, Ephraim, e. Julv 20, '46, disch. Sept. 18, 

'46, dis. 
King, Horace B., e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Kimball, Myron, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May26,'47. 
Lyon, Ely, e. July 4, '46," m. o. May 26,'47. 
Land, John, e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Mason, Wra. C, e. July 18,'46, disch. Aug. 30, 

'46, dis. 
McNeil, Malcolm, e. July is, '46, disch. Oct. 8, 

'46, dis. 
McKee, Patrick, e. July 18,'46, disch. dis. 
Monroe, Thomas, e. Jiilv 20, '46, disch. Feb. 8, 

'47 dis. 
Morton, Richard W., e. Julv 4, '46, ra. o. May 

26, '47. 
Mayall, Joseph, e. Julv 4,'46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Milslagle, Elias, e. July 4,'46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Moovor, William, e. July 4, '46. m. o. ilay 26, '47. 
Myers, Jonas H., e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
jSlurphy, Wm., e. Julv '20,'46, m. o. Mav 26, '47. 
Patton, Hugh, e. July 4,'46, m. o. ISIay 26,'47. 
Painter, Wm., e. July 4,'46, disch. Nov. 9,'46, 

Pig. John,e. July 20, '46, disch. Sept. 26,'46, dis. 
Powell, Andrew M., July 4, '46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Reid, John H., July 4. '46, m. o. May 26,''47. 
Rigdon, Stephen, e. Julv 4, '46, ra. o." Mav26"47. 
Ross, Pike C, e. July 4.'46, ra. o. Mav 26,'47. 
Shields, David, e. Jiily 4, '46, m. o. M"ay 26,'47. 
Sieele, John, e. July 4','46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Smith, James H., e. July 4, '46, m. o. May 26, '47. 
Smith, David, e. July 4','46, m. o. May 26,'47. 
Stevenson, Thomas,"e. July 20,'46, in. o. May 

26. '47. 
Turner, Oren, e. Julv 20, '46, disch. 8, '46, dis. 
Tavlor, Julius J., e. .Julv 4, '46, ra. o. May 26,'47. 
Wilson, Samuel, B., e. Julv 4,'46, disch, Oct. 4, 

'46, dis. 
Yaw, Alonzo, e. July 4, '46, died Sept. ]0,'46. 



When, in 1861, the war was forced upon the country, the people 
were quietly pur.'suiug the even tenor of their ways, doing whatever 
their hands found to do, — working the mines, making farms or culti- 
vating those already made, establishing homes, founding cities and 
towns, building shops and manufactories ; in short, the country was 
alive with industry and hopes for the future. The people were just 
recovering from the depression and losses incident to the financial 
panic of 1857. The future looked bright and promising, and the 
industrious and patriotic sons and daughters of the North were 
buoyant with hope, looking forward to the perfecting of new plans 
for comfort and competence in their declining years. They little 
heeded the mutterings and threatenings wafted from the South. 
They never dreamed that there was one so base as to attempt the 
destruction of the Union their fathers had purchased for them with 
their life-blood. "While thus surrounded with peace and tranquillity 
they paid but little attention to the rumored plots and plans of those 
who lived and grew rich from the sweat and toil, blood and flesh, 
of others. 

The war clouds grew darker and still darker, the thunders of 
treason grew louder and louder until April 12, 1861, when the fear- 
ful storm burst upon the country and convulsed a continent with 
its attendant horrors. 

On that day the rebels, who for weeks had been erecting their 
batteries upon the shore, after demanding of Major Anderson a 
surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For hours an incessant 
cannonading was continued ; the fort was being damaged severely ; 
provisions were almost gone, and Major Anderson was compelled to 
haul down the stars and stripes, — that dear old flag which had sel- 
dom been lowered to a foreitrn foe ; bv rebel liands it was now 
trailed in the dust. How the blood of patriotic men of the ]Sorth 
boiled when on the followinof dav the news was flashed along the 
telegraph wires that Major Anderson had been forced to surrender I 
And nowhere was greater indignation manifested than in Fulton 



Immediately upon the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lin- 
coln, America's martyr President, — who but a few short weeks before 
had taken the oath of office as the nation's chief executive, — issued 
a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers for three months. The 
last word of that proclamation had scarcely been taken from the 
electric wires before the call was filled, and men and money were 
counted out by hundreds and thousands. The people who loved 
their whole government could not give enough. Patriotism thrilled 
and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, the 
workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, the 
school-house, — every calling offi?red its best men, their lives and 
fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. Bitter 
words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten and for- 
given, and, joining hands in a common cause, they repeated the oath 
of America's soldier statesman, " By tJte (rreat Eternal, the Union 
must and shall he preserved." 

Call the young men in the prime of their life; 
Call them from mother, from sister, from wife ; 
Blessed if they live, revered if they fall, — 
They who respond unto Liberty's call. 

Seventy-five thousand men were not enough to subdue the Rebel- 
lion ; nor were ten times the number. The w^ar went on, and call 
followed call, until it began to look as if there would not be men 
enough in all the Free States to crush out and subdue the monstrous 
war traitors had inaugurated. But to every call for either men or 
money there was a willing and ready response ; and it is a boast of 
the people that, had the supply of men fallen short, there were 
women brave enough, daring enough, patriotic enough, to offer 
themselves as a sacrifice on their country's altar. Such were the 
impulses, motives and actions of the patriotic men of the North, 
among whom the sons of Fulton made a conspicuous and praise- 
worthy record. 

VARIOUS mp:etings held in the county. 

The tocsin of war was sounded, meetings w^ere held in every 
township, village and city, at which stirring and spirited addresses 
were made, and resolutions adopted admitting of but one interpre- 
tation, — that of unconditional allegiance and undying devotion to 
their country and their country's flag ; that, at whatever cost of blood 
or treasure, the stars and stripes, wherever floating, must be honor- 
ed ; and the supremacy of the law of the National Union sustained. 

A meeting was held at Canton, April 20, 1801, at the old Con- 
gregational church. Ira Johnson was called to the chair, and 
stated the object of the meeting to be, to express the feelings of the 
people in regard to the difficulties then in our country, and to re- 
spond to the call of Gov. Yates for military force to aid the 


Forleral Governmpnt in sustainin<r tlie laws. The ''Stnr-S])ano;locl 
]^annor " was effectively suii_n' by a iiumber of yctiinti- ladies, after 
which the military hand rendered several national airs with good 
spirit. A committee of iive was then ai)j)ointed to draft resolutions 
exj)ressivc of the sense of the meeting. This committee Avas com- 
|>(tsed of the following gentl(Mnen : John W. Ingersoll, W. II. 
Haskell, William liabccick, (J. W. Fast and Tracy Stroud. The 
meeting was then addressed by lion. William Kellogg, W. H. 
Haskell and James PI. Stij)]). Ivcsolutions were adopted, which 
showed this people to be patriotic and ready to sacriiice all for the 
Union. After this an op]K)rtuiiity was given for enlistments, and 
forty names were enr(»lle(l. 

At the court-house in LcwMstown, on Tuesday evening, April 23, 
a meeting was held with George Humphrey in the chair. The com- 
mittee on resolutions were H. B. Evans, R. B. Stevenson, M. Eich- 
elberger, S. V. Shope, L. W. James, James Hasson and Hubert 
Cam[)l)ell. The meeting, which resolved to support the Govern- 
ment, was addressed bv L. F. Ross, R. R. McDowell, M. S. Kind:)all, 
L. W. Ross and S. C." Judd. 

A large and enthusiastic; meeting of the citizens of Farmington 
was held Saturday evening, April 20, for the purpose of discussing 
the condition of the country. A. K. Montgomery ])resided, and 
Dr. J. Gregory acted as secretary. The following resolutions were 
adopted with but one dissenting voice: 

AVhereas, events have lately transpired which call for all .aood citizens to 
express in what estimation they hold tlie institutions of Americans and Amer- 
ican liherty, therefore 

Remhcd, That when the Government of the United States is attacked, we 
can recognize no distinction between the foreign and the domestic foe. 

Remhed, That since forbearance has ceased to call the traitors of the South 
to fealty to the Government, we heartily apjirove of the measures rectMitly 
taken by the administration, choosing ratlier to bear the burdens of a just war 
than to enjoy the ease under an ignominious peace. 

licsolrcd, Tiiat we will freely assist, with all the means in our i)ower, the ef- 
forts of the Government to viuuiuisii traitors, whether at home or at)road, 

Resolml, That we are firmly and devotedly attached to the United States, and 
to the flag under which our "fatluTs fought;" ami, wi- lierehy pledge our lives, 
our fortunes and our sacred honor to sustain the one and defend the other. 

Similar meetings were held in all parts of the county, and resolu- 
tions, full of ])atriotisni and devotion to the country and the old flag, 
were sent forth as the sentiment and voice of the people. 

Immediately, in response to the call for troops, enlistments began. 
As early as April 30 a company of 100 was organized at Canton. 
They drilled in the city for some tlays,and so impatient were they to 
strike a blow in defense of the dear old flag which had been trampled 
beneath the feet of traitors at Sumter, that they wanted to be oft' 
immediately to the scene of conflict. jSIany of them were afraid 
thev would not "get to go." They little reaJized the magnitude of 
the war. 


A meeting- was held Saturday evening, April 27, for the purpose 
of making arrangements to raise subscriptions for the benefit of this 
company, to equip it, etc. J. G. Piper was elected president and C. 
C. Dewey secretary. Hon. A. C. Babcock, G. W. Fast, S. C. Thorp, 
J. W. Ingersoll, H. P. Fellows, J. H. Dorranee, B. F. Rubk^, T. 
Atwater, G. W. Hardesty and P. C. Stearns were appointed a com- 
mittee to procure subscriptions. This company was named the Ful- 
ton Volunteers. Wm. Babcock was elected Captnin, L. C. Chase 
First Lieutenant, Wm. Ti'ites Second Tvieut(Miant and J. H. Dorranee 
Third Ivieutenant. 

While the above company was being raised at Canton, a company 
was gotten up at Lewistown with L. F. Ross as Captain, T. A. Boyd 
First Lieutenant and A. Willison Second Lieutenant. This com- 
pany was originally the " Fulton Blues," and was organized about 
the year 1857, by Capt. Leonard F. Ross. On Monday, Ajjril 29, 
it was permanently re-organized for the U. S. service and was after- 
wards transferred to the 17th Regiment as Co. H. 

At Vermont a company was organized, and Thomas Hamer w^as 
elected Captain, Josiah Dennis First Lieutenant, and Hinman 
Rhodes Second Lieutenant. 

A company was also rai-^ed at Fairview, which left for Camp 
Mather, Peoria, May 15. Before leaving their homes, however, 
they were presented with a fine flag by the ladies of Fairview. They 
were accompanied to Peoria by the Fairview Brass Band. It was 
noised around Canton that this company, after being in camp, needed 
flannel shirts ; and within a few days 75 shirts were made and sent 
to them. 

On Friday morning. May 10, 1861, the Fulton Blues left Lewis- 
town for camp at Peoria. The public s(]u;ire was filled with citizens 
to witness the flag presentation and departure of the company. 
Capt. Ross marched the boys to the residence of Dr. R. R. McDowell, 
where each of them was provided with a flannel shirt, made for them 
by the ladies of Lewistown. Each and every man was also pre- 
sented with a copy of the New Testament, accompanied by the re- 
quest to write therein his name and age, and name of his father, 
guardian or other member of his family, with place of residence. 
At nine o'clock the company was paraded in front of the court- 
house, where a large number of ])co]>le had gathered. H. B. Evans 
was chosen to preside over the assembly. He called the large con- 
course of people to order, and on behalf of the ladies Dr. McDowell 
presented to the company a beautiful flag. Capt. Ross received the 
colors with pledges that they should not be disgraced, and handed 
them to Ensign Woolfolk, who received them in the name of the 
company. The brass band played and three cheers were given for 
the ladies. The company took their places in the wagons, receiving 
meanwhile the sorrowing farewells of their friends. They were then 
driven to Havana, where a boat was taken for Peoria. 


The Fulton Lip;ht-Horse Invincibles were organized Tuesday 
May 7, '(51, l)y C'apt. W. A. Presson. 

Other companies were raised. Call after call was made by the 
Government and each time Fulton county nobly responded. While 
some thought the policy of the administration wrongful and hurtful, 
and that the desired end might be attained in a more conciliatory 
manner tiian by the stern and bloody arbitrament of war, yet the 
majority believed their only recourse was a resort to arms. 


While tlie people throughout the State were busily engaged in 
preparing for the war, the sad news of the death of her beloved 
Senator, Stephen A. Douglas, was announced. Funeral services 
were held in almost all towns of this county upon the death of this 
distinguished statesman. At Canton, Thursday, June 6th, 1861, a 
meetino- was held at Graham's Hall to make suitable arranocnients 
for ceremonies. S. A. Gee, \Vm. Kellooo- P. L. Snvder and James 
T. Slack were appointed a committee of arrangements. G. Barrere, 
Thomas Snyder, W. H. Haskell, Dr. Henry Ingersoll and S. Y. 
Thornton were selected as a committee to draft resolutions. On 
Friday, as for several days previous, the flag was bound in black and 
displayed at half-mast. Shortly before two o'clock p. m. the 
bells commenced tolling, and continued while a procession was 
formed uj)on the public square, headed by the Canton Silver Cor- 
net Band and Masonic Lodge. It marched to the Baptist church, 
where the fc^llowing exercises took place under the direction of T. 
Stroud, chief marshal and master of ceremonies. Hon. John G. 
Graham was called to the chair and Messrs. P. L. Snyder, Ira John- 
son, S. N. Breed, Dr. Henry Ingersoll, J. M. Bass and G. Barrere 
were chosen vice ])residents; S. Y. Thornton and Alpheus Davison, 
secretaries. Prayer was then offered by Rev. Dr. Webb, which was 
followed by singing by a choir organized for the occasion under the 
direction of Mr. E. P. Ingersoll, Mrs. Law presiding at the instru- 
ment. Resolutions fitting and full of sorrow at the loss of the great 
Senator were passed. Wni. H, Haskell then delivered an oration upon 
the life and services of Mr. Douglas. Hon. Wm. Kellogg made 
a brief address. He was followed by John G. Graham, S. A. Gee, 
G. Barrere and J. T. Slack. The b(>nediction was pronounced by 
Rev. P. Bergstresser, and thus endcnl the services of respect to a 
great and beloved statesman. 


The boys went forth to the field of carnage ; and what vivid words 
can the pen employ that will do justice to their heroic valor, to their 
une(iualed and unparalleled bravery and endurance? Home and 
home comforts, wives and little otics, fathers, mothers, sisters, broth- 
ers, were all given uj) for lilc and danger on the lields of battle, — for 


< l.lli lliJ.....l^V«wC^ 


exposure, fatigue, disease and death at the point of the bayonet or 
the cannon's mouth. But while they were thus suffering let us not 
suppose that the mother, and sister, the wife, the children were free 
from the tortures of anxiety, of the loss of dear ones. Yes; while 
the brave boys upon the Southern field suffered indescribably, the 
wife and little ones at home endured sufferings beyond the power of 
pen or tongue to describe. Let us picture a home where the hus- 
band and the wife and the little ones are thus separated. The picture 
of one will only reflect those of hundreds of others. We look into 
the plain but tidy room. A mother is preparing her evening meal. 
Upon a chair, and leaning her little arm on the window-sill, a little 
child is kneeling, looking fur into the dusky shadows that encircle 
the brow of night. Her dark eyes have a longing, desolate look, 
and on her brow lies one of life's shadows. At last she speaks : 
"Oh, mamma, papa has been gone so long! why don't he come?" 
The mother sighs and her heart repeats, "So long?" But the little 
one must have an answer, and mamma tries to comfort her: "Papa has 
gone to war, dear; gone to fight fi)r his country; and when the war 
is over he will come back to see mamma and little Bessie." 

"But it seems so long, mamma ! When will the war be over?" 
"Mamma cannot tell, dear; but we will hope for the best." 
Their frugal meal is now ready, and mother and child sit down 
with heavy hearts, their eyes wandering to the place where papa used 
to sit; but there is no manly form, — only a vacant chair. 

In the mother's heart sad questions will arise : "Will he return to 
us? or will some swift-winged bullet, sped by a traitor's hand, de- 
stroy the life so dear to us?" 

Oh, why could not all men have been true to a government so 
mild, — to their country so vast and grand? Why should they cause 
sorrow and death to o'er-spread our land, and the voice of wailing 
to go forth from every fireside ? In silence the meal is ended, and 
the little one, whose eyes have grown heavy, is taken upon the 
mother's lap, and prepared for rest. Her little prayer is said, and 
a good-night kiss given for papa. She falls asleep, and the shadow 
is chased from her brow. But the shadows hover darkly round the 
mother's heart, as she thinks of distant battle-fields ; of wounded and 
dying men whose lives, and those they love more than life, have 
been given up that their country might be saved. And on this 
September evening a terrible battle has closed. For three daysthev 
have fought, and now the evening shadows unite with clouds of 
smoke, and our army is victorious ; but the ground is strewn with 
the dead and dying. Hark ! here is one who speaks : "Water, wa- 
ter; won't Bessie bring me water?" But Bessie's soft hands cannot 
reach him; kind but rougher and stranger hands give him the cool- 
ing drops, and with a weary sigh for his home, wife and litth^ one, 
his breath is gone, and the brave heart beats no more. 

Rumors of the terrible fight reach that quiet home ; then come 
dispatches, making rumors facts. How long and dark are the hours 


of suspense to the anxious wife and little one ! Eagerlv the papers 
are watched for every word concerning the division in which was 
the loved one, and now at last comes a list of the killed and wound- 
ed in his regiment. AVith fast-beating heart the pcior wife takes the 
list of wounded tirst, that she may still have some hope. His name 
is not there. With hushed breath and heart beating faster, she scans 
the list of the killed, until she comes to his name. The paper falls 
from her nerveless hand and she sinks heavily to the floor. Bessie 
bends over her, and the touch of her smooth hands and the sound of 
her sweet voice bring the widow back to life that is now so dark. 
But for Bessie's sake she will still be brave, and struggle on alone, 
— no, not alone. Bessie is still with her, and their heavenly Father 
will lead them through the darkness. 

This is only one of the many pictures that are drawn upon 
the pages of unwritten historv. Have traitors nothing to answer 

soldiers' aid society. 

The continued need of money to obtain comforts and necessaries 
for the sick and wounded of our army, suggested to the loyal ladies 
of the Xorth many and vajious devices for the raising of funds. 
Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, excursion, 
concert, which netted more w less for hospital relief. The ladies of 
Fulton honored themselves and their county by their noble, gener- 
ous work in behalf of the soldiers. Their devotion to the loyal 
princijdes of the national Government was undying, and its defend- 
ers were objects of their deepest sympathy. During the dark and 
trying days of tha Rsbellion they were ever on the alert raising 
funds, sending food, clothing, delicacies and medicines to the soldiers 
in the hospital and at the front. 

In the noble efl'orts the ladies made to palliate the sufferings of 
their brothers upon the Southern fields of carnage, they were actu- 
ated by love of country, devotions to kindred and sympathy for 
those in distress. Though jihysically incapacitated to share with 
them the toils and perils of battle, yet before its smoke and the 
echoes of its artillery passed away, the offerings of their hands 
would relieve their pain, and inspire them with holier ardor for the 
cause they were defending. The number of weary sufferers on the 
field of battle and in the lonely hospital relieved by their bounty, 
none but the Recording Angel can tell. 

The ladies of Lewistinvn organized a Soldiers' Aid Society Nov. 
28, 1862. Similar societies were organized in many towns of the 
county, but we Mill let the following detailed statement of the first 
year's labor of the Lewistown society suffice as an illustration of the 
labor of all the others : The money contributed was mostly used in 
purchasing material for making clothing. Those goods which were 
sent to the 17th and 103d Illinois Regiments (the latter wholly 
and the former mostly made up of Fulton men), to the Quincy hos- 


pitals and State Sanitary Coniniissioii for 1862-'63 were as follows: 
Cash 1227.26; UU towels ; 94 shirts ; 42 handkerehiefs ; Gl pairs 
drawers; 7 coats; 51 pair woolen socks; 3 vests; 1 pair of pants; 
6 pair of slip])ers; 37 pillow cases; 15 sheets; 3 quilts; 1 lb. 
woolen yarn ; () doz. wash-basins ; 1 bushel turnips; 1 barrel but- 
ter; 21 pounds butter; 6 barrels pickles; 1 J barrels dried apples; 
2 barrels apple b.utter; 1 J barrels sauerkraut ; 140 dozen cakes; 6 
loaf cakes; 66 pies; 52 dozen eggs; 2 chickens; 1 pound tea; 19 
packages dried fruit ; 26 cans fruit; needles and thread; reading 
matter and other small articles. 

soldip:rs in fulton county. 

There are many rumors afloat relative to Fulton county's loyalty 
during the dark days of the Rebellion, which are very much exag- 
gerated, so far as we are abh^ to learn. Among othei- things much 
has been said about United States soldiers being sent to the county 
while tlie war was in progress. That soldiers were sent into the 
county is a fact ; but many have a wrong impression as to the cause 
of their being sent here. The semi-official report made by Provost 
Marshal Phelps, and published at the time, concerning the reason 
why the soldiers were brought to the county and what they did 
while here, is perhaps the most authoritative account of the affair 
we arc able to obtain. It is substantially correct even in detail, and 
we give the entire letter below, that our readers may see the Mar- 
shal's statement in full : 

" In view of the troubles existing' at this time in the southern portion of Ful- 
ton county, and to alhiy any unnecessary apprehension therefrom, and also 
for the purpose of correcting evils and misunderstan(lin<rs naturally growing 
out of vague rumors and uirfounded reports, many of which are afloat in the 
c.onnnunity, in relation to the late military proceedings enacted in south Ful- 
ton, I deem it due to the j)ul)lic that a fair and candid statement of the mat- 
ter should be made, in order that all may understand the basis upon which 
troops were called into the county, their action since their arrival, and when 
their mission will have been fulfilled. 

"It is a fact well known to the public that there has been for several weeks 
past a determine<l armed resistance, accompanied with violent threats, against 
the execution of the enrollment law in some of the townships in this county. 
The first noticeable demonstration of this spirit, was mamfested in Pleasant 
township, and was of so violent a character as to compel Luke Elliott, the 
clerk duly appointed by William McComb, the enrolling officer of this county, 
to abandon the work. After some delay and much parleying, the enrollment 
was completed without further serious opposition, liy another appointee. This 
spirit of resistance was caught uj* by the citizens of Isabel township, and cul- 
minated in a more formidable and determined resistance than had been exhib- 
ited in Pleasant, and finally teiniinated in intimidating one, and taking the 
enrolling books of another of the officers, by armed force, and with threats 
that no man shobld enroll the townshiji exce])t at the peril of his life. 

"In addition to this there was manifested a bitter hostility to the arrest and 
return of deserters from the army, so much so that deserters to the number of 
15 to 25, encouraged by this spirit, had for some time past been encamped in 
the open field, and at other places of rendezvous, with the avowed purpose of 
resisting any attempt which might be made by the authorities to arrest them. 
Not only this, a large numljer of the citizens of Isabel were in the habit of 
drilling and performing other military duty, with no other avowed purpose 


than to be prepared to resist the enrollment. This being the condition of 
things, it was manifest to the Provost Marshal that he and his little force were 
not able to enforce the law and bring the offenders to justice. 

"The Provost Marshal of the district, being informed of the condition of 
aflFairs in the county, visited it, and by his direction a small force of cavalrv 
( 61 in number ) with one six-pounder was ordered into the county, for the 
purpose, and no other, of enforcing the enrollment of Lsabel township and 
for the arrest of deserters and other individuals against whom legal process 
had been i.ssued. This force arrived and encamped at Duncan's Mills, five 
miles south of Lewistown. on the 13th inst. About 12 o'clock that same night, 
this force being divided into three squads, of ten men each, leaving the re- 
mainder to guard the gun and take charge of prisoners, should any be arrested, 
started with their respective officers for three different points in the same 
neighborhood, viz.: Charles Brown's, John Lane's and John Graham's. The visit made by either of the .squads was at Charles Brown's. The officer, 
taking two men with him, went to the house, and after knocking at the door 
and making his business known, entered the house and arrested John and 
Benjamin F. Brown, who were in bed, no opposition of anj- kind being made. 
These two prisoners were put in charge of two soldiers and sent to camp, 
while the officer with the remainder of his men joined those who were at John 
Lane's. Here eight of the company were detailed to surround the house and 
barn of Mr. Lane. The officer then knocked at the door, made his business 
known and demanded admittance, which being refused, five minutes were 
given in which to comply, at the expiration of which no compliance being 
maile, the door was forced in and three .soldiers entered the house. There 
were nine men in the house all armed. Two doubie-liarreled shot-guns, one 
rifle, three revolvers, one double-barreled pistol, all loaded, and one bowie 
knife, were also found in The house. Upon a demand to deliver up their 
weapons and surrender, all complied except Aaron Bechelhimer and John 
Alexander, including James Lane, who first drew a revolver and afterwards 
surrendered. Bechelhimer and Alexander were in a back room, and, as the 
soldiers approached. Bechelhimer offering resistance, was caught Vjy a soldier 
and thrown out of a window, when he was instantly arrested by another sol- 
dier. Alexander, in the meantime, who had been ordered several times to 
surrender, attempted to draw a revolver, and was standing with one hand 
upon the collar of his coat and the other in the act of drawing his weapon, 
when he was shot in the left breast by a soldier, and the revolver taken from 
him. Of the number in the house, Piatt and James Lane were arrested, the 
latter of whom e caped ; also Aaron Bechelhimer and Marshal Athey, two 
deserters, and John Lane, who was afterwards released bv the Provost Mar- 

"The third squad, composed of ten men, had gone to John Graham's on a 
like errand (to arrest deserters), and also to arrest Graham, against whom 
charges had been preferred before the proper triliunal. Here, as at the other 
places, the oflicer in command knocked at the door and made known his busi- 
ness. Graham replied that no deserters were in the house, and that he was 
alone. Search was made at his barn for deserters, but without success. 
Demand was again made for entrance in his and refused, when the door 
was forced open. No men were found in the lower story. Edward Trumbull, 
who was one of the squad, opened a door leading up a narrow stairway, and 
with a candle in his hand attempted to go up stairs, when he was fired upon 
by John Graham, the ball inflicting a slight wound in Trumbull's, and 
passing down lodged in his thigli, cau.sing a severe flesh wound. At the same 
time a shot was fired from the porch, which barely missed Van Meter. Gra- 
ham still refusing to surrender, a guard was placed around his house and a 
messenger sent to the Captain of the company, at Duncan's, to bring up the 
artillery. At this, and when Graham discovered what he was contending 
against I for, as he said, up to this time he supposed it to be Phelps and his 
posse), he finally surrendered, and, with Joseph Brown, was taken prisoner. 

"These are the facts, as related by the officers of the several squads, upon 
which 1 rely with the utmost confidence. The prisoners, nine in number, 
were brought by the cavalry to Lewistown, where they remained until the 
afternoon train, when seven { two being released by the Marshal ) were sent to 







the Provost Marshal of the district, to he hy him delivered over to the United 
States District Marshal of this State, to be tried by the civil authorities upon 
the ch irges preferred against them. 

"From present in licitions it is hoped and believed that the law will he en- 
forced, the enrohment made and deserters arrested, without any resistance; 
ami when this fact is clearly demonstrated the military force now in the county 
will be withdrawn, and not until then. 

"I have been thus p irlicul ir in collecting ami detailing the facts connected 
with this trans ictiou, which have been g ithered from eye-witnesses, and other 
facts, some of which have come nn ler my own oI)servation and that of num- 
erous other citiz -us of the county, for the purpos? of guarding the people 
ag liust f ds ' reports, an 1 th it tuey m ly uu lerstaud t'le true condition of aff lirs 
in Fulton county. Tiie ex -iteuuMit which followed the arrest by the military, 
and the ilemonstration of six or seven bun Ired armed citiz 'Us exhibited in 
the environs of L-wistown within eight hours thereafter, needs no comment 
from me, but of itself is suffijieut apology for an armed force being quartered 
in our midst. 


Lewistowx, August 17, 1863. Provost Marshal of Fulton county." 

lee's surrender. — Lincoln's assassination. 

Our armies bravely contendjd until finally, after four long years 
of bloodshed and carnage, the news was flashed over the wires that 
Lee had surrendered. This joyful news reached this county Mon- 
day, April 10, 18(J5, being within two days of four years from the 
time the batteries were opened on Fort Sumter. On receiving the" 
news of the fdl of Richmond the people were very jubilant over 
the success of the Union forces. They assembled in all parts of 
the county and had grand jubilees. The streets of the cities were 
brilliantly illuminateil ; bonfires, rockets and music were seen and 
heard on every haul; it wis inJjed a season of rejoicing; and well 
might it bo, for had bien endured, what had been sutfered. 

Scarcely had the downfall of the Sauthern Confederacy been re- 
ceived ere the sad news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln 
was flashed over the wires. On that beautiful April morning, five 
days after the announcement of Lee's surrender, the people, joyful 
over the near approach of the return of their loved ones from the 
South, the sorrowing news of the President's death was announced. 
Mr. Lincoln was bound to the people of this county with stronger 
cords than simply being a good ruler. He had spent many days^ 
here, had many warm personal friends, and it was like the loss of a 
brother. They felt the loss keenly ; the tolling bells, the sym- 
pathetic dirges, interpreted not merely the grief of a people at the 
loss of a President, but the sorrow of a community at the death of 
brother, a son, one who was closely akin to all. Meetings were 
held and appropriate resolutions passed. Dwellings, stores, churches 
and public buildings were draped, and the flags which had been sent 
up in m:jments of rejoicing were taken down, draped, and sent up 
at half-mast. 

the close. 

The war ended and peace restored, the Union preserved in its in- 
tegrity, the sons of Fulton who had volunteered their lives in de- 



fense of their Government, and who were spared to see the army of 
the Union victorious, returned to their homes to receive grand 
ovations and tributes of honor from friends and neighbors who had 
eagerly and zealously followed them wherever the fortunes of war 
called. Exchanging their soldiers' uniforms for citizens' dress, most 
of them fell back to their old vocations, — on the farm, at the forge, 
at the bench, in the shop, and at whatever else their hands found to 
•do. Brave men are honorable always, and no class of citizens are 
entitled to greater respect than the volunteer soldiery of Fulton 
county, not alone because they were soldiers, but because in their 
associations with their fellow-men their walk is upright, and their 
honesty and character without reproach. 

Their country first, their glory and their pride. 
Land of their hoi)es, bmd where their fathers died ; 
When in the right, they'll keep their honor hright; 
When in the wrong, they'll die to set it right. 

No more fitting tribute to their patriotic valor can be offered the 
brave men who went forth in defense of liberty and union, than a 
full and complete record, so far as it is possible to make it, embrac- 
ing the names, the terms of enlistments, the battles in which they 
-were engaged, and all the minutiae of their military lives. It will 
be a wreath of glory encircling every brow, a precious memento to 
hand down to posterity, and one which each of them earned in de- 
fense of their and our common country. There are, no doubt, some 
men who, while they lived in Fulton county, enlisted in other 
counties and were never credited to this county. While the names 
of such properly belong here, and we would gladly give them did 
we know them, yet the Adjutant-General's reports, the source of our 
information, give their names as belonging to other counties, and 
we were unable to learn of this fact in every case. 



abs Absent. 

art Artillery. 

col Colonel. 

capt Captain. 

corpl Corporal. 

com Commissioned. 

cav Cavalry. 

capd Captured. 

dis Disability. 

d Discharged. 

e Enlisted. 

hos Hospital. 

inf Infantrj-. 

kid Killed. 

lieut Lieutenant. 

m. o Mustered Out. 

pris Prisoner. 

pro Promoted. 

regt Regiment. 

res Resigned. 

sergt Sergeant. 

tr Transferred. 

V Veteran. 

wnd Wounded. 


Bradshaw, John W. 
May -1,'G6. 

e. Co. C. Mar. 21, '65. m. o. 


Samuel Caldwell, e. July 25, '61, m. o. May 4, '(16. 

Caldwell, Wm. L., e. July 25,'61. Died Feb. 17, 

Cooper, C. S., e. Julv 2iS,'61. Trans, to artillerv. 
Downing, H. H., e. Julv 28'61, d. Mar. 31, '62." 
Farewell, Milo, e. July 2S,'61, d. Mar. 28,'64. 
Jamison, S. H., e. July 2S,'61. 
Keefer, John M., e. Julv 2cS,'61. 
Norcott, F. A., e. July28,'61, d. July 2S,'64. 
Nutt, Samuel, e. Julv 28,'61. 
Pettit, C. E., e. Julv28,'61, d. Mar. 31, '62. 
Rockhold, B. F., e. July 28,'61, d. Julv 28,'64. 
Stockdale, S. A., e. July 28, '61. 
Thornton, T. W., e. July 28,'61, d. Jan. 21, '62. 
Thompson, J., e. July 25,'61, m. o. July 30,'64. 
Wallace, J. B., e. July 28, '61, kid. at Shiloh, 

April 6,'C2. 
Cole, Henry, e. Nov. I,'(i4, m. o. Oct. 31, '65. 
Ellis, John, e. Oct, 3,'64, Co. H, 12th regt., m. o. 

July 10, '65. 
Gonder, F., e. Oct. 4,'64, Co. H, 12th regt. ; m. o. 

Julv 10, '65. 
Cramp, F. H,, e. May 24,'61, Co. F, 14th regt. ; 

died May 2, '62. 
Retter, Chas., e. Feb. 23, '65, Co. C. 14th regt. 
Hughes, J. W., e. Mar. 31, '64. 

16tli INFANTRY. 

Mackey, P. F., e. in Co. A, May 24, '01, v. 
Magee, Jas., e. in Co. A, Mav 24,'61, died June 
10, '62. 


Anderson, W. B., e. May 24,'61, pris. war, m. o. 

Juno 3, '65. 
Hunter, W. A., e. May 24,'61, v., m.o. July 8,'65, 

as corpl. 
Husted, M. A., e. May 24, '01, d. May 14, '62. 
Matthews, E.D., e.May 24,'61,v., m.o. July 8,'65. 
Newell, Thos.,e. May 24, '61, v., m.o. July 8,'65. 
Westlake, J., e. Mav 24,'61, v., m. o. July 8,'65, 
Westlake, M. M., e. May 24,'61, v., m. o. July 8, 

Perkins, M., e. May 24,'01, in Co. K,, d. Oct. 

Saxbury, B. F., e. Jan. 5, '62, in Co. K. v., m. o. 

July S,'65. 


The 17th Reg. 111. Inf. Vols, was mustered 
into the United States service at Peoria, 111., on 
the 24th day of May, 1861. Left for Alton, 111., 
late in July, proceeded to St. Charles, thence to 
Warrenton, Mo., where it remained about two 
weeks. The regiment left Warrenton for St. 
Louis and embarked on transports for Bird's 
Point, Mo. ; thence to Sulphur Springs Land- 
ing; debarking, went to Pilot Knob, Mo., in 
pursuit of Gen. Jeff. Thompson, and joined 
Prentice's command at Jackson, Mo., thence 
to Kentucky and aided in the construction of 
Fort Holt. Was then ordered to Cape Girar- 
deau and was again sent in pursuit of Jeff. 
Thompson; participated in the engagement 
near Greenfield ; returned to Cape Girardeau 
and performed provost duty until Feb., 1862. 
Was then ordered to Fort Henry; participated 



in that engagement and Fort Donulson, losing 
several men killed, wounded, and taken pris- 
oners. Soon after, went to Pitt.sburg Landing 
and was assigned to the army of West Tennes- 
see; engaged in the battle of the Gth and 7th 
of April, sufTering great loss in killed and 
wounded; was in the advance to Corinth; 
after Uie evacuation of Corinth, marched to 
Jackson, Tenn.; remained until July, when 
it was ordered to Bolivar, where it remained 
until November, 1862, participating during 
the time in the expedition to luka to reinforce 
General Rosecrans, where it was engaged 
in the battle of the Hatchie ; marched to La- 
grange, Tenn.. the middle of November, re- 
porting to Gen. John A. Logan, and was 
assigned to duty as provost guard. Early in 
December marched to Holly Springs, via Abbe- 
ville and Oxford. At the battle of Holly Springs 
was assigned to Gen. McPhersoft's command, 
then proceeded to Moscow, Collier\ille and 
Memphis, and was assigned to duty at the navy 
yard, remaining until June 16, then embarking 
for Vicksburg. re-embarking for Lake Provi- 
dence, La., where it remained until the invest- 
ment of Vicksburg began. Went to Millikin's 
Bend, May 1, commenced the march across the 
Delta to Pekin's Landing, advanced with Mc- 
pherson's command to the final investment of 
Vicksburg. Alter the surrenler of that city, 
remained there, making frequent incursions 
into the enemy's country until May, 1S64, the 
erm of service expiring on the '24th of May of 
that year. 

The regiment was ordered to Springfield, 111., 
to be mustered out, when those who had not 
re-enlisted as veterans received their final dis- 
charge. A sufficient number not having en- 
listed to entitle them to retain their regimental 
organization, were consolidated with the 8th 
III. Inf., and were finally mustered out with 
that regiment in the spring of 1866. 

Leonard F. Ross, e. May 3,'61, pro. Brig. Gen,, 
April 25, '62. 

L. D. Kellogg, e. April 1,'Cl, res. June U.'6:i. 
Chas. B. Tompkins, e.May20,'61, term expired 
June, '64. 


Allen D. Rose, c. Mav 13,'61. res. Dec. 24,'61. 
Geo. W. Wright, c. M'ay 23,'61, res. April 18,'62. 
Milton S. Kimball, e. May 20,61, pro. A.A.G. 

Dec. 2:5,'62. 
Chauncey Black, e. May 26,'61, tenn expired 
June, '64. 

First Lieutenants. 
\\m. Walsh, e. Mav 13,'61. res. Dec .31, '61. 
Wm. T. Dodds. e. Mav i>,'61, res. April 18,'62. 
Jas. B. Rowley, e. May 'io.'Gl, term expired 
June, '64. 

Seond Lieutenant. 
Das-id A. Parks, e. May 13,'61, res. Dec. 27,"61. 


<;. A. Schaper.e. May 2>,'61. 

J. V. D. Da\ls, e. May 2 >,'61, d. Oct. 20, '62. 


L. B. Martin, e. Mav iJ.'Ol. 

D. M. B(jyuton, e. May 2j,'61, d. Sept. 7,'61, dis. 

James M." Moor, e. May 25, '61. 

Allen, Siras, e. May 2.5,'61. 
Blont. Allen, Jr.. e. May io.'ei. 
Bower, Wm., e. May 2.j,'61. 
Bovnton, Jonah, e. Mav 2-3''61. 
Barker, Cha.s.. e. May 2.5.'61,d. Aug. 18.'62. 
Bumnaugh, C. W., e. May 2-5, '61. 
Blackall, Thos., e. May 2.5,'61, d. April 3,'62. 
Babbett, Joel, e. Mav 25,'61. 
Colville, Wm., e. May 25,'61, kid. at Shiloh, 

April 6.'62. 
Driggs. Wm. H. e. Mav 2;j.'61. 
Edmonson, W. II. 1. e. May •2.5,'61. d. May 11, '62. 
Edmonson, Wm. H.. 2, e. Mav 25, '16. 
Ellis, Wm., e. Mav 25,'61, died Oct. 31,'61. 
Giles, D. E., e. May 25.'61. 
Hunts, Geo. W., e. May 2.J,61, d. Aug. 9,'62,wnd. 
Head, Wm. E., e. May 2.j,'61, d. Nov. lu,'62. 
Haggard. Joseph, c.M"ay 2o,'61, died July 11, '62. 
Hurlbut, I). A., e. Mav 25,"61, d. Feb. 6,'62. 
Hall. C, e. May2.i,'6], v. 
Johnson. H. D., e. Mav 25,'61, d. Feb. 7,'62. 
Lake, Wm. D.. e. May 2.5,'61, died Oct. 7,'62. 
Lambert, C. C, e. May 25,'61, v. 
Leevv, J. T., e. Mav 2.3,'61. 
Lamb, W. H., e. May 25,'61. 
Mann, Isaac, e. May 25, '61. 
McConnell, W. J., e. May 2o,'61. 
Mutt. John M., e. Mav25,'62. 
Murrev, Wm., e. May 25,'61, died Oct. 31, '6L 
Morris", Edward, e. May 2.5,'61, d. May 3,'62. 
Norris, M. D., e. May ij,'61. 
Parks, C. E., e. May 2.5,'61, d. Oct. 20,'62. 
Penny, W., e. May 25,'61, d. May 5,'62. 
Pardiin, J. J., e. May 2.5,'61, d. June 13,'62. 
Russell, John, e. May 2.5,'61. d. April 2y,'62. 
Rodenbaugh, J. H., e. May 25,'61, d. May 13,'63. 
Shaw. Amos, e. May 25, '61. 
Steel. Geo. W., e. May 25,'61, d. April 27,'63. 
Small, L. H., e. May 25,'61. 
Saunders, Genend L., e. May 25,'61, d. May 

16, '62. 
Smith, F. M., e. 25,'61, v., m. o. May4,'66. 
Smith, J. C, e. May 25,'61. 
Schank, Jacob, e. May 25,'61, d. April 29,'62. 
Singleton. A. A., e. May 25,'61, d. April 2<),'6"2. 
Taylor, H. N., e. May 2.3,'61, d. Aug. 7,'62. 
Venable, C, e. May 25,'61, d. Sept. 20,'61, dis. 
Weaver, Eldridge, e. May 25,'61. 
Weaver. Jonathan, e. May 25, '61. 
Welsh, Barclav, e. Mav 25,'61. 
Wilmarth, C. S., e. May 25,'61, died May 6,'62. 
Wagner, A. H., e. May 25,'61, d. July 10,'61, dis. 
Wesifall. A. P., e. May •25,'6L 
Wilkins, Philander, e. May 25,'61. 
Culver. D. S., e. June 1, '61. 
Corzette, Peter, e. June l.'Gl, died May 6,'62. 
Davis, Joseph, e. June 1,'61, d. April ;^,'62. 
Henderson, Wm. C, e. Dec. 1S,"63, m. o. May 

4, '66. 
Jacobs, H. F., c. Junel,'61, d. May 11, '62. 
Neaglev Martin, e. Sept. 11, '61, kid. at Shiloh. 
Prinze," Christ., e. June 1,61, kid. at Shiloh. 
Powell, Al., e. June 24,6], v., m. o. May 4,'66. 
Post, Harrison, e. July 26.'61. 
Perinc. J. L.. c. Aug. 6.'62, d. April 27.'63. 
Palmer. H. C, e. Dec. 31, '63. m. o. May 4,'66. 
Rust, John, e. May 2o,'61. 

Shepherd. Wm., e. June 1,'61, died May 31,'62. 
i While, Milton, e. June 1,'61. 
White, F. M..e. June 1, '61. 
Walling. J. M., e. Dec. 28.'63, m. o. May 4,'66. 
Fogg, David W., e. May 25, '61, in Co. E. 
Newton, Walter, e. Ma"y 25,'61, in Co. E. 





Leonard F. Ross, e. May 13, '61, promoted col. 
Thomas A. Boyd, e. M ly 13, '61, res. April 24, '62. 
\Villiam W. Hull, e. May 25, '61, m. o. June'64. 
First Lieutenants. 

AsiasWillison, c. M.iv 1:>,'61, res. April 18, '62. 
M S. Kimhall. e. May 20,'61, pro. eapt. Co. C. 
Wm. C. Stockdale, e. May 2.5, '61, m. o. June, '64. 
Second Lieutenant. 

Wm. E. Yarnell, e. May25,'61, pro. 1st. lieut. 
Co. E.,8th regt. 


.Tames J. Hall, e. May25.'61, d. May 13,, '62. 
Chauncey Blaek, e. May 25,'61, pro. 1st. lieut. 


Christian D. Bliss, e. May 25, '61. 

C. B. Tt>mpkiiis, e. Mav25,'61. 
L. W. Potts, e. May 25,'61, v. 

D. G. Campbell, e. May 25,'61, died Sept. 12, 



Bakeu, Greenbury, e. May 25,'51, d. April 20'62, 

Birger, .1. S., e. May 25, '61, promoted. 

Ba.sor, John, e. May 25, '61. died Mar. 8, '62, 

Beeson, J. A., e. May 25,'61, d. Oct. 26,'62. 

Bennett, John, e. May 25, '61. 

Bjrrys, J. B., e. May 25,'61, d. July 22,'6'2. 

Bovven, Evan, e. Mav 25, '61. 

Brooks, N. C, e. May 25, '61. d. Dec. '20, '62. 

Buck, J. H., 0. Miy 25,'61, d. July 22,'62. 

Birch, A. W., e. May 25,'61, v.. pro. 1st Lieut. 

Boadownie, S. M., e. May 25,'61, d. May 13,'62. 

Cappee. Toliias, e. May 25,'61. 

Carey, Patrick, e. Mav25,'61, v.,m.o. Mav 4, '66. 

Chillis, J. K., e. May 25, '61, died May ]5,'62. 

Cunningham, T H., e. May 25, '61, trans, to sun- 
boat service. 

Donnellv, John, e. May 25, '61. 

Day, C. M.. e. May 2.5, '61. 

Dickenson, E. J., e. ]May25,'6l. 

Glacken, E. F., e. May 25, '61, v., m.o. May 4, '66. 

Goodman, Thos., e. May 2.5,'61. v, 

Gray, J. A., e. Mav 25. '61. 

Hnffuer, Wm. J., e. Mav 22.'61. 

Ham, R.W., e. May 25,'61, d. June 29,'62, wnds. 

Harris, James, c. M ly 2i),'61, trans, to gun-boat. 

Hassoii, H. C., e. MaV 25, '61. 

Jones, S. M., e. May 25,'61. 

Kent, J. F., e. .May 25.'61. 

Kent, Divid, e. M.iy 22,'61, died April 14,'62, 

Kent, E. Y., e. Mav25,'6L 

Kindall, J. K., e. May 25.'61, d. May 2.'62. 

Layton, Thomas, e. May 25,'6I, kid at Fred- 
"erickston. Mo., Oct. 21, '61. 

Lewis, A. H., e. May 25, '61. 

Love, Archil.iald, e. Mav25,'62. 

Ma.xwell, J. T., e. May 25.'61. 

Mixwell, J. L., e. May 25, '61. 

McClay, Samuel, e. Mav 25. '61. 

McDowell, J. R., e. Mav25,'61. 

Messplay, G. 8., e. May 25,'61. d. Aug. 6,'62. 

Millis,)n, John, e. May 25, '61. 

Moranville, Eli, e. May 25, '61. 

S'elson, Thomas, e. Mav 25, '61, trans, to gun- 

Pixley, Thiddeus, e. May 25,'61, d. June 20,'61. 

Pricket, Nicholas, e. May 25, '61, died March 

Roatson, J. V., e. May 25, '61, v. 

Sevier, Noah, e. Mav 25.'61, v. 

Shiner, G. W., c. May 2.5,'61, died April 4,'62, 

Slack, J. T. Jr., e. May 25.'61, v., d. Dec. 19,'65. 

Snell, Samuel, e. May 25,'61. 

Steuson, Alfred, e, May 25,'61, d. July 26,'62. 

Smith, James T., e. Mav 25,'61, d. June 20/62. 

Trite, W. H., e Mav 25,'61, d. May 5, '62. 

Waddell. O. B., e. Mav 25, '61. 

Walling, Eli, e. May 25,'61, d. May 13,'62. 

Weaver, T.M., e. May 25, '61. v., m.o. May 4, '66. 

Wheeler, Samuel, e. May 25, '61. 

Walker, F. M., e. Mav 25,'61, d. Mar. S,'62. 

White, C. W., e. Mav25,'61. 

Wilson, J. W., e. May 25,'62. 

Westfall, O. C, e. May 25,'61, d. Nov. 4,'61. 

Woolfolk, A. C, e. Mav 25,'6]. 

Wilson, J. N., e. May 2.5,'61, d. Aug. 14,'62. 

Zepjierer, W. H., e. May 25, '61. 

Barney, H. C., e. May 26,'61, m. o. May 4,'66. 

Black, J. n., e. May 28,'61, d. Mar. 10,'63. 

Brick. J. E., e. June 26, '61. 

Barber, Geo., e. Dec. 17,'63, m. o. May4,'66. 

Bush, Sampson, e. Dec. 12, '63, m. o. May 4, '66. 

Cline, H. L. D., e. June 1, '61, d. May 2,'62. 

Edwards, J. W. 

Edwards, W. O., e. Nov. 28, '63, m. o. June 

13, '65. 
Foote, G. M.. e. Oct. 15,'61, died Mar. 28,'62. 
Griffith, Edward, e. Feb. 25, '64, m.o. June 5, '6.5. 
Hill, J. B.,e. Aug. r2,'61. 
Hill, Henry B., e. Sept. 25, '61. 
Humphrey, W. H., e. June 1,'61. 
Herrill, D. H., e. Dec. 7,'63. 
Krider, John, e. Feb. 15,'64. m. o. Mav 4, '66. 
Locke, W. E., e. May 26,'61, died Nov. 18,'61, 

McCammy, D. W.,e. May 28,'61. v., m. o. Mav 

4, '66. 
McConnell, J. L., e. May28.'61. 
Morgan, R. A., e. Dec. 7. '63. 
McCrasky, Sabron, e. Dec. 3, '63, m. o. April 

19, '66. 
Norman, S. H., e. June 1,'61, d. Nov. 10, '62. 

Rcsor, J. W., e. June 1,'61. 
Siever, Levi. e. Jtme 1,'61, v. m. o. May 4, '66. 
Smith, J. W., e. Oct. 21, '61, v. m. o. ^iay 4,'66. 
Shaw, S. 

Slack, W. H., e. Dec. 19,'63. 
Smith, A., e. Feb. 2.'64, m. o. May 24,'65. 
Seiver, Jacob, e. Feb. 1,'64, m. o. May 4, '66. 
Weaver, R. G., e. Feb. 1.'61, died Dec. 4.'64. 
Willis, B. F., e. Feb. 1, '64. 
Yarnell, J. H., e. June 1,'61. 



Thomas, Wm., e. Mar. 10, '65. 

Belloss, Amos, e. Mar. 7, '65, m. o. Dec. 16,'65. 

Thomas, Robert, e. Mar. 10, '65, m. o. Dec. 

16, '65. 
Wilcox, Geo., e Mar. 7, '65. 
Bellass, Peter, e. Mar. 7, '65, died April 4, '65. 
Mahoney, John, e. Oct. 3, '64. 



Gilson, Charles B., e. Mar. 8,'64, m. o. Dec. 

16, '65. 
Greer, D. B., e. Feb. 10,'65, m. o. Dec. 16,'65. 
Knock, Samuel, e. Dec. 16, '63. 


Brvant, M. A., e. Oct. 10,'64, m. o. Oct. 10,'6.5. 
Dadv, Owen, e. Oct. 10,'64, m. o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Dongla.s, C. W., e. Oct. 10,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'6.5. 
Gove, Joel, e. Oct. 10,'(54, m. o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Lindslev, W. J., e. Oct. 10,'64, m. o. Oct. 10.'65. 
Lovejov, Ami, e. Oct. 10,'64, m, o. Oct. 10,'6.5. 
Mitchell, J. F., e. Oct. 10,'64, m. o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Stime, W. E., e. Oct. 10,'64, m. o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Whitney. A. B., e. Oct. 10,'64. 
Washburn, Volnev, e. Oct. 10,'64, m. o. Oct. 

10, '6.5. 
Hall, H, W., e. Oct. 10, '64, m. o. Oct. 10, '65. 



26tli IXFANTRY. 

Oregon-. B. F., e. Aug. 23/61. v.. m. o. July 

20, '"65. 
Bates, G. D., e. Jan. •25,'64, in Co. C, m. o. July 

20, '66. 


John B. Bruner, e. Jan. 28,"62, pro. Major. 

Beers, W. R.. e. Dee. 16.'61. died Aug. 11,"63. 
Onion. M. P.. e. Dec. 18.'61, died Aug. 20.'63. 
Roekhold, L. C, e. Dec. 30,'Cl. 
Robiii.«on, W. G.. e. Dec. 18,'61. 
Shook, J. M.. e. Aug. 12,'61, Co. E, 27th Regt. 
Cox, John, e. Aug. 12, '61, Co. E, 27th Regt. 
Musselman, G., e. Aug. 12.'61, Co. E. 27th Regt. 
Perkins, R. J., e. Mar. 21. '64. 


was organized at Camp Butler, August, '61. 
It proceeded, Aug. 28. to Thebes: Sept. 9, to 
Bird's Point. Mo. ; Oct. 2. to Fort Holt, Ky. : 
Jan. 31, "62, moved to Paducah, Ky. ; Feb. .5, 
moved up Tennessee river; Feb. 6, took part 
in the capture of Forts Henry and Heiman ; 
Feb. 13, a detachment of 48 men and 12 officers 
met the enemy (.500 strong) at Little Bethel 
Church, and immediately attacked and routed 
them. Arrived at Pittsburg Landing Mar. 17. 
It wa.s assigned to a position in the Peach 
Orchard. April 6, they repulsed the attacks of 
the enemy, holding its position from 8 A. M. 
to 3 P. M. On the mortiing of the 7th. it held 
a position on the right of the line, and was 
hotly engaged until the battle closed and the 
rictory was won. During these two, long, 
trying, bloody days, this regiment behaved 
nobly, and its lines were never broken nor was 
it driven back by the enemy, though often 
most hea-vily pressed. The regiment sustain 
ed the fearful of 2.39 men killed and wound, 
ed: was engaged in the siege of Corinth dur- 
ing the mouth of May, '62 ; marched to Mem- 
phis, arriving July 21, '62; marched Sept. 6, 
reaching Boli%'ar, 14th; Oct. 5, engaged in bat- 
tle of Matamora, losing 97 men, killed, wound- 
ed and missing: returned to Bolivar Oct. 7; 
Dec. .30, were assigned to duty of guarding rail- 
road from HoUy Springs to Waterford, Miss. : 
was engaged in the siege of Vicksburg from 
June 11 to July 4, '63. On the 12th of July, 
"63. near Jackson. Miss., the 28th, 41st and -5:^ 
niinois and 3rd Iowa lufantrj-, not exceeding 
800 men, were ordered to charge across a level 
open cornfield, some six hundred yards, and 
carry a strong line of the enemy's work;-, 
mounting 12 guns and manned by at least 
2,000 men. The brigade swept gallantly for- 
ward, under a destructive fire of grape, can- 
ister and minie l^ullets. The enemy ap- 
I)earing upon both flanks as it reached the 
ditch, it was compelled to fall back, with a loss 
of more than haif of the rank and file killed and 

wounded; out of the 128 men of this regimen 
engaged, 73 were killed and wounded and 16 
taken prisoners. The regiment remained at 
Natchez during the latter part of '63. doing pro- 
vost guard duty. The regiment re-enlisted 
Jan. 4, "64. May 18, proceeded to Illinois for 
veteran furlough; rettiming, arrived at 
Natchez July 8: were engaged in several ex- 
peditions; Oct. 10, was consolidated into four 
companies; was engaged in the siege of Span- 
i.<h Fort, losing 14, killed and woundpd, in- 
cluding two captains; was re\iewed by Chief 
Justice Chase June 3, '6-5. 

Number ofmen at organization 761 

Recruits •. 959 


Commissioned oflScers killed 9 

" wounded 19 

" " discharged 49 

" . " dismissed 4 

" '• died of disease 2 

" " transferred 3 

Enlisted men killed .52 

" died of wounds 34 

'• ■' wounded 265 

'■ " missing in action 17 

'• " killed accidentally 5 

" died of 139 

'• discharged 445 

transferred 18 


Hinman Rhodes, e. Aug. 17, '61, m. o. Mar. 15. 

Lieutenant Colonel. 

Edwin P. Durell. e. Aug. 15,'61, m. o. Mar. 
15. '66. 

Thomas A. Ralston, e. .\ug. 17,'61, m. o. Oct. 


James C. Duulap. e. Aug. 15,'61, m. o. Mar. 
1.5, '66. 

Sergeant Major. 

Da%'id Branson. 

Wm. D. Cox, e. Jan. 8.'62, v. m. o. Mar. 15.66. 
Commissari/ Sergeant. 

Robert Blair. 
John R. Patrick. 

Hospital Steward. 
Oliver AVood, e. Sept. 1.'61, v. m. o. >rarch. 15. 


Second Lieutenant. 
John R. Easley, m. o. Mar. 15,'66. 

3. A. Blair, e. Aug. 1,'61, d. Aug. 26,'64. 

J. P. Smith, e. Aug. 1, '61, trans, to U. S. Narv. 

J. M. Smith, e. Aug. 1.'61. d. Aug. 26.'64. 


Allen, G. W., e. Aug. 1.'61. v. m. o. Mar. 6,'66. 

Brewer, J. S., e. Aug. 1,'61, v. m. o. Mar. 1.5,'66. 

Crosbv, D. M., e. Aug. 1,'61. 

Carv, F. M., e. Aug. 1,'61, d. Mar. 28, '62, dis. 

Dutro. J. B.. e. Aug. 1.'61, v. 

France, W. L., e. Aug. 1,'61. v. died Feb. 28,'64. 

Fisher, John. e. Aug. l."61, d. May 7,'62, dis. 

Hanks. J. A., e. Aug. 1,'61, v. pro. 2d Lieut. 

Co. E. 
Hedge, Richard, e. Aug. 1,'61, died. 



Newton, D. W., e. Aug. 1,'61, kid. at Shiloh. 

Strokes, Wm., e. Aug. 1,'61, v. m. o. Mar. 1.'),'66. 

Smith, W. P., e. Aug. 1,'61. 

Wilcox, B. F., e. Aug. 1,'61. 

Walling, E. P., e. Aug. ],'61, m. o. Aug. l(;,'t;4. 

Williainsun, J. A., e. Aug. 1,'61, v. ni. o. Mar. 

Davis, Lukins, e. Sept. 27, '61, v. m. o. Mar. 

Schoolcraft, Benj., e. Aug. 17,'61, died Oct.l,'(i:!. 
Davis, J. G., e. Aug. 22, '61, v. in Co. G. 
Moore, J. G., e. Aug. 22,'61. in Co. G. 


First Lieutenant.. 
Isaiah Denness, e. Aug. 17, '61; term e.K.'W. 

Second Lieutenant. 
J. B. Carithers, e. Aug. 15,'61, resigned Aug. 
8, '63. 


J. Q. Ludlum, e. Aug. 15,'61, m. o. Aug. 26,'64. 

C. R. Watkins, e. Aug. 15, '61, v. 

Wm. H. Barrow, e. Aug. 15, '61, died of wnds. 

April 26,'62. 
Thomas Barrow, e. Aug. 15, '61, m. o. Aug. 

26, '64. 
William H. Wier, e. Aug. 15,'64, wnd: d. Dec. 

SI, '62. 


Arnold. J. M.. e. Aug. 15,'61, v. 

Aten, Henry, e. Aug. 15, '61. d June 1'.).'62, dis. 

Atherton, James, e. Aug. 15,'61, v. 

Barrow, Jinken, e. Aug. 15.'61, m. o. Aug.16,'64. 

Burton, Lemuel, e. Aug. 15, '61. 

Carter, John, e. Aug. 15, '61, v. m. o. Mar.l5,'i)6. 

Dollar, Wm., e. Aug. 1.5,'61. 

Easley, D. M., e. Aug. 15,'61, v. m. o. Mar.l5,'6(;. 

Etnire, Samuel, e. Aug. 15,'61, d. Oct. 2,'62, 

Farrand, James, e. Aug. 15,'61, v. 
Hill, George, e. Aug. 15, '61. 
Howard. S. M., e. Aug. 15,'61. v. 
House, B. F., e. Aug. 15,'61, v. 
Hall, F. A., e. Aug. 15,'61, d. Aug. 16,'62. dis. 
Jacob, J. A., e. Aug. 15, '61. 
Kelso, John, e. Aug. 15, '61, d. Aug. 16, '62, dis. 
Ludlum, Alma, e. Aug. 15"61, m. o. Aug.26,'64. 
Mercer, Charles, e. Aug. 15, '61, d. Aug. 2,'62, 

Moore, J. W., e. Aug. 15, '61. 
Musgrove, S. R., e. Aug. 15, '61, m. o. Sept.8,'64. 
Musgrove, B. F., e. Aug. 16, '61, m. o. Aug. 

•26, '64. 
Morrison, G. V., e. Aug. 15,'61, v., kid. Sept. 

20, '64. 
Moses, Samuel, e. Aug. 15,'61. d. Oct. 22,'62, 

Powell, J. C, e. Aug. 15, '61. 
Pettinger, William, e. Aug. 15, '61, kid. at 

Stevens, Robert, e. Aug. 15, '61, m. o. Aug. 

Sapp, John, e. Aug. 15, '61. 
Thompson, John, e. Aug. 15,'61, m. o. Aug. 

Thomas, G. W., e. Aug. 15, '61, v., m. o. Mar. 

Wilson, Charles, e. Aug. 15, '61, m. o. Aug, 

26, '64. 
Wilkins, Ralph, e. Aug. 15,'61. 
Wood, Kli, e. Aug. 15,'61, kid. at Shiloh. 
Bedwell, Bouj., e. Mar. 21, '64, m. o. Mar. 15, '66. 
Brfiwn, Peter, e. Jan. 18, '62, m. o. June 19, '65. 
Brick, G. W., e. Mar. 24, '64, m. o. Mar. 15, '66. 
Cooper, M. T., e. Mar. 24, '64, m. o. Mar. 15, '66. 
Coonev, Geo., e., Sep. 6, 61, m. o. Sept. 4, '64. 
Cameron, J. H., e. Jan. 14, '64, d. May 12,'65, 

Denness, Charles, e. Oct. 11, '61. 
Dickinson, Geo., e. Nov. 14, '61. 

Dobbins, Franklin, e. Jan. 8,'62, died of wnds 

Oct. 14, '62. 
Galbreath, William, e. Aug. 8, '61, d. Jan. 28, 

'63, dis. 
Hallidav, J. C, e. Mar. '21, '64, m. o. Mar.15,'66. 
Hermoii, Calvin, e. Aug. H,'61, kid at Shiloh. 
Hermon, J. P., e. Sept. L'til. 
Ingram, Simp.son, e. Sept. 1,'61. 
Knowles, Noah. e. Mar. •29,'64. m. o. Mar.l5.'66. 
Moore, Wra., e. Mar. 14, '64, m. o. Mar. 15,'6«5. 
Miller, Michael, e. Mar. 26,'64, m. o. Mar.15,'66. 
Morrison, C. B., e. Mar. 21, '64, m. o. Mar.15,'66. 
Mc.Mullen, Horace, e. Sep. 1,'61, m.o. Sep.4,'64. 
Price. W. M., e. Sept. 27,'61, died Sept. 2,'63. 
Reese, G. W., e. Sept. 1,'61. m. o. Sept. 4,'64. 
Sturgeon, Simpson, e. July 22, '61. 
Thompson, Charles, e. Feb. 30,'64, d. Jan. 18, 

'65, dis. 
Thompson, J. M., e. Mar. 21, '64, m. o. Mar. 

Thomas, Samuel, e. Sept. 1,'61, m. o. Sept. 4, '64. 
Thomas, Erastus, e. Sept. 1,'61, m. o. Sept.4,'64. 
Thomas, R. T., e. Sept. 1,'61. v.,m. o. Mar.16,'66. 
Wood, Aaron, e. Mar. 14, '64, m. o. Mar. 6, '66. 
Warner, Alfred, e. Sept. 1,61, m. o. Sept. 4, '64. 
Watt, Henrv, e. Oct. 28,'61, v., m. o. Mar.15,'66. 
Wilev, J. W., e. Sept. 1,'61, d. July 24,'62,wnds. 
Youst. Elijah, e. Sept. 1,'61, d. Oct. 22,'62, dis. 
Bateson, Geo., e. Mar. 10, '65, m. o. Mar. 10,'66. 
Hays, James, e. Mar. 10,'65, ra. o. Mar. 10, '66. 
Nelson, Edward, e. Mar. 10,'65. m. o. Mar.10,'66. 
Rutledge, Simon, e. Mar. 10, '65, m. o. Aug. 

11, '65. 
Wiley, J., e. Mar. 10, '65, m. o. Mar. 1C,'66. 



Xndn-w J. Pett>-, e. Aug. 27,'61, died Mar. 6'62. 


,fohn Smith, e. Aug, 27, '61, wnd. v. 
James H. Rogers, e.Aug. 27, '61, died April U. 
'62, wnds. 


('lift, E. M.-, e. Aug. 27,'61, v. m. o. Mar. 15,'66. 
Murphv, W. H. e. Aug. 27, '61. 
Mussie,"M. W., e. Aug. 27,'61, d. Oct. 20,'62, dis. 
Phrimraer, S., e. Aug. 27, '61, m. o. Aug. 26,'64. 
Rogers, Jackson, e. Aug. 27, '61. m. o. Aug. 

Rogers, J. L., e. Aug. 27, '61, m. o. Aug. 26,'64. 
Stevens, Joseph, e. Aug. 27, '61. 
Stambaugh, J., e. Aug. 27, '61, m.o. Aug. 26,'64. 
Voorkes, T. J., e. Aug. 27, '61. 
Voorkes, J. M., e. Aug. 27, '61, right arm shot 

off at Metamora. 
Craig, Wm., e. Jan. 5, '64. 
Hubbard, W. H., e. Mar. 1,'62, v. 
Turpin, Martin, e. Jan. 18,'64, died Feb. 12,'64. 
Miller, W. F., e. Feb. 1.5, '64. 
Eickelberger, J., e. Mar. 4, '65, m. o. Mar. 4, '66. 
Allen. Geo., e. Aug. 4,'62, in Co. F. 29th regt. 
Courtnev, R., e. Oct. 4,'r)4, in Co. A, 31st regt. 
Soaper, S.. e. Oct. 4,'64, in Co. A, 31st regt. 
Williams, J. J., e. Oct. 4, '64, in Co. A, 31st regt. 
Wages, Isaac, e. Oct. 4,'64, in Co. A, 31st regt. 
Murphy, J. E., e. Aug. 15, '61, in Co. I, 31st regt. 
Anderson, Henrv, e. Oct. 3, '64. 
Maloon. Wm., e. Oct. 4,'64, in Co. I, 32d regt. 
Wilcoxen, D., e. Jan. 8,'62, in Co. I, 32d regt. 

died Mav 1,'62. 
Mann, J., e. Oct. 5,'64, in Co. I, .3'2d regt. 
Mallon, Wm., e. Oct. 4, '64, in Co. I, 32d regt. 
Moore, David, e. Aug. 23,'61, in Co. E, 3.3d regt. 
Lines, W. H., e. Mar. 20,'65, in Co. C, 34th regt. 
DaCogan, E., e. Mar. 20,'65, in Co. G, 34th regt. 
Forrest, Daniel, e. July 3,'61, in Co. F, 35th 



Ammerman, A. A., e. Oct. 3, '64, in Co. E, pris. 



Bier. S. B., e. Oct. 4,'64, in Co. E. 
Chamberlain, Wm., e. Oct. 3, '64, in Co. E. 
Fig ltd, I)d\-id, e. Oct. 3,'64, in Co" E. 
Leigh, I., e. Oct. 3,'6t, in Co. E, died of wnds. 

Dec 7 '64. 
Shrevesi L., e. Oct. 4,'64, died Jan. 13,'65. 
Diinblrtzer. H., e. Oct. 14,'(>4, in Co. H. 
Fisher, I. B., e. Oct. 18,'64, in Co. H. 
Rav, Wni. W., e. Oct. 1.5,'64, in Co. H. 
Buckner, \V. E., e. Oct. 19.'f>4, died Jan. 15,'6.5. 
McBride, W. P., e. Oct. 14,'64, supposed to have 

Sayers, F. M., e. Oct. 14,'64, in Co. K. 



Brigg, Henn-, e. Aug. 1,'61. v. in. o. May 1.5, 

Cleaveland, Chas., e. Aug. 1,'61. v. m. o. May 

Cleaveland, James, e. Aug. 1,'61. v. m.o. Oct. 

Chadwick, W., e. Aug. 1,'61. kid, Oct. 4,'63. 

Carman, T. H., e. Aug. 1,'61. 

Hender, Vernon, e. Aug. 1,'61. m. o. Oct. 4,'64. 

Hawkin.'s, J. S., e. Aug. 1,'61. 

Jacobs, F. J., e. Aug. 1.'61. v. 

Morrell, W. C, e. Aug. 1,'61. v. pro. Q. M. ser- 

McCormifk, J., e. Aug. 1.'61. d. Nov. 16,'62. dis. 

Manner, G. B., e. Aug. 1,'61. kid. Mar. ",'62. 

Potter, A. J., e. Sept. 1,'61. 

Rowling, C. J., e. Aug. 1.'61. m. o. Oct. 4.'f4. 

Rich, Peter, e. Sept. i,'61. v, m. o. May l.'i.'fifi. 

Snuire.s, C. S., e. Aug. 1,'61. m. o. Sept. 20,'W. 

Ward, J. S., e. Aug. 1,'61. di^d Nov. 18,'61. 


G-illigor, W. H., e. .\ug. 19,'61. m. o Oct. 4, '64. 
Hill, C. F., e. Aug. l',t,'61. m. o. Sept. 10,'64, 
Maltby. C. c. Aug. l'.i,'61. m. o. Sept. l'.t,'64. 

:59th REGIMENT. 


Drake, J. C, e. Feb. 23,'64. m. o. Dec. 6,'6.'). 
Hiirvev. Henrv, e. Feb. i!l>,'64. m. o. Julv 17,'6.5. 
Letwiler, C, e. Feb. ■J9,'64. m. o. Dec. 6,'6.'). 
Lusk, P., e. Feb. 'i.'Ol. died at Andcrsonville. 
Mittimore, A., e. Feb. 29,'64 died Mar. 23,'64. 
Smith, A., e. Feb. 2,'64. d. Mav 6,'6.5. dis. 
Buttertield, F. L., e. Feb. 4,'64. ra. o. Mav 30, 

Gillmore, Wm., e. Aug. 7, '61, in Co. F. 41st 



Day, Geo., e. Aug. 20,'61. 

Biruett, James, e. .\ug. 3,'61. m. o. Feb. S,'6.">. 

(^hamberlain, Wm., e. Sept. 1.5,'61. leg ampu- 

Courtnev, H. H., e. Aug. 3, '61. v. m. o. Dec. 16, 

Corbin, Wm., e. Aug. 3,'61. d. Aug. 31, '62. 

Diiryea, J. W., e. Aug. 10, '61. v. 

Gibson, J. .\., e. Aug. 3, '61. wounded. 

Green, W. R., e. Aug. 10, '61. v. m. o. Aug. 3, 

Hoag, J., e. Aug. 29,'61. v. m. o. Dec. 16,'6.5. 

Johnson, W. H., e. Aug. 13, '61. 

Morse, W. C, e. Aug. 10,'61. m. o. June 3, '6.'). 

Oldham, J., e. July 13,'01. v. ra. o. Dec. 16,'6.j. 

Roberts. J. J., e Aug. 10,'61. d. for dis. 

Thompson, John, e. July 30,'61. v. m. o. Dec. 

Vogland, F. E, D., e. Aug, 27,'61. m. o. Sept. 
16,'64, ■ ' 


Was organized at Peoria, Aug. 16,'61. It pro- 
ceeded to Benton Barracks, Sept. 23; May 9, 
'62, was engaged at Farmington, Miss.; was 
engaged May 2<S, near Corinth, and at that city 
Oct. 3d and 4th, where they lost their brave 
Col. W. \. Thrush, while leading a charge. 
The regiment in this engagement 30 killed 
and over 100 wounded. May 14, '63, was en- 
gaged at Jackson, Miss. ; took part in the 
charge on the enemy's works at Vicksburg 
May 22, losing 12 killed and a large number 
wounded; wsisatthe battle of Pleasant Hill, 
La., April 9,'64. Returned to Yick.sburg May 
22. with Ge". Smith's command, after a cam- 
paign of nearly three months, in which they 
suffered almost unheard-of fatigue and priva- 
tions, many men dying from hardships. The 
47th met and defeated Gen. Marmaduke near 
Lake Chicat, in which they lost 11 killed and 
a number wounded. It was mustered out 
Jan., '66, at Selma, Ala. 


First Lieutenant. 
John W. Dodds, e. Aug. 25,'61. res. June 17, '62. 

John Watts, e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. Il,'ij4. 

James Parr. e. Aug. 16, '61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Irving C. Fox, e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
J. A. H. Speer, e. Aug. 16, '61. m. o.Oct. 11, '64. 
Reuben Edmonson, c. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 
11, '64. 


Baxter. John, e. Aug. 16, '61. 

Cunningham, Alex.,e. Aug. 16,'61. d. April 13, 

'63. dis. 
Comb.s, A. J., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Cain, John, e. Aug. 16, '61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Cozad, B. F., e. Aug. 16,'61. d. June 19.'62. di.s. 
Cook, C. C, e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Dyer, Martin, e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Edmonson, C. B., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, 

Fredrick, P., e. Aug. 16,'61. v. pro. 1st Lieut. 
Gray, D. H., e. Aug. 16, '61. died Nov. 6,'61. 
Glberson, D., e. Aug. 16, '61. 
Griffith. T., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Gladman, Amos. e. Aug. 16.'61. v. m. o. Jan. 

21, '60. 
Hirn, D. A., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Haptenstall, A. C, e. Aug. 16,'61. v. pro. Cap- 
Hart. James, e. Aug. 16,'61. died Oct. 22,'62. 
Harlan. Plato, e. Aug. 16,'6]. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Hail in, N. B., e. Aug. 16,'1>1. m. o. Oct. 11,'64. 
Jackson. J. A., e. Aug. 16,"61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Kirkeudall. Wm., e. Aug. 16,'61. v. 
Logan, Geo., e. Aug. 16, '61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
McFarland, John, e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11. 

Patton. Wm., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Dec. ]7,'64. 
Romine, S., e Aug. 16, '61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Stewart, S. G., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '&4. 
Toland, G. W., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. q. Oct. 11, '64. 
SulHvan, S. D., e. Aug. 16,'61. m. o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Sullivan, Elijah, e. Aug. 16, '61. v. m. o. Jan. 

21, '66. 
Thurman, S. H., e. Aug. 16.'61. d. Dec. 15,'62. 

Warriner, J. C, e. Aug. 16,'16. m. o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Wendall, J. R., e. Aug. 16.'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '64 



Hollistor, II. F., e. Av^. 2,'64. m. o. Jan. 21, '00. 
Stewart, Win., c .Sept. l,s,'(il. m. o. Aufi. l,s,'04. 
MfKonzie, .1. S., e. Aug. 18,'(il. <1. Jan. •J.'O:!. 

Sampson, J. T., e. Aug. 18,'61. d. Dw. 10,'01-. 

Simp.s.)n, C. J., o. Aug. 18,'0l. died Aug. 18,'63. 
Sampson, W. B., e. Aug. 18, '01. m. o. Get. 11, 

Fountain, Svmuel. 

Snvder, H. II., e. Aug. 21, '61. in Co. F. 
Wilmot, L. I)., e. Aug. 16,'Gl, in Co. G. m. o. 
Aug. 11, '04. 

coMPA:r Y I. 

Chadwick, Geo., e. Sept. 4,'61. m. o. Oct. 11, '04. 

D.ivis, J. 11., e. Sept. 4, '01. 

D.ift, W. II., e. Sep-. 4,'61, 

Galer, R., e. Sept. 4, '01. v. m. i\ Jan. 21, '00. 

Leeper, G. T., e. Sept. 4, '01. m. o. Get. 11, '04. 

Leeper. W. G., e. Sept. 4,'01. m. o. Get. 11, '01. 

Saunders, Henry, e. Sept. 4, '01. 

Stoddard, Israel, e. Sept. 4, '01. d. June 24, '02. 

Tullis, Daniel, e. Sept. 4.'01. died of vvds. Get. 



47th consolidated. 


John J. Bell, e. Fel). 24, '05. m. o. Jan. 21, '00. 
J. G. Thorn, e. Jlar. l,'0.i. m. o. Jan. 21, '00. 
Wm. Maxwell, e. !\Iar. 1,'0«. m. o. Jan. 21, '06. 

CuUey, John, e. Feb, 23, '65. d. Nov. 18, '05. dis. 
Dvwson, Rol)t., e. Feb. 21!, '()5. m. o. Jan. 21, '00. 
Davis, Joseph, e. Feb. 2:!, '65. m. o. May 23. '05. 
Fahee, Wni., e. Feb. 21, '65. m. o. Jan. 21, '66. 
G imble, J., e. Mar. 1,'65. m. o. Jan. 21,'0{i. 
Hendrieks, James, e. Mar. 1,'05. m. o. Jan. 21, 

Hendrieks, Wm., e. Feb. '23.'65. m. o. Jan. 21, 

Johnson, Levi, e. Feb. 25,'65. m. o. Jan. 21, '(iO. 
McKinney. J. G., c. Mar. 2, '65. m. o. Jan. 21, 

Ohern, M., e. Feb. 24,'65. m. o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Turl, F., e. Mar. 1,'65. m. o. Jan. '21, '06. 


Was organized in the mouth of August, 1861, 
by Col. Moses M. Bane. The .50th was engaged 
at Shiloh, April 61hand7th; engaged in the 
siege of Corinth, May, 1862. June 4 it pursued 
the enemy as far as Bjoneville, Miss., return- 
ing to Corinth June 10. The regiment wsus en- 
gaged in a number of battles and skirmishes, 
during their service. About three-fourdis of 
the regiment re-eidisted as veterans and were 
mustered Jan. 16,'04, when they left for Illinois 
for veteran furlough. The 50th was one of the 
best drilled regiments in the service. In the 
prize drill July 3,'05, with the G3d Illinois, 7th 
Iowa and .50th Illinois competing, the latter 
won the prize banner. They were mustered 
out of service July 13, 1865. 

Lieutenant- Colo n el. 

Mer\-in B. Converse, e. Sept. 10, '61, m. o. July 
13, '65. 

Walter S. Wood, e. Aug. 26, '64, res. April 14, '65. 

QtmrfermaMfr Sergeant. 
\. J. Ransom, e. Sept. 10,'01,d. Julvl5,'62, dis. 
Miller, Wm., Co. F, e. Nov. 14, '64. 
Randall, Stephen, Co. F, e. Nov. 14, '64, m. o. 

July 13, '65. 
Seott, Joseph, Co. F, e. Nov 14, 'M, m. o. July 

13, '65. 


Jacob Fleming, e. Sept. '25,'61, m. o. July 13,'65. 

First Lieutenants. 

E. P. Birrett, e. Dec. 12.'61, res. July 13,'62. 
Lewis Zolman, e. Sept. lO.'Ol, res. Aug. 31, '62. 
James D. Graham, e. Sept. 25, '61, m. o. July 
13, '65. 

Second Lieutenant.^. 
J. B. Strode, e. Sept. lO.'Ol. m. o. July 13,'65. 
A. S. Wright, e. Dec. 14,'61, kid Gct.'5,'64. 


J. W. DeVaney, e. Sept. 10,'61. m. o. July 13,'G5. 


Wm. Gustin, e. Oct. 1,'61, d. May 6,'fi2, dis. 
J. A. Gustin, e. Oct. 1,'61, m. o. Oct. 7,'64. 
O. S. Hunger, e. Sept. 10,'61. 

Burgett, W. C, e. Sept. 10,'61, m. o. Sept. '27,'64. 

Bvbee, C. H.,e. Oct. 1.'61. 

Blain, J. H., e. Sept. 19,'61, m. o. July 13,'65, 

Binghman, W. H., e. Get. 8,'61, died July 19.'02. 
Comptou, J. J., e. Sept. 24, '01, m. o. Sept. 27, '04. 
Chicken, N. D., e. Get, 12,'01, m. o. Oct. 7,'64. 
Culver, Solon, e. Oct. 8, '61, m. o. Oct. 7, '64, 

Fridley, A. T., e. Oct. 1,'61, m. o. Sept. 27,'64. 
Fate, Martin, e. Oct. l.'Ol, m. o. Sept. 27, '64, 

Fate, G. R., e. Sept. lO.'Ol, m, o. Sept. 27,"04. 
(Jraham, J. S., e. Sept. 25,'01, d. July 1,'02, dis. 
Holt, Ira, e. Sept. lU.'Ol, m. o. Sept. •27,'64. 
Jennings, G. W., e. Sept. 24,'01, d. June 17, '02, 

Knock, W. R., e. Oct. 1,'61, m. o. July 13,'65, 

Knock, Bruce, e. Oct. 1,'01, m. o. Sept, 27, '64. 
Leslie, T. H., e. Sept. 10,'61, pro. hos. steward, 

U. S. A. 
Moon, D. R., e. Sept. ]0,'01, m. o. Sept. 27, '64. 
McQueen, T., e. Oct. 1,'01, v. m. o. July 13,'65, 

McGee, Terry, e. Oct. 8,'01, v. m. o. July 13,'65, 

sergt . 
Nolan, Augustus, e. Oct. 8,'61, m.o. Oct. 7,'64. 
Nolan, John, e. Oct. 8,'61, d. June 21, '62, wnds. 
Overton, C. E., e. Sept. lO.'Ol, iiro. 1st sergt. 1st 

Ala. Inf. 
Quigley. E. J., e. Sept. 10,'61, m. o. Sept. 27,''64. 
Reese, H, B., e. Sept. 10, '01, m. o. Sept. 27, '64. 
Reese. J. W., e. Sept. lO.'Ol, m. o. Sept. 27.'04. 
Wheeler, A. O., e. Sept. lO.'Ol, m. o. Sept. 27,'04. 
Wyant, I. F., e. Oct. 8,'01, m. o. Oct. 7,'64. 
Zolman, A. P., e. Oct. 8,'61, kid. May 16,'62. 
Anderson, R. R., e. Mar. 7, '65, m. o. Jidy 13, '65. 
Anthony. Wm., e. Mar. 9, '65, m. o. July 13. '65. 
Anderson, J. S., e. Jan. 26, '64, d. Mar. 7,"'65, dis. 
Bogue, Wm., e. Feb. 8,'64, m. o. July 13,'65, 

Bean, Joseph, e. Feb. 4, '64, m. o. Jtilv 13, '65. 
Berry, Tlios. A., e. Feb.2.5,'64, m. o. .tuly 13,'65. 
Bradley, Samuel, e. April 1, '65, m.o. Jidv 13, '65. 
Chicken, John, e. Jan. 20, '05, m. o. July 13, '05. 
Conn, G. W., e. Mar. 7, '05, abs. sick at m. o. of 

Dor.sey, N. H., e. Mar. 7,'G5, m. o. July 13,'65. 
Graham, J. S., e. Feb. 8,'64, m. o. July 13,'65, 

Gustine, Wm., e. Mar. 7,'65, m. o. July 13,'65. 
Graham, J. T., e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Ju'lv 13,'65. 
Gregory, D. B., e. Feb. 10, '65, m. o. July 13, '65. 



Hoopes, John.'e. Jan. 26, '(U. m. o. Julvl3,'65. 
Knock, .T. N.,e. Feb. 2.5, '64, m. o. July 13,'6.5. 
Lamb, E. H., e. Mar. 7,'6.i, m. o. Julv 13, "0.1. 
Mathe\v.s, J. T., Feb. 1CI,'6.5, m. o. July 13,'6.5. 
>rcMullen, Rufus. e. Mar. 7, '65, m.o. Julv 

Pickering, A. L., e. Jlar. 9, '6.5, m. o. July 13, '65. 
Parks, James, e. Mar. 7, '65, m. o. July 13, '65. 
Pickering, J., e. Feb. 10, '65, m. o. June i6, '65. 
Strode, .\. H., e. Feb. 8,'64, m. o. Julv 13,'6.5. 
Strode. \V. .«., e. Feb. 10,'65, m. o. July 13,'65. 
Allder, I. F., e. Nov. 14, '64, died Jan. 18,'65. 
Cory, J. W., e. Nov. 17, '64, m. o. July 13, '65. 
Klemj), A., e. Nov. 30, '64, m. o. Julv 13,'65. 
Marshall, J. M., e. Nov. 14,'64, m.o."july ],'65. 
Poe, Anthony G., e. Nov. 14, '64, died Jan. 12, 



Was organized December 24, '61, and on Febru- 
ary 14,'62, was ordered to Cairo, 111., Col. Cum- 
mings commanding. April 7, the regiment 
moved against Island No. 10: on the <Sth pur- 
sued the enemy, compelling the surrender of 
f!eu. Mackall. On the 11th embarked and 
moved down the Mississippi to Osceola, Ark., 
and disembarked on the 22d. The 51st partic- 
ipated in the battles of Farmington, siege of 
Corinth, Nashville, Stone River, Chickamauga, 
Roc-ky Face Ridge, Kenesaw Mountain and 
many others. They were in the thickest of the 
fight at (^hickamauga, sustaining heavy loss, 
nearly one-half of the number engaged being 
killed or wounded. They also sustained a 
severe loss at Kenesaw Mountain. The regi- 
ment was heavily engaged in the battle of 
Nashville, December 1, where they lost 150 men 
in killed, wounded and mi.ssing. The .51st was 
mustered out at Camp Irwin, Texas. .'Septem- 
ber 25, 1S65, and arrived at Camp Hutler, Octo- 
lier 15, 1865, where they received final pay and 



Henrv Augustine, e. Feb. '25, "65, m. o. Sept. 

First Lirutcnant. 
Geo. A. Turner, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. •25,'65. 

^ Second Lieutenant. 

Samuel Nntt, e. Feb. •23,'65, m. o. Sept. •25,'65. 
First Sergeant. 
» \V. I). Johnson, e. Feb. '25, '65, m.o. Sept. 25, '65. 

.T. P. Fox, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. '25, '65. 
W. H. Brown, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. •25,'65. 
George Black, e. Feb. '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
.las. H. Burk, e. Feb. 25,'6.5, m. o. Sept. •25,'6.5. 

Jesse Beason, e. Feb. 25, "65, m. o. Sept. 25.'65. • 
John Newton, e. Feb. 25, '(io, m. o. Sept. 25.'65- 
J. M. Putnam, e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25, '65- 
Malen Blanvett, e. Feb. 25, '65, m.o. Sept. 25, '65 
Geo. Sebree, e. Feb, '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 25. '65. 
Philander Wilkins, e. Feb. '25,'65, m. o, Sept. 

2.5, '65. 
Peter Walling, e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 


Theodore Wilson, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. 

W. E. Walgamot, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. 
•2.5, '6.5. 

Isaac V. Dean, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. '25, '65. 

Bailey, V. L., e. Feb. •25.'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Birkshire, J. C, e. Mar. 16,'65, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Baylor, J. R.. e. Feb. 25. '65, m. o. Sept. '25. '65. 
Birkshire, Hamilton, e. Mar. 13, '65, m. o. Aug. 

18, '65. 
Bringar, W. H., e. Mar. 20,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Barber, Robert, e. Mar. 16, '65, m. o. Sept. '25. 

'(55, corpl. 
Black, W. H., e. Feb. •25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Bryant, Daniel, e. Feb. 25,'65, m.o. Sept. 25,'65, 
Barber, Geo. W., e. Feb. •25,'65, m. o. Sept. 

■25, '65. 
Bennett, E., e. Feb. 2-5. '65, m. o. Sept. 25. '65. 
Bragg, J. F., e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. May 11, '65. 
Burkinshaw, Geo., e. Feb. '25,'65, m. o. Sept. 

25, '65. 
Blaine, James, e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Ball, Harrison, e. Feb. 25, '65, ni. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
Connelly, S. L., e. Feb. 25, '65, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Cisco. M. S.. e. Feb. 14, '65, died April 9,'6.5. 
Cox, John B., e. Mar. 20, '65, m. o. Sept. '25, '65, 
Conlin, Thos., e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. '25/65. 
Cooper, H. A., e. Feb. 25, '65, m, o. Sept. 25, '65. 
Davis, D. T., e. Feb. •25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
David.son. Wm., e. March 18, '65, m. o. Sept. 

'25, '65. 
Dewey, Frederick, e. Feb. 23, '65, m. o. Sept. 

25, '65. 
Dunkin. Joseph, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Aug. 9,'65. 
Edgar, Thomas, e. Feb. "25, ,65, m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
Fox, J. P.. e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. '25, '65. 
Ford, Thomas, e. Feb. '25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25.'65. 
Grovendyke, Garrett, e. Mar. 13, '65, died Aug. 

6, '65. 
Garrison, J. \V., e. Mar. 20,'65. 
Greenslit, Hubert, c. Feb. '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 

25, '65. 
Harris, Isaac, c. Mar. 20,'65, m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
John.son, Erick, e. Feb. '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Jones, W. W.. e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Jones, James, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Knapi>, J. D., e. Feb. '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Luther. John, e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. '25, '65. 
.McICinney. E., e. >Iar. 14, '65, in. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
Moore, Ezekiel, e. Fel). 14, "65, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
McCreary, W. H., e. Feb. '25. '65, m. o. Aug. 

McCreary, J. L., e. Mar. •20,'65, m.o. Sept. 15,'65. 
-McKinlev, M. G., Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Mille, G.'W., e. Feb. •2.5.'65. 
Mills, Andrew, e. Feb. •25.'65, m. o. Sept. •25,'65. 
Oatman, Jacob, e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Provard, Robert, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Aug. 

9, '65. 
Provard. C. W., e. Feb. 25,'65, died April 2,'65. 
Pickett, W. W., e. Feb. •25,'65, m. o. May 23,'65. 
Pretman, J. W., Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Pavton, Elijah, e. Feb. 25,'65, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Rooks. William, e. Feb. •25,'65, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Rawalt. John, e. Mar. 6, '65, m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
Schooley, Benj., c. Feb. •25,'65, m.o. Sept. •25,'65. 
Sebree, Preston, e. Feb. 25,'65m. o. Sept. '26,'65. 
Singleton, Milton, e. Feb. '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 

25, '65. 
Scott, Robert, e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'6o. 
Scrivner, Leander, e. Mar. ■20,'65, m. o. Sept. 

25, '65. 
See. David, e. Mar. 17,'65, m. o. Sept. 8, '65. 
Sylva, T. W., e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Sept. •25,'65. 
Wilke, J. H., e. Feb. 25,'65, m. o. Mav 23,'65. 
Wilcoxen, W. H., e. Feb. '25, '65, m. o. Sept. 

•25, '65. 
Ward, E. L., e. Mar. 18,'65, m. o. Sept. 15,'65. 
Wages. John, e. Fel). 2o,'65, m. o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Wise, Jacob, e. Feb. 25,'6o, m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 

Eldridge, J. B., Co. B, e. Dec. 24, 'G3, kid. June 
20, '64. 



Thos. McCor-.nick, corpl., Co. F, e. April l.').'Gl>, 

m. o. June 16,'65. 
Jones, Warren, Co. F, e. Mav .S,'62. 
Kellv, F. M., Co. F, e. A))ril 24,'62, m. o. June 

16, '65. 
Wisner, W. E., e. Dee. 2J.'63, Co. I, 52d Inf., 

m. o. July 0,'65. 
Williams, E.'C, e. Feb. 6,'(;4, Co.I, 52d Inf., m. 

o. June 24, "Go. 


Mann, C. W., Co. A., v. Oct. 19, '64, sub. ni. o. 

July 22, '6.5. 
Sommers, A. J., Co. A.,e. Dec. 7, '64, sub. m. o. 

July 22, '65. 


Edwin Vaucler\-ere, Coriil. e. Jan. ;<,'62. klii. 

Oct. 5, '62. 
Cameron, A. A., e. Jan. 9, '62. d. Aiil. 2o,'63. 

Elliott, I. v., e. Jan. '.),'6i died Apl. 10,'62. 
Elliott, Jasper, e. Jan. '.»,'62. died June 21,'62. 
MeCabe, John, e. Jan. 1(),'62. died Apl. 12,'62. 
Shields, J. B., e. Jan. '.i.'62. ni. o. Fel). It'i.'ii.'y. 
Warner, S. 1)., e. Jan. lo.'lil. ni. o. July 22, '65. 
Carr, William, e. :Mar. 11, '62. died July S,'62. 
Kirk, Wm., e. Mar. 10, '62. d. Oct. 16, '62. dis. 
Keys, T. J., e. Mar. 8,'62. 
Kirk, George, e. Mar, 9,'65. m. o. July 22, '65. 
Lovell, George, e. Mar. .s,'62. m. o. 'Slur. 26, '65. 
Loyell, Sam'l., e. Mar. S,'62. m. o. July 15, '65. 

Marble, H. A., e. Mar. 8, '62. 
Richardson, Oils, e. Mar. 1, '62. d. June is, '62. 

Ellison, Silas, e. Dec. 7, 'til. ni. o. July 22, '65. 
MeCune, H. S., e. Mar. 1,'62. . 
Sandeison, J. C. e. Mar. 11, '62. d. Dec. 24, '62. 

Niblack, J. M.,e. Apl. 15,'65. m. o. May 8, '65. 
Tunderberk, D. H., e. Apl. 15, '65. m. o. May 8, 

Saffer, John F., e. Noy. 14, '64, Co. F., 3d Inf. 

m. o. July 22,, 65. 


Was organized at Camp Douglas, and mustered 
into service Oct. .31, 1861. Nov. 9, left Camp 
Douglas. Remained at Camp Benton until 
Jan. 12, 1862, when it was ordered to Paducah, 
Ky. On the morning of March 15 marched 
out with expedition from a point some 14 
miles above Pittsburg Landing, for the sur- 
prise and overthrow of Corinth. 

The opening of the battle, Sunday morning, 
found the regiment in posi tion with an effec- 
tive force of 873 men. Col. Stewart was 
wotxnded and 9 of the line offlcers, 3 of whom 
died of wounds; 102 enlisted men were killed 
and mortally wounded, and 161 wounded and 
taken prisoners. The regiment was with the 
army in advance on Corinth, and at Russell's 
house, May 17, lost, in skirmish, 8 men,— 2 
killed and 6 wounded. Entered Corinth May 
30; thence, \Ht\\ Gen. Sherman, westward 
along Memjihis and Charleston R. R. The 
regiment re-embarked with army, and was 
present and under fire at battle of Arkansas 
Post, Jan. 10 and 11, 1863, losing three men 
wounded. Was at Vicksburg in 1863, partici- 
pating in the tight. Participated in the siege 

of Jackson, Miss. On 30th Oct., 1863, marched 
from East Point, (m Tennessee river, for Chat- 
tanooga. During night of 23rd, with rest of 
brigade, manned a fle^t of pontoon boats in 
North Chiekamauga creek, and in the midst of 
rain and intense darkness, with muffled oars, 
descended and crossed the Tennessee river and 
captured the enemy's picket line. Nov. 25, 
marched with Sherman to the relief of Knox- 
ville, E. Tenn. June 27, 1864, participated in 
assault upon Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. July 22 
the regiment was again engaged, with aneftec- 
tive force of 239 men, and came out of the en- 
gagement with 180 men. Was in the siege of 
Athmta: in battle of Jonesboro. In a short 
campaign of a little over two months the regi- 
ment lost half its number. Marched with 
army, via Ricnmond, to Washington; partici- 
pated in the grand review at W'ashington. 
During its term of service the regiment 
marched 3,374 miles. 


Theodore C. Chandler, e. Dec. 19,'62. res. July 
3, '64. 


Charles B. Tompkins, e. Nov. 25, '64. m. o. Aug. 
14, '65. 

Fird Amstant Surgeon. 

John B. Tompkins, e. May 5,'65. m. o. Aug. 14, 


Wm. N. Bresson, e. Oct. 31, '61. res. Mar. 13,'62. 
Jacob M. Augustine, e. Oct. 31, '61. kid. June 

27, '64. 
Henry Augustine, e. Aug. 23,'61. m. o. Nov. 6, 

Harrison H. Priokett, e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Aug. 


First Lieutenants. 

Casper Shleich, e. Oct. 31,'61. kid. Dec. 29,'62. 

Wm. F. Cootes, e. Sep. 1,'61. res. Mar. 30,'63. 

Wm. McCumber, e. Sep: 2,'61. m. o. Aug. 14,'65. 


Second Lieutenants. 
Levi Hill, e. Sep. 30,'61. kid. May 19, '63. 
John P. Phillips, Sergt. e. Aug. 23, '61. 

Geo. Luckey, e. Aug. 12,'61. d. July 24,'62. dis. 
John C. Glass, e. Aug. ;50,'61. kid." May 19,'63. 

1st Sergt. 
Peter Shleich, e. Aug, 31, '61. Trans, to I. C. 
S. J. Simpson, e. Aug. 9,'61. 
G. A. Buftum, e. Oct. 7,'61. d. Jan. '63. dis. 

Apple, N., e. Sep. 10, '61. 
Banks, J. M., e. Julv 31, '61. 
Babbitt, C. e. Aug."9,'61. 
Bolander, Harvey, e. Sep. 2,'61. kid. July 22, 

Bull, Wm., e. Aug. 9,'61. 
Boyle, Jason, e. Sep. 12,'61. 
Burnside, G. M., e. Sep. 14, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Barclay, J. M,, e. Oct. 9, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Brown, E. C, e. Sep. 2,'6]. d. Jan. 28,'63. dis. 
Burns, John, e. Sep. 20,'61. kid. Mav 22,'63. 

Brader, Sam'l., e. Oct. 10.'61. m. o. Oct. 31,'64. 
Barclay. J. C, e. Sep. 11, '61. m, o. Oct. 31, '64. 



CoTkendall, M., 'c. Oct. 16,'61. ;d. Jan. 28,'6.3. 

Cox, M. T., e. Sep. l.'fil. m. o. Aug. 14. "65. 
Coleman, ,W. H., e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Aug. 14, 

Chambers, Chas., e. Sep. 2,'61. 
Cadwallader, John. e. Sep. 2,'61, pro. Lieut. 

2d Mississippi Col'd Regt. 
Clark, James, e. Sep. 14,'61. died July 0,'64. 

Deford, Milton, e. Aug. 31, '61. 
Deems, Joseph, e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 

Duryea. B. F., e. Sep. 2,'Gl. m. o. Oct. 31,'64. 
Deford, Thijma.s, e. Sep. 1,'61. 
Eveland, Lorenzo, e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, 

Elrodd, T. J., e. Aug. .31, '61. died Aug. 21, '63. 
Frye, David J., e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Aug. 14, 

'6.5. .sergt. 
Filer, Lorenzo, e. Sep. 3,'61, m. o. Oct. .31,'64. 
Garritt. S. S., e. Sep. 24,'61. trans, to Art. 
Glass, W. M., e. Oct. 12,'61. m. o. Aug. 14.'65. 

Gav, J. H., e. Sep. 14.'61. d. Sep. 4.'62. dis. 
HufTard, F. M., e. Sep. ]0.'61. died Nov. 19,'63. 
Hart, H. L., e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 

Hamilton, C. F., e. Aug. 31,'61. m. o. Oct. 31, 

Holden, Bartley, e. Aug. 31, '61. Missing in ac- 
tion June 27, '64. 
Hebb, Joseph, e. Julv .3n,'61. m. o. Oct. .31, 'W. 
Hastey, Willis, e. Oct. o.'Ol. kid. July 2.S.'64. 
Jones, Abner, e. Sep. 2, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Lowe, W. H., e. Aug. 5,'6]. m. o. Oct. 31. '64. 
Lowden, James, e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, 

Lowder, A. J., e. Aug. :!1,'61. m. o. Aug. 14, 

'6.5. Sergt. 
Lenhiirt, H'enrv, e. Aug. 31, '61. died Aug. 21, 

Lingenfelter, Aarou, e. Aug, 0,'61. m. o. July 

22, '6.5. V. 
Lenhart. Is uah, e. Aug. 31, '61. 
Miran, Chus., e. Aug. ]3,'6l. died Oct. 17,'6.3. 
Mitchell, Mathews, e. Aug. 13,'61. m. o. Aug. 

14, '65. Corpl. V. 
Maxwell, A. B., e. Aug, S,'61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Maxwell, D. R., e. Aug. 5,'61. d. Mar. 10,'65. 

dis. V. 
McCiimber, Orvill, e. Sep. 2,'61. d. Jan. 28,'63 

Mills, J. H., e. Sept. 13,'61. m. o. Aug. 14,'fi.5. 

Sergt. V. 
Morgan, Newton, e. Sept. 13,'61. m. o. Oct. 31, 

McCiiUough, J. R., e. Aug. 2.5,'61. m. o. Aug. 

14. '65. corpl. V. 
Negley, Daniel, e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Nov. 1,'64. 

Norman, James, e. Sep. 12,'61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Prickett, J. P., e. Sep. .3, "61. 
Porter, Edgar, e. Oct. 17,'61. m. o. Nov. 1,'64. 
Pritchard, Benj., e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Mar. 27. 

Pollock, Harrison, e. Oct. 7,'61. 
Porter, F. J., e. Aug. 31, '61. d. Sep. 14,'62. di.s. 
Peters, W. T., e. Aug. 13,'61. 
Robbins, J. F., e. Aug. 26, '61. 
Redfarm, Mark, c. Aug. 31, '01. ra. o. Oct. 3], '64. 
Rockhold, Chas., e. Aug. 5, '61. died Sep. 11, '63. 
Reeves, D. M., e. Sep. 6, '61. 
Ross, S. M., e. Aug. 31, '61. 
Roseboom, A., e. Oct. 9,'61. 
Scanlan, Tho's., e. Aug. 8.'G1. m. o. Aug. 14. 

'65. corpl. V. 
Shaw, Harvey, e. Oct. 5, '61. m. o. Mavl0.'6.5, v. 
Sebree, James, e. Aug. 10,'61. m. o. Oct. 31,'64. 

Tobin, Patrick, e. Sep. 2,'61. kid. May 10,'G3. 
Vaughn, J. A., e. Aug. 15,'61. m. o. Aug. 14, 

'65. V, 

White, J. M.,e. Aug. 8.'61. d. June6,'65. wds. V 
Wheeler, J. P., e. Sep. 24,'61. m. o. Aug. 14,'65- 

Sergt. V. 
Williamson, N.. e. Aug. 22,'61. 
Wilson, Benj., e. Aug. 31, '61. d, Sep. 4, '62. dis. 
White, J. H., e. Aug. 31, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Wellington, H., e. July 31, '61. m. o. Oct. 31,'64. 
Cox. A^ J., e. Mar. 7. '65. m. o. June 8,'65. 
Fiugle, C. P., e. Mar. 7,'65. m. o. Aug. 14,'65. 


First Lieutenants. 
J. R. Robert.s, e. Sep. 12, "61. m. o. Nov. 26, '62. 
Jacob Frink, e. Sep. 12,'61. m. o. O.n. 30,'64. 
Wm. S. Johnson, 2nd Lieut., e. Oct. 31, '61. Res. 

Mar. 5, '62. 
Chas. G. Burnap, 1st Sergt. e. Sep. 12,'6]. 
J. K. Niles, 1st Sergt. e. Sep. r2,'61. m. o. Nov. 



Job Vaughn, e. Sep. '22, '61. m. o. Nov. 1,'64. 
James M. Green, e. Oct. 11,'61. m. o. July 12,65. 


M. C. Athearn, e. Oct. 8, '61. kid. Aug. 31, '64. 

James Havell, e. Sep. 12, "61. v. 
T. Wilhelm, e. Sep, 12,'61. m. o. Nov. 1,'64. 

.Tames Knapp, e. Sep. 22,'61, m. o. Oct. .31, '64. 
J. A. Knott, e. Oct. .s,'61. d. Jan. 2S,'63. di.s. 
Asa Morris, e. Sep. 22. '61. m. o. Aug. 14. '65. 1st 

sergt. v. 


Abbott, Joseph, e. Oct. 8, '61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64- 
Athearn, J. F., e. Oct. 8.'61. m. o. Oct. 31, ,64. 
Bavless, Wm., e. Oct. l'.t.'61. 
Boiincy, W. W., e. Oct. 8,'61. m. o. Oct. 14,'65. 

Sergt. V. 
Bonncy, S. P., e. Oct. 18,'61. m. o. Oct. 31.'64. 
Burlingame, Sam'l.. e. Sep. 22, '61. d. Jan. 28, 

'63. dis. 
Bulger, John, e. Sep. 22,'61. m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Burk, D. S,, e. Sep. 12,'61. kid. Aug. 12,'64. 
Bragg. J. F., e. Sep. 22,'61. died Jan. 1,'64. 
Carder. Benj., e. Oct. 5, '61, died Jan. 15, '64. 
Curry, J. W., e. Sept. 16,'61. kid. May 19,'63. 
Conger, John, e. Sept. ]2,'61. 
Cameron, J. H., e. Oct. 8,'61, m. o. July 15,'65,v. 
Curfman, G. W., e. Oct. 19,'61, m. o. Aug. 14, 

65, sergt. v. 
Campbell, W. H., e. Oct. •29,'61, m. o. Oct.31,'64. 
Cheuhall, Philip, e. Oct. 1,'Gl. died .Jan. 10,'62. 
Criss, W. IL, e. Sep. 27, "61, m. o. Oct. 31, "64. 
Dewev. A. S., e. Oct. l>i.'61, missing at Shiloh. 
Davisi', Benj., e. Oct. 20,'61, d. Feb. 11,'6'2. 
Erwin, Je.'^.se. e. Sept. 8, '61. 
Fields, G. H., e. Aug. 26,'61. 
Fisher, Jacob, e. Oct. 15, '61. 
Greathouse, Daniel, e. Sept. 11, '61. 
Hughes, T. H., e. Sept. 12,'61. 
HufFord, James, e. Sept. 12, '61, m. o. Aug. 14, 

'65, V. 
Hill, Solomon, e. Oct. 8,'61, d. .Tan. 28,'63, dis. 
Hartson, James, e. Oct. 18,'61. 
Hallibaugh, Wm., e. Oct. 19,'61, d. Jan. 28,'63, 

Johnson, Thos., e. Oct. 22,'61. 
Jordan, Chas., e. Sept. 14,'61. 
Knight, .SamL, e. Oct. 11, '61, m. o. Aug. ]4,'65, 

Corpl. V. 
Laswell, James, e. Oct. S.'61. 
Michaels, F. A., e. Oct. 24, '61. 
Paden, E. F., e. Se])t. 27,'61, m. o. June 17. '65. 
Pallett, Geo., e. Sept. 12,'61, m. o. Oct. 31,'64. 
Parker, G. T., e. Sept. 11, '61. 
Ross, W. A., e. Oct. 22,'6]. 
Rodenbangh, L. N., e. Sept. 22,'61, died Nov. 

16, '62, wnds. 
Sheaneman, John, e. Oct. 17, '61, m. o. Aug. 14, 

'65, Corpl. pris. 
Saville, Edward, e. Sept. 29. 



Shaw, Hiram, e. Oct. 19,'61, m. o. Aug. 14,'65. 

Sh:i\v, James, e. Oct. '25,'t)l. 

Sebree, Preston, e. Sept. 22. 'Gl. 

Shoup, A. D., e. Sapt. 22,'Gl. m. o. Aug. 14, '64. 

Smith, H irrisou, e. Sjpt. 22,'61, d. Jan. 28, dis. 

Shelleuberger, Wm., e. Aug. 19,'tJl. 

Twitchell, S. B., e. Aug. 2G,'(>1. 

Tliompsoa, S. L., e. Sept. 22,'Gl. 

Vice, (t. B., e. Sept. 22, '61, trans. V. R. C. 

White, T. J., e. O.'t. 8,'Gl, died Dec. 26,'61. 

Wilkie, J. W., e. Oct. y,'6]. 

Young, James, e. Oct. 1,'Gl. 

Yates, T. J., Oct. 18, 'Gl. 


Vincent Brink, e. Oct. 3,'61, died Oct. 31, 'G3. 

H. M. Hiney, e. 03t. 4,'61, m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 

Mason McCane, e. Oct. 4,'Gl. 
P. B. Ferguson, e. Oct. 4,'Gl, d. Jan. 2S,'63, dis. 

RichirJ Hmey, e. Oct. 4, '61, kid. Mav 22, '63. 
J. H. Beadles, e. Oct. 4,'Gl, d. Dec. G,'G2, dis. 

Bond, B. F.,e. Oct, 12, '61. 
Cjllier, Wm., e. Oct. 5,'Gl, m. o. Oct. 31, '64. 
Fugue, J. N., e. Oct. 8,'61, ra. o. Aug. 14,'G5, v. 
Lyaarger, L., e. O't. 3, '61. 
Liitz, A. B., e. On. 5,'61, died Dec.'62. 
McCaughey, J. W.. e. On. 3,'Gl, m. o. Oct.31,'G4. 
M_'Elr,)y, W., e. O -t. 3),'G1, d. Feb. 18, 'G3, dis. 
S uiders, F. S., e. Oct. 3,'Gl. 
Faiss, Saml., e. Oct. 12. '61, d. July 25, '65, dis. v. 
Bjve IS, Corydju, e. Njv. 26,'Gl. 
B. C. Swar.s, 1st Lieut. Co. K, e. Oct. 31, '61, res. 
Mar. 13, '62. 


Peter Rjberts, e. Aug. 20,'61, m. o. Aug. 14,'65. 

Loucks, Delos, e. Oct. 4. '61. 
Gay, J. VV., e. Jan. 2,'61, m. o. Aug. 14,'65, 
sergt. wnds. 

57tli INFANTRY. 

Prior, M. F., e. Dec. 16,'61, Co. I, 57th Inf. m. o. 

Dec. 24, '61. 
Wages, C. H., e. Dec. 16, '61, Co. I, 57th Inf, m. 

o. Julv 7, '65, corpl. 
Wages, Alfred, e. Dec 16, '61, Co. I, 57th Inf. m. 

o. July 7, '65, corpl. 
Bowley, David, e. Jan. 4,'62, Co. I, 57th Inf. 
Thomas, J. N., Sept. 17, '61, Co. K, 57th Inf. d. 

Sept. 14, '62, dis. 
Thorn, Michael, e. Sept. 28,'61, Co. K, 57th 

Inf. d. Sept. 14, '62, dis. 

58tli INFANTRY. 

Shreve, J. A., sergt., Co. B, e. Feb. 24, '64, ra. o. 

June 24,'GG. 
Skinner. J. L., Co. C, e. Aug. 2,'64, m. o. April 

Castle, Diniel, Co. F, e. May 17,'65, m. o. Nov. 

Farris, Wm., Co. I, e. May 14, '65, m. o. Nov. 

24, '66. 
Girdner, John, Co. I, e. Mav 25. '65. 
Morris, Wm., Co. I, e. May27,'G5. 

59tli INFANTRY. 

Nichols, W. C, Co. A, e. July 17, '61, d. Dee. 4, 

'62, dis. 
FielUng, E., Co. C, e. Dec. 5,'63, kid. June 


Herr, G. W., Co. C, e. Jan. 5,'64, m. o. Dec.8,'65. 
Melvin, T. J., Co. C, e. Dec. 5, "63, pro. com. 

Nels:)n, B. F., Co. C, e. Dec. 5,'63, m. o. Dec. 8, 

'65, sergt. 
Stier, G. R., Co. C, e. Dec. 5, '63, pro. 2nd lieut. 


Harrington, musician Co. E. e. Dec. 25,'61. 
Pierce, Jackson, Co. C, e. Dec. 25,'Gl, m. o. 

July 31, '65, V. 
Hess, W. R., Co. G, e. Mar. 24,'64, m. o. June 

Maxwell, J. M., Co. G, e. Mar. 20,'G4, m. o. June 

29, '65. 
McConnaday. I., Co. G, e. Mar. 30, '64, m.o. June 

3, '65. 


Ball, Joseph J., prin. musician, e. Mar. 11, '62, 

m. o. Sept. 8, '65, V. 
Jaggers, Nathan, Co. B, e. Feb. 16,'62, m. o. 

Sep. 8, '65. 
Hibbard, C. M. Co. F, e. Mar. 24,'62, d. July 19, 

'62, wnds. 
Miller, Lacy, Co. F, e. Mar. 24, '62, died April 

23, '62. 
Walters, J., Co. F, e. Mar. 24,'G2, m. o. Sept. 8, 

'65, corpl. 
Whealdon, N., Co. F, e. Mar. 24,'62, d. Oct. 2, 

'62, dis. 
Walters, James, Co, F, e. Mar. 24, '62. 
Winner, W. J., Co. F, e. Mar. 24, '62. 



Henry S. Goodspeed, e. Feb. 1, '62, m. o. Mar. 
24, '65. 


Kimball, Henry, e. Mar. 11, '62, m. o. Sept. 8, 

'65, V. 
Cunningham, A., e. Mar. 11, '62, m. o. Sept. 8, 

G5, V. 
Easley, Reese, e. Mar. 11,'62, m. o. Mar. 24,'65, 

France, John, e. Mar. 11, '62, m. o. Sept. §,'65. 
Harris, Isaac, e. Feb, 15,'62, died Oct. ]9,'(>1. 
Steeber, V., Co. A. 63d Inf. e. May 14, '64, m. o. 

July 13,'65. 
Childers, C. W., musician Co. K, 63d Inf. e. 

Dec. 1,'61, m. o. July 13,'6.5. 
Hendricks, J. M., prin". musician 64th Inf. e. 

Dec. 3], '63, m. o. July, 11, 'G5. 
Minge, Wesley, Co. D, Glih Inf. e. Nov, 1,'61, 

m. o. Dec. 24, '64, corpl. 
Hendricks, John, Co. D, &4th Inf. e. Feb. 21, 

'64, m. o. July 11, '65. 
Wheoles, T. F., Co. I, 64th Inf. e. Jan. 4,'64, m. 

o. June ]0,'65. 
Mills, S. W., Co. F, 66th Inf. c Mar. 18,'64, m. 

o. July 7,'65. 

67th (Three Months) Infantry. 

H. G. Covkendall, Sergeant- Major, e. May 31, 
'62, pro. Capt. Co. D. 72d Inf. 



Wm. H. Black, e. May 31, '62. ra. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
L. E. Trites, e. May 31, '62, m. o. Oct. G,'62. 
H. H. Downing, e. Mav 31, '62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
A. E. Plattenburg, e. May 31, '62, ra.o. Oct. 6,'62. 
A. J. Rounk, e. June 12,'G2, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 


J. H. Rodenbaugh, e.May 31, '62, .n.o. Oct. 6,'62. 
L. F. Randolph, e. June 2,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
G. B. Vitturn, e. May 31, '62, ra. o. Oct. G,'G2. 
Amos Naylor, e. May 31, '62, ra. o. Oct. G,'62. 
Geo. Turner, e. June 4, '62, ra. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Wm. Maxwell, e. May 31,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 



A. F. Small, e. May 31, '62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 

Andrews, Harvey, e. June 4,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 

Arnold, J. A., e. June 5,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Black, George, e. May 31, '02, m. o. Oct. 6,'G2. 
Berry, John, m. o. Oct. (5, '02. 
Barnes, Thos., e June 3,'02, m. o Oct. 6,'C2. 
Barker, Deriorn, e. June 3, '02, m. o. Oct. 0,'62. 
Bri.ster. W. H., e. June r),'02, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Birch, Chas., e. June 4,'02, m. o. Oct. 6,'02. 
Bryant, \Vm., e. June 1,'62, ni. o. Oct. 0,'G2. 
Boman, J. H., June 3, '62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Bell. J. M., e. June 2,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'02. 
Bates, Edgar, e. June 4, '02, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Gather, Harvey, e. June 5, '62, m. o. Oct. 0,'62. 
Gaplinger, Chauncy, e. June 4,'02, m. o. Oct. 

Carr, Joseph, e. June 1,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Goles, H. G., e. May 3,'62, m. o.Oct. G,'02. 
Devaughn, Kmanviel, e. June 5,'62, m. o. Oct. 

6, '62. 
Donly, Franklin, e. May 31, '02, d. Jiine 24,'62, 

Denuison, Isaac, e June 2, '62, ni. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Eby, J. M.. e. June 2,'62. ni. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Eads, Jo.«.>ph, e. June 2, '62, m. o. Oct. 6, '02. 
Eskridge, J. T., e. June 2,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Emry, J. H., e. June 3, '02, m. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Ellis" Newton, e. June 2, '62, m. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Filch, Asa, e. June 5, '62, m. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Fox, iTanies, e. June 2, '62, in. o, Oct. 0,'62. 
Gibbons, Patrick, e. May 31, ni. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Grim, William, June 3, '02, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Hull", Burton, e. May 31, '62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62 
Hughes, W. T., c. .Uine 4,'62, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Heckard, Martin, c. June 3,'02, m. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Harwick, James, e. June3,'02, ra. o. Oct. 0,'62. 
Jarnagan, John, c. June 2, '62, m. o. Oct. 6,'(i2. 
Knapp, J. D., e. June ."),'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Lockwood, John, June 3,'62, ni. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Martin, James, e. May 31, '02, m. o. Oct. 0,'62. 
Mills, Joseph, e. June 2, '62, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
McAdams, 8. 1)., e. June 3, '62, ra. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Newhall, Samuel, e. June 4, '62, m. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Oatman, Jacob, e. June 2, '62, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Phelps, S. S., e. June 1,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Proctor, Joseph, c. June 1,'62, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Painter, J. G.. c. June 3, '02, m. o. Oct. 6, '62. 
Penny, John, e. June 3,1)2, ni. o. Oct. (),'62. 
Reeves, J. VV., e. June 1,'62, m. o. Oct. 0,'62. 
Roberts, Stephen, e. June 3, '62, m. o. Oct. 6, '02. 
Shraden, G. W., e. June 2, '02, m. o. Oct. 6,'02. 
Saville, Daniel, e. June 4, '02, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Sweetser, Luke, e. May 30,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Tanquery, \V. P., e. June 4, '02, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Turner, Albert, e. June 3,'02, m. o. Oct. 0,'02. 
Thomas, A. O., e. June 4,'e2, m. o. Oct. 6,'02. 
Varner, S. C., e. June 5, '02, m. o. Oct. fl,'02. 
Vulgamove, Wm., e. June 5, '62, m.o. Oct. f'>,'02. 
Wansel, Wm., e. June 1,'02, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Whiimore, Jacob, e. June 2, '02, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Wilcoxen, Wm., e. June 2,'02, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Williams, William. 
Weaver, William, e. June 2,'62, d. June 24,'62, 

Warden, G. W., e. June 6,'62, m. o. Oct. 6,'62. 
Youngman, James, e.June 1,'62, m.o. Oct. 6, '02. 
Smith, J. A., Co. G, e. June 4,'62. m. o. Oct. 


Tlst (Three Months) Infantry. 


Geo. Mahaffey, e. July 6, '62. 

William Hunter, e. July 10,'62. 


Brunt, James, e. July 4, '62. 
Bush, Sampson, e. July 6,'62. 
Doran, John, e. July 5, '62. 
Davis, John, e. July 4, '02. 
Hempill, James, e. Julv 7,'62. 
Wilson, G. B., e. July 4,'e'2. 


This regiment was organized at Chicago, as 
the First Regiment of the Chicago Board of 
Trade. Its tirst bills were put out for one 
company, calling itself the "Hancock Guards," 
on July 23,'62, and exactly one month after- 
wards the entire regiment was complete and 
mustered into service for three years. The 
very day of their muster they started for Cairo, 
arriving on the 24th. Their strength at that 
time was 37 ofHcers and 930 men. 

The 72d participated in many engagements 
during their three years' service in the field. 
At the battle of Franklin, Tenn., they fought 
witli commendable bravery, being in the hot- 
test of the fight from four in the afternoon till 
midnight, during all which time the battle 
raged witli terrific fury. In tliis tight the 72d 
lost nine officers and l.j2 men, who were either 
killed or severely wounded. 


Abiier E. Barnes, e. Aug. 21, '62, pro. by presi- 

First Lieutenant. 
Jacob Schank, e. Aug. 14, '62, res. Oct. 2y,'64. 

Second Lieutenant. 
E. .S. Gorham, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 7, '65. 

J. D. Mantania, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. May 31, '65, 

S. S. Havvken, e. Aug. 14,'62. 


Asa Eagle, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. Nov. 5, '62. wnds. 
W. W. Thompson, e. Aug. 14, '62, died Mar. 

John Freeborn, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. for pro. 
Wm. Sparks, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 7, '65, 



Barber, J. S., e. Aug. 14, 'f>2, trans. 

Barnes, H. C, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. for pro. 

Bags, L. B., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 7,'6.'>. 

Brimstall, D., e. Aug. 14,'62, died April 22,'63. 
Cliew, Edward, e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Craiml)lelt, J., e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Flake, H. B., e. Aug. 14, '62. pro. corpl. 
Fuller, I. O., e. Aug. 14,'02, m. o. Aug. 7,'65, 

Gorham, E. S., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. Aug. 7,'65, 

Hcrr, J. D., c. Aug. 14, '62, d. Sept. 7.'64. 
Hovt, Aln-aham, e. .Vug. 11, '02, kid, May 22,'63. 
Hai-land, J. M., e. Aug. 14. '02, m. o. Aug. 7,'65. 
Knott, J. M., e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. Aug. 7, '05. 
Lucah, W. H., e. Aug. 14,'02, died Dec. 0,'64, 

wnds, corpl. 
Lecper, G. W., e. Aug. 14, '62, died May 27,'63of 

McBride, A. J., e. Aug. 14,'02, m. o. Aug. 7,'65. 




McKeever, J. D., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. May 31, 

'65, corpl. 
Morris, W. H., e. Aug. 14, '62. m. o. Aug. 7, '65. 
Melviii, Eli, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 7, '65, 

Painter, H. H., e, Aug. 14,'62, m. o. Aug. 7, '65. 
Peterson, Robert, e. Aug. 14,'62, ra. o. Aug. 

7, '65. 
Pool, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, "62. m. o. Aug. 7. '65, 

Sullivan, .T. H., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 7, '65. 
Throckmorton. Wm., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. May 

24, '65. 
Thorp, L. R., e. Aug. 14, '62, d. April ;W,'65, 

wnds. corpl. 
Trulock, S. M., e. Aug. 14, '62, kid. Nov. :50,'64. 
Thomas, L. ¥.. e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 7, '65, 

White, James, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. Feb. 7, '6:3, dis. 
Vertrice, N. J., e. Jan. 5,'64, trans. 


Keller, J. H., Co. C, e. Mar. 12,'64, m. o. Sept. 

8, '65. 
Cook, John, Co. G. e. Aug. 11, '62, d. for pro. 
Harshberger, W. H., Co. G. e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. 

June 26,'65. 
Jones, E. R., Co. G, e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. June 

26, '65, corpl. 
Phillips P., Co. G, e. Aug. 0,'62, kid. April 

•29,'65. ■ 
Rice, Jesse, Co. G, e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June 

Sehocklev, John, Co. G, e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. 

Thurman, J. M., Co. G, e. Aug. 10, '62, m. o. Jnn 

Moore, Wm., Co. G, e. Mar. 15. '64. 
Hendricks, J. J., Co. H, e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. 

June 26, '65. 
Palmer, F. R., Co. H, e. Aug. 12,'62, died Nov. 

25, '62. 
Shaflfer, R., Co. H, e. Mar.8,'65. 
Singleton, A. P., Co. H, e. Mar. 4, '65. 
Singleton, J. R., Co. H, e. Mar. 4, '65. 
Sturgeon, John, Co. H, e. Mar. 8, '65. 


was organized at Quincy in August, 1862, and 
left for Louisville, Ky., Sept. 23rd, 951 strong. 
The 84th was a fighting regiment from the 
first, and was engaged in the following battles: 
Stone River, Dec. 13, '62, Jan. 12 and 13, '63, loss 
228 men; Woodbury, Jan. 17, '63; Chicamau- 
ga, Sept. 19 and 20, '63, loss 172 men; Lookout 
Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ringold, 
Nov. 24, 25 and 26,'63, loss 9 men ; Dalton, Fel). 
22,'64, loss 4 men. 

In the Atlanta campaign at Buzzard's Roost, 
May 10,'64; Dalton, May 13,'64; Resaca, May 14, 
'64; Burnt Hickory, May 26 to 31, and June 1, 
2 and 3 ; Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna, Atlan- 
ta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station, loss in the 
campaign, 125 men; Franklin and Nashville, 
loss 20 men. Total casualties in battle, 558 

From the 84th but oiie man was taken pris- 
oner ; but 10 men deserted ; only 1 man ever 
sent to military prison ; and but 4 tried by 
court martial. 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
Thomas Hamer, e. Sept. 1,'62, res. July 24, '63. 

Caleb B. Cox, e. Sept. 1,'62, m. o. June S,'65. 


James A. Russell, e. Sept. 1,'62, res. July 25, '63. 

First Assistant Surgeon. 

Frank W. Hunter, e. July 24,'62, res. Sept. 
27, '64. 

Sergeant Major. 

J. B. Green, e. Aug. 5,'62, m. o. June 8,'65. 


First Lieutenant. 

Thos. G. Wisdom, e. Sept. 1,'62, d. Aug. 25, '63. 


Carnahan, Fielder, c. Aug. 2,'62, m. o. June 


L. M. Scott, e. Sept. 1,'62, m. o. June 8,'65. 
First Lieutenant. 

Wm. M. Provine, e. July 30,'62, hon. d. May 
15, '65. 

Second Lieutenants. 

-Emmor Dihvorth, e. Aug. 7,'62, res. Oct. 31, '63. 

W. A. Highland, e. July 2S,'62, ra. o. June 8, '65. 


Edwin Knock, e. July 28, '62, missing at Chick- 

Robert A. Burns, e. Aug. 6,'62, died Juno 7,'63. 
A. S. Stanton, e. July 2s,'62, m. o. June S,'65, 

W. J. Moore, e. Aug. 4,'62, d. Mar. 27,'63, dis. 
Amos Knock, e. Aug, 6,'62, died Oct. 11, '64, 

wnds. sergt. 


Atherton, David, e. July 2S,'62, m.o. June8,'65. 
Bartholomew, L., e. July 20, '62, trans. V. R. C. 

Boyd, J. E., e. July 31, '62, died Andersonville 

pris. June 15,'64, No. of grave 1,471. 
Beans, Amos, e. Aug. 2, '62, m. o. June 8, '65. 
Bishop, Daniel, e. Aug. 2,'62, d. Mar. 11, '63, dis. 
Bartholomew, A., e. Aug. 4, '62, kid. at Chicka- 

Battin. (.;. ^^'., e. Aug. 7,'62, trans. V. R. C. 
Cramlet, Jesse, e. July 28, '62. m. o. June 8,'65. 
('adwalder, Jesse, e. July 28, '62, died Dec. 7, '62. 
Cope, W. v., e. July 2S,'62, m. o. June 8, '65. 
Dilworthy, H. \V., e. Aug. 7,'62. d. Dec. 5,'62. 

Dobbins, W. A., e. July 29,'62. died May28,'64. 

Ea.sley, Mark, e. July 28,'62. m. o. June 8,'65. 

Easley, D. L., e. July 28,'62. m. o. June 8,'66. 
Faucher, L., e. July 28, '62. wnd. 4 times. 
Franklin, Benj., e. July28,'62. trans. V. R. C. 

Farquhar, I. W., e. Julv 2S,'62. m. o. June 8, 

'65. Sergt. 
Greenell, 1. W., e. July 28,'62. d. Mar. 24,'63. 

Hughes, Da^-id, e. July28,'62. trans, to V. R. C. 
Hughes, I. M., e. July 28,'62. d. Jan, 22,'63. dis. 
Hasty, William, e. July 28.'62. e. Jan. 24, '63. 

Hall, Francis, e. July 31, '62. m. o. JuneS,'65. 

Harland, W. V., e. Julv:30,'62. trans, to P. C. 
Hickle, G. W., e. Aug. 4, '62. trans, to V. R. C. 
Hodyis, Wm., e. Aug. 7, '62. m. o. Jtine 8, '65. 
Harland, Monroe, e. Aug. 7, '62. kid. Oct. 11, '63. 
Ilillger, Thos., e. July 28,'62. trans. V. R. C. 
Johnson, H. A., e. July 28,'62. captured Dec. 

31, '62. 
Knock, Daniel, e. Julv 25,'62. died Oct. 1,'62. 
Kinsey, W. A., e. July 24,'62. d. Apl. 27,'6:5. dis. 
Koons, A. J., e. Julv 7,'62. d. Dec. 20,'63. dis. 
Miner, J. W. e. July 29,'62. kid. Dec. 31, '62. 



Miller, J. H., e. Aug. 5,'62. m. o. July 9,'65. 
Miller, G., e. Aug. »,'G2. died Dec. 7, '64. 
Prati. II. v., e. July ii8,'62. m. o. June 8, '65. 
Parks, Joseph, e. July 2«,'62. 
Russell, Dilworth, e." Aug. 7,'62. m. o. June 8, 

'65. Corpl. 
Swinkins, Francis, e. July 28,'62. d. Dec. 13,'C4, 

Shaddock, Robert, e. Aug. 1,'62. died Jan. 10, 

'63. wuds. 
Walters, W. A., e. July 29,'62. d. Aug. 10,'63. 

Wildman, A. G., e. Aug. 4,'62. kid. at Stone 

Websier, Monroe, e. Aug. 7, '62. died Feb. 5, '63. 
Y(jst, Samuel, e, Aug. 7, '62. died Nov. 3,'62. 
Zoll, Carothers, e. July 23, '62. d. Oct. 20, '64. 

wnds. Sergt. 
Zinc, J. F., e. July 28,'62. d. Apl. 11, '63. dis. 
Nance, H. H., m. o. May 26, '65. 



Joseph Nelson, e. Sep. 1.'62. res. Dec. 15,'63. 
R. D. Dilworth, e. Aug. 7, '62. m. o. June 8. '65. 

First Lienteiiant. 

F. W. Ross, e. Aug. 7, '62. m. o. June 8, '65. 


J. M. Moore, e. Aug. 7, '62. trans, to V. R. C. 
Stephen Bogue, e. Aug. 7, '62. d. Jan. 8, '62. dis. 


D. W. Litchfield, e. Aug. 7, '62. died Jan. 11, '63. 

R. M. Miller, e. Aug. 7,'62. d. Dec. 10,'63. wnds. 
Win. Nelson, e. Aug. 8,'62. d, F'eb. 14, '63. wnds. 
Wni. Walker, e. Aug. 8,'62. kid. at Stone 



Adams, J. F., e. Aug. 7, '62. kid. at Chicka- 

Beers, Jauez, e. Aug. 7, '62. d. Mar. 4, '63. dis. 
Brown, Win, e. Aug. 11, '62. died Jan. 5. '63. 
Bayer, J. B., e. Aug. 7, '62. trans. Brigade oand. 
Brown, Thos., e. Aug. y,'62. d. June 7, '63. dis. 
Crater, F. M., e. Aug. y,'62. 
Clark, John, e. Aug. y,'62. m. o. June 8, '65. 

Deobler, T. H., e. Jiilv 28, '62. 
Durell, F. VV., e. Aug. 22,'62. d. Apl. 14,'63. 

Dewiit, Solomon, e. Aug. 7, '62. m. o. June 8, 

France, B. H., e. Aug. 7,'62, m. o. June 8,'05, 

Foster, N. T., e. Aug. 8,'62, m. o. June 8,'65. 

Forquer, Wm., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 8, '65. 
Glympse, Eli, e. Aug. 8, '62, kid. at Chicka- 

Gritiiu, Lewis, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Mar. 17, '63, 

Kirkuride, John, e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 8, 

Kinnie, E. E., e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 8, '65. 
Kinsey, J. R., e. Aug. 7, '62, d. Feb. 9,'63, dis. 
Koonts,, e. Aug. 7, '62. 
Knock, W. A., e. Aug, 9, '62, ra. o. June8,'65. 
Kirkbride, Wesley, e. Aug. 22, '62, trans. Brig. 

Lowe, B. F., e. Aug. 7,'62. 
Litchfield, Durant, e. Aug. 7, .62, m. o. June 8, 

Morgan, J. H., e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 8,'6.5. 
Moore, John, e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 8, '65, 

Menteer, J. V.,e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 8, '65, 

McHenry, John, e. Aug. 7, '62, died Dec. 2,'62. 
Morrison, J. A., e. Aug. 8, '62, trans. V. R. C. 
Moore, Edward, e. Aug. 2,'62, d. Oct. 15,'62. 

Martin, A. G. e. Aug. 9,'62. 

Nunamaker, J. W., e. Aug. 7, '62, died Sept. 

23, .64. 
Nebergall, B. P., e. Aug. 10,'62, m. o. June 8,'65. 
Porter, A. K., e. Aug. 7, '62, trans, to marine 

Porter, E, F., e. Aug. 7, '62. 
Purnell, Joseph, e. Aug. 7,62, d. Ap. 16,'63, dis. 
Pollock, H. C..e. July 20,'62, died Feb. 27,'64. 
Parish, Asburv, e. Aug. 9, '62. 
Reese, Jacob, e. Aug. 4, '62, diad Feb. 6,'63. 
Benner, Ephraim, e. Aug. 9,'G2, m. o. June 8, 

'65, serg. 
Bowland, T. R., e. Aug. 9,'62, died Aug. 17,'63. 
Sexton, James, c. Aug. 7, '62, d. Mar. 4, '63, dis. 
Shafler, L. J., e. Aug. 7. '62, died Dec. 10, '62. 
bh.iw, Wm., e. Aug. 7, '62, missing at Stone 

Thomas, W. A., e. Ang. 7,'62, m. o. June 8,'65. 
Walker, Amos, e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 8,'65. 
Hoopis, Ellis, unassigned recruit. 

85tli INFANTRY. 

The 85th was organized at Peoria in August, 
'62, by Col. Robert S. Moore, and mustered in- 
to service Aug. 27, '62. Ordered to Louisville, 
Ky., Sept. 6,'62, as.signed to Thirty-Sixth 
Brigade, Eleventh Division, Tljird Army 
C;orps, Col. D. McCook commanding Brigade, 
Gen. Sheridan commanding Division, aud 
Gen. Gilbert commanding Corps. The 85th 
marched in pursuit of the enemy under Gen. 
Bragg, Oct. 1,'62, was engaged in the battle of 
Champion Hill, at Pe^r^'^■ille, Kentucky, Oct. 
8, and moved with the army to Nashville, 
Tenn., arriving Nov. 7, '62. 

Regiment mustered out June 5, '65, at Wash- 
ington, D. C, and arrived at Camp Butler, 111., 
June 11, "65, where they received their final dis- 

S. P. Cummings, e. Aug. 27, '62, res. April 6, '63. 

W. H. Evans, com. Jan. 14,'64, m. o. June 5,'65. 



Wm. McClelland, e. Aug. 27,'62, res. Dec. 21,'62. 

First Lieutenants. 

LaFayette Curless, e. Aug. 27,'62, res. Nov. 

J. M. Robertson, e. Aug. 27, '62, m. o. June 

5, '65. 


Lewis Post, e. Aug. 11, '62, trans. V. R. C. 
Irving Shannon, e. Aug. 11, kid. June 27, '64. 
McDonald Cox, e. Aug. 11, '62. 
L. D. Gould, e. Aug. 11, '62, died Nov. 1'64. 


Wm. Roe, c. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 5, '65, sergt 
Henry Aten, e. Aug, 11, '62, m. o. June 5, '65, 

1st sergt. 
W. F. Brvant, e. Aug. 11, '62. 
J F. Keiinedv, e. Aug. 11, '62. trans. V. R. C. 
Elias Wheeler, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. Aug. 31,'63, 

Thos. Harlon, e. Ang. 11, '62. m. o. June 5,'65, 

Perry Adkinson, e. .\ug. 11, '62. 
Jackson Smith, e. Aug. 11, '62. 


Samuel Simmers, e. Aug. 11, '62. 

^l/i.-O'/TT^ Ji3^fe^^>'^ 


't'5' ? '"* 

i -u,>;s 

^IS: :^^.d. 


^ h 



^ -// 

idi^ny ^10^/2^iC€^ 





(Jeo. Cooper, e. Aug. 11,'62. 
AtwaLer, M. L., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June .'),'65. 
Atwater, Win., e. Aug. 12, '62, d. Mar 1,'tio dis. 
Aten, .Jdhu, e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. Juue 5, '6.'). 
Brown, Perry, e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. June 5, '6.'). 
Brown, Thos., e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. June 5, '6.'). 
Bu.shnell, A. P., e. Aug. 12,'62, ni. o. June '),'K\ 
Brewer, Aaron, e. Aug. 12,'62, died June 22,'64. 
Bovd, Wm., e. Aug. 12,'62, died Feb. 12,'6.".. 
Castor, S. L., e. Aug 12,'62, m. o. June5,'65. 
(Xirless, John, e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. June 5, '65, 

Curless, L. D., e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. June 5, '6.'). 
Clupper, P. W., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 5, 

'6.5, corpl. 
Dodge, John, e. Aug. 12. '6.5, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Douglass. J. W., e. Aug. 12, '62, trans. V. R. C. 
Kdiiionds, B. F., e. Aug. 12,'62. 
Faw.sett, Michael, e. Aug. 12,'62, died Apl.5'6;i. 
Faw.sett, Levi, e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Jan. l.'i;:i, ills. 
Holt, Solomon, e. Aug. 16,'62. ni. o. June5,'65. 
Hays, Daniel, e. Aug. 16,'62. died Dec. 1,'62. 
Hagan, J. B., e. Aug. 16, '62, died Jan 28,'6:!. 
Hensley, J. W., e. Aug. 16,'62. 
Jones, J. M., e. Aug. 16,62, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Kelly, Wni., e. Aug. 16,'62, d Julv liS,'6:!. 
Kelly, Josiah, e. Aug. 16,62, d. July 21), '68, dis. 
King, D. M., e. Aug." 16, '62, d. Apr.' l,'6;i. dis. 
Line, D. T., e. Aug. 16, '62. 

Longfellow, D. G.,e. Aug. 16,'62.kld June 27,'64. 
Lamperell, Chas.,e. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. June 5, '65. 
Lafarie, Henrv, e. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. June 5, '65. 
Latourett, H. A., e. Aug. 16,'62. 
Levingston, Jno, e. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. June 5. '65. 
Levingston, T. A., e.Aug. 16,'62,d.Oct.l,'62,dis. 
MeCi-nib, A.,e. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. June 5, '65. 
MeCay, John, e. Aug. 16, '62. 
Meek," (i. W., e. Aug, 16,'62. d. June 15,'63, dis. 
McKee, F. M., e. Aug 16,'62, m.o. June 5. '65. 
:Monroe, Biraui, e. Aug. 1(),'62. 
O'Danuel, Thos., e. Aug. 16. '62. 
Prentice, Wm., e. Aug. 16. '62, m.o. .lune 5,'65. 
Prentice, Berry, e. Aug. 16, '62, kid. at Ken. Mt. 
Parr, J. N., c. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. June 5, '65. 
Plunk, Marion, e. Aug. 16. '62, m.o. June 10,'65. 
Parker, N. B., e Au6. 16.'62, m.o. June 5, '65. 
Powell, Geo., e. Aug. 16,'62, trans, to V.R.C. 
Reeves, Peter, e. Aug. 16,'62, missing at Kene- 

saw Mt. 
Heed. (i. W., e. Aug. 16,'62, m.o. June 5,'65. 
Smith, L. C, e. Aug. 16,'62, d. .Vpril 1,'63, dis. 
Snodgrass, J. H., e. Aug, 16, '62, kid atKenesaw. 
Shargo, G. W., e. Aug. 16,'62. d. Oct. 1,'62, dis. 
Stephens6n, J. N.,e. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. .Fune 5,'65. 
Severns, Marion, e. Aug. 16, '62, kid. at Kene- 

saw Mt. 
Still, Solomon, e. Aug. 16,'62, trans. V-K.C. 
Still, Sam'l, e. Au6. 16,'62, died Dec. 5, '62. 
Still, Robt., e. Aug. 16,'62, d. April l,'6;i, di.s. 
Shields, James, e. 16, '62, kid. at Kenesaw. 
SncKlgrass, J. W. e. Aug. 16,'62, di'jd Oct. S,'68. 
Seymour, Louis, e. Aug. 16, '62, trans, to Eug. C. 
Shores, John, e. Aug. 16, '62, kid. at Kene.saw. 
Smith, Wm., e. Aug. 16, '62, ni. o. June 5,'("i5, 

Thomas, Aaron, e. Aug. 16, '62, trans, to V.R.C. 
Thomas, David, e. Aug. 16,'62, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Tavlor, David, e. Aug. 16, '62, m.o. June 5, '65. 
Taie, T. J., e. Aug. 16,'62. 

Thompson, Jno., e. Aug. 16,'62, m.o. June 5,'(')5. 
Workman, Geo., e. Aug. 16, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Wheeler, Thomas, e. Aug. 16,'62, d. Oct. :«). '62. 

Wright, L. P., e. Aug. 16, '62, m. o. June 5, '65., 

Woodruff, J. H., e. Aug. 16,'62. 


Nathaniel McClelland, e. Aug. 27, '02, res. Nov. 


David Maxwell, e. July 31, '02, res. May 14, '03. 
J. T. McNeil, e. July 31, '62, res. Aug. 29,'C)4. 

I. A. Mardis, e. July31,'62, m. o. June .5,'65. 

First Lieutenants. 

Luke Elliott, e. Aug. 27,'62, res. Nov. 21,'62. 
A. J. Horton, e. Aug. 6, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

Second Lieutenants. 
Wm. Cohren, e. Aug. 27,'62, res. Nov. 12,'62. 
W. M. Shields, e. July 31, '62, res. Feb. 16,'63. 

S. B. Palmer, e. July 3, '62, m. o. June 5, '66. 
Kli Shields, e. Aug. 6,'62, kid, June •27,'64. 
Amos Kinza, e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June 5, '65. 


J. T. Zinuuerman, e. Aug. 6,'62, m.o. June 17,'65. 
G. H. Wetzel, e. July 3),'62,m.o. June5,'6.5. 
.\nders(in Jennings, e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 
7, '65, serg. 

II. Shields, e. Julv 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65, sergt. 
Franklin Shellev, e. July 31,'62,d. Mar.9,'6.5, dis. 

D. S. Shank, e. Aug. 6,'6'2. • 
J. W. Swann, e. Julv 31, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

E. J. Elliott, e. July 31. '62, kid. June 27, '64. 


II. H. Willson, e. Aug. 5, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
M. K. Dob.son, e. July 31, '62, m. o. June.5,'6.5. 


Benj. Bolen, e. July 31, '62, d. Jan. 2'.).'63, dis. 


Barnes, G. W., e. Aug. 6,'tl2, d. Jan. 2',),'63, dis. 

Branson, C. R., e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. .Tune 5, '65. 

Bloomhcld, II., e. Aug. 6,'62, died Feb. 11, '63. 

Barnes, J. A., e. A>ig. 6, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

Cunninghitm, John, e. July 5,'62, died at Bow- 
ling Green, Kv. 

Crable, Joseph. e.July 31,'62, d. Feb. 3,'63, dis. 

Cunningham. Wm., e. July 31, '62, died at Bow- 
ling ( ireen. Ky. 

Coope, Abraham, e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June 5, '65, 

Collins, Wm., e. Aug. 6,'62, d. Dec. 20,'64, wds. 

Duncan. Chas.,e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. June 5, '65, 

Davis, Joseph, e. July 31, '62. 

Dutton, Daniel, e. Julv 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

Dial, Lewis, e. Aug. 6,'62, d. Feb. 20,'65. 

Elgin, W. F., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

Engle, T.B.,e. /uly 31,'62, ni.o.June4,'65,corp'l. 

Fi'uton, J. D., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 5,'6.5, 

Freitley, W. H., e Aug. 6, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

Iludnall, Wm., e. July 31, '62 m. o. June 5, '65. 

Henderson, S. I)., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5, '65, 

Horton, J. B., e. July 31,'62, d. June 19,'63,dis. 

Horton, Marion, e. Aug. 6, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

Hughes, C. A., Aug. 6, '62, died June 20,'64. 

Ilughey, J T., e. Aug. 6,'62, trans. toV.R,C. 

Heaton', Simon, e. Aug. 0,'62, kid. Nov. 2'.t,'64. 

Horn, Jacob, e. Aug. 6.'62, trans, to V.R.C. 

Hudnall, Wesley, e. Aug. 6, '62, m.o. June 5, '65. 

Jameson, James, e. Julv 31, '()2, d. FeV). 3,'63, 

Johnson, H. J. e. Aug. 5,'62, ni. o. June 17,'65. 

Jellison, Benj., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

Kingery, J. F., e. July 31, '62, sick at m. o. 

Lane. Richard, e. July 31,'<)2, sick at m. o. 

Lovell, Henry, e. July 31, '62. d. Feb. 3,'63, dis. 

Myers, Solomon, e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

MeClaren, W. H., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5, 
'65, sergt. 

MeClaren, .(. W., e.July 31, '62, m. o. June5,'65. 

Newberry, Geo., m. o. June 5,'65. 

Osborn, Wm., e. Aug. 5, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

Palmer, Joel, e. Julv 31, '62, d. .Ian. 10,'63, dis. 

Powell, J. R., e. July 31, '62, m. o. Aug. 12,'65. 

Parker, M. V., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

Plank, M. V., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

Rodgers, Michael, e. Julv 31, '62, m. o. June 



Sears, L. J., e. July 31, '62, June 5,'65. 
Sears, Lemuel, e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Swisher, H. C, e. 3ulv31,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Shields, J. B., e. Aug. 6,'62, sicliat m. o. 
Shields, Wm., e. Aug. 6, 62, m. o. June 5,'65, 

Shrier, F. M., e. July 31, '61. 
Severus, Wm., e. Aug. 6, '62, m. o. June .5, '65. 
Severns, Eli, e. Aug. 6, '63, d. Mar. 20. '65. dis. 
Snodgrass, Robt.. e. Aug. 4,'62, m.o. June5,'65. 
Salsburj', James, e. Aug. 4, '62, trans, to Eng. C. 
Shaw, Geo. W.. e. Aug. 6. '62, died at Nashville. 
Shields, B. F., e. July 31, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Shanon, Nathan, e. Aug. 6,'62, d. May. 9,'63, 

Thompson, J. A., e. Aug. 6,'62, died of wnds. 

July 7,'64. 
Thompson, Samuel, e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. [June 

5,'65, corpl. 
Turner, C. C, e. Aug. 6, '62. 
Thosio, John, e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. July 22,'65. 

was pris. 
Toler, J. T., e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June5,'65. 
Wheeler, Arden, e. Aug. 6, '62, m. o. June5,'65. 
Worlev, Daniel, e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June 5,'6.5. 
Zellers, F., e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June 17,'65, was 


C03IPA>fY I. 


W. H. Marble, e. Aug. 27,'62, res. April 9,'63. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Hugh McHugh, e. Aug. 27,'62, res, Feb. 9,'63. 


A. A. Cameron, e. Aug. 27,"62. trans. Eng. C. 
L. V. Tarter, e. Aug. 27,'62. d. July 31, '64. 
John Rennau. e. Aug. 27,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Robt. MuUican, e. Aug. 27,'62, m.o. June 5,'65, 


Jeremiah Cockley, e. Aug. 27,'62, d. at Nash- 

^•ille. Tenn. 
J. W. Belless, e. Aug. 27,'62, m. o. une 5,'65. 
William Landon, e. Aug. 27,'62, m. o. June 

5, '65. 
L. Collins, e. Aug. 27,'62. trans. Eng. C. sergt. 
James Moslander, e. Aug. 27, '62, m. o. June 5, 

'65, sergt. 
Ezariah Thomas. 

Chas. Mathews, e. Aug. 1,'C2. m. o. .June 5,'65. 
Milo Butler, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5,^65. 

Wm. MeCaustland, e. Aug. 1, '62, d. Feb. —,'63. 

Edmund Curless, e. Aug. 1,'62, pro. 1st Lieut. 

Amsden, Lincoln, e. Aug. 1,'62. 
Belless, Wm., e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Cakley, John, e. Aug. 1,'62, died Jan. 18,'63. 
Frazef, Thomas, e. Aug. 1,'62, died Jan. 1,'63. 
Fatchcraft, Henry, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 

Gilson, Sanford, e. Aug. 1,'62, d. Mar. —,'63. 
Gray, Vison, e. Aug. 1,'62, d. alNash\ille. 
Graham, W. A., e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5,'65, 

Horton, Isaac, e. Aug. 1, '62, d. Oct. — , 62. 
Hughes, X. P., e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5,'65, 

Hughes, Wm., e. Aug. 1,'62, died Nov. —,'62. 
Hall, Josiah, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 19,'65, 

Holmes, J. R., e. Aug. 1,'62, trans. V. R. C. 
Keller, Sylvester, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Lapole, John, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Lovell, Wm., e. Aug. 1,'62. 
Minnes, Wm., e. Aug. 1,'62, d. at Louis\llle, 

Markel, Solomon, e. Aug.1,'62, m. o. June5,'65, 


Moore, J. E., e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
McCroskev, E., e. Aug. 1,'62, died Dec. —,'62. 
Phillips, W. H., e. Aug. 1,'62, trans. V. R. C. 
Richardson, Isaac, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5, 

'65, corpl. 
Royes, T. J., e. Aug. 1,'62, d. Oct. —,'62. 
Statts, T. J., e. Aug. 1,'62. 
Sanders, Geo., e. Aug. 1,'62. 
Smith, W. H., e. Aug. 1,'62. 
Tyra, Geo., e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Trayes, John, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5, '65, 

Trapp, Oliver, e. Aug. 1,'62, d. Feb. 9,'63. 
Walker, Austin, e. Aug. 1,'62, kid. at Kenesaw 

Wilkes, Lemuel, e. Aug. 1,'62, m. o. June 5, 

'65, sergt. 
Winchel, Albert, e. Aug. 1,61, d. Aug. 3,'63. 
Markley, Wm., d. Oct. —,'62. 
Menuef, John, e. Feb. 8,'64. 
Moore, J. H., Jan. 5,'64, d. Mar. 13,'65. 
Moore, Ellis, e. Jan. 5, '61, ab. at m.o. of regt. 
Dewey, I. B., Co. D, 86th Inf. e. Aug. 11, '62, m. 

o. June 6,'65. 

89tli INFANTRY. 


S. Alden, e. Aug. 5, '62. 

Buck, Jacob, e. July 31, '62. 
Baughman, David, e. Aug. 1,'62, kid. May 

Coleman, A., e. Aug. 5,'62, d. Mayl6,'63, dis. 
Hebb, .Saml., c. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 19,'65, 

Kunkle, I. H., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. Junel0,'65. 
Rowley, Reuben, e. July 31, '62, d. Sept. 16,'63, 

Sterling, Henrv, e. Aug. 7, "62, kid. Sept. 19,'63. 
Thomas, D. M., e. Aug. 1,'62, died Mar. 12,'63. 
Tavlor. Thomas, e. Aug. 11, "62, m. o. June 

10, '65. 


Was organized at Rockford in August, '62, by 

Col. T. E. Champion, and mustered in Sept. 6. 

Oct. 8, it moved to Newport, Ky. ; on the 29th 

moved to Lexington and Harrodsburg, where 

it remained four weeks, and thence removed 

to Danville, where it arrived Nov. 28. The 

regiment was mustered out June 10, '65, at 

Cam}i Harker, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago 

June 14,'65, where it received final pay and 


t'03IPANY B. 


David Salisburj-, e. Sept. 6, '62, res. Feb. 17, '63. 
A. B. Whitnev, e. Sept. 6,'62. res. Jan. 8,'64. 
E. J.Gilmore, e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. June 25,'64. 
G. H. Burnett, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 10,'65_ 

First Lieutenant. 

A. A. Bangs, e. Sept. 5,'62, m. o. June 10,'65. 


O. Ferrand, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 8, '65. 


J. D. Fulsom, e. Aug. 9,'62. 

S. H. Lindsey, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. May 10, '65, 

Arthur Cook, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. Mav 10,'65, sgt. 
Willard Whitney, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. May 10,'65. 

Burnett, Jerome, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. May 10, 
'65, corpl. 



Butler, Isaac, e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. May 10,'6o. 
Bangs, G. A., e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. May 10,'r.5. 
Barron, Orvill, e. Aug. 9, '(52, iii. o. May 10, '(i5. 
Brown, ,Tanies, e. Aug. 9, '62. died Jan. 2.^,'6:^. 
Beck, J. A., e. Aug. 9, '02, m. o. June 10, '6.5. 
Brogar, Henry, e. Aug. 9,'62, d. April 10, '63, dis. 
Carl, 'VVm., e. Aug. 9,'G2, trans fo V.R.C. 
Collins, Alfred, e. Aug. 9,'62, died Jan. 28,'6:i. 
Cleveland, M. H., e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. June 10, 

'65, cori)l. 
Cleveland, E. T., e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. May 13,'65. 
Collins, LaFavette, e. Aug. 9, '62. 
Cooper, (t. J., e. Aug. 9,'62, died Nov. 18,'63. 
Dombiski, Henrv, e.Aug. 9,'62,m.o. June 10, '65. 
De Voe, I. W., e." Aug. 9,'62, trans, to V.R.C. 
Edwards, Alfred, e. Aug. 9,'62, trans, to V.R.C. 
Fisher, Whitman. e.Aug.9,'62,d.Mar.l9,'63,dis. 
Fuller, Wni., e. Aug.'9,'62, m. o. June 10,'65. 
Gillmore, M.,e. Aug. 9, '62, d. Jan. 5, '65, dis. 
Hendee, G. E., e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. Mav 13, '65. 
Hoagstraat, H., e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. May 14,'64. 
Litwiler, James, e. Aug. 9, '62, kid. May 14,'(il. 
O'Connell, James, e. Aug. 9,'62, died Aug. 24,(53. 
Potter, Edwin, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 10, '65. 
Rich, Esau, e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. Nov. 24, 63. 
Washburn. John, e. Aug. 9, '62, kid. Dec. 16, '64. 
Young, James, e. Aug. 9, '(52, d. June 16,'63, dis. 
Fidler, John, Co. C, e. Aug. 15,'62, kid. Sept. 

20, '63. 
McCreadie, Wm., Co. C, e. Aug. 15. '62, died at 

Andersonville pris.. June 4, '64. 
Savage, Jerrv, Co. C,, e. Aug. 1,'(52, trans, to V. 

R. C. 


Carpenter, G. W., e. Aug. 6,'62, m, o. June 10, 

Hankins, C. S., e. Aug. 11, '62, ni. o. June 10,'65. 
Peppard, Chas., e. Aiig. 12, '62, m. o. June 10, 

'65, sergt. 
Ricks, Edw., e. Aug. 7,'62, m. o. June 10,'65, 

Sells, W. D., e. Aug. 2,'62, died July 30,'63. 
Thaver, Eli, e. Aug. 13, '62, missing in action. 
Drurv, W. E., Co. G., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. Mav 22, 

'(53, dis. 
(ray, Henrv, Co. G., e. Aug. 7, '(54, m. o. Juuf 

16,'65, corpl. 
Hill, James, Co. F., 102d, e. Jan. 4. '64. 
Olson, Peter,'Co. I., 102d, c. Dec. 15,'63. 


Was ograiuz<>d in August, '62, and mustered in 
Oct. 2. 

The 103d was exclusively a Fulton county 
regiment, having been raised entirely in this 
county. The regiment received orders Oct. 30 
to move to Cairo, and thence to Columbus, 
Jackson and Bolivar, -where it was assigned, 
Nov. 2, to First Brigade, Fourth Division, 
Thirteenth Corps. The regiment was engaged 
in sundry marches and reconnoissances, from 
Jackson and Bolivar, during November and 
December, 1862. On the 9th of November it 
engaged the enemy near Coldwater, Miss., 
driving him, killing 15 and capturing 70 pris- 
oners. Oft the 28th of November went on a 
campaign to Tallahatchie river, where they 
met a strong force of the enemy and drove 
them from their position. On the .30th of 
December went into winter quarters at Jack- 

The 103d took part in the battle of Resaca, 
Ga., where they sustained quite a heavy loss, 
and among the brave men who fell there was 

the gallant Col. Willard A. Dickerman, who 

gave up his life May 28, '64. 

The regiment was mustered out June 21, '65 

at Louisville, Ky.. and proceeded to Chicago, 

where, June 24, '65, it received final payment 

and discharge. 


Amos C. Babcock, e. Oct. 2,'(52, res. Oct. 18,'62. 
W. A. Dickerman, e. Oct. Is,'(i2, kid. at Resaca, 

Ga., Mav 28, '64. 
G. W. Wright, e. Oct. 18,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Lieutenant Colonels. 
Asias Willison, e. Oct. 18,'62, res. Jan. 8,'65. 
Charles Willis, e. Oct. 2,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

S. S. Tipton, e. Aug. 2, '62, res. June 19, '63. 

A. E. Waystafr, e. Aug. 6, '62. 

F. B. Lermond, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 


William Miller, e. Oct. 18,'62. m. o. May ]5,'65. 
II. S. Ingersoll, e. Aug. 11, '(52, m. o. June 21, '65, 


Richard Morris, e. Nov. 15, '62, ni. o. June 21, "(55. 

First Assistq,nt Surgeon. 

S. S. Buck, e. Oct. 2,'62,m. o. June 21, '(55. 

Second A.msiant Surgeon. 

J. W. VanBrunt. e. Oct. 3,'(52, m. o. June 21, '65. 


W. S. Peterson, e. Oct. 2,'62. 

Sergeant Major. 

S. R. Quigley, e. Aug. 11, '62, ni. o. June 21, '65. 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Wilson Fisher, e. Aug. 11, '(52, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Commissary Sergeant. 

George Stipp, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Hospital Steward. 

H. J. Miffin, e. Aug. 22, '62, d. June 8, '63. 
John Hughes, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Principal Musicians. 

C. E. Payne, e. Aug. 14,'62, died July, 20,'63. 
H. E. Schaefer, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. .rune21,'65. 
E. A. ParAin, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 



W. W. Bishop, e. Oct. 18,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

First Lieutenant. 

I. W. Worley, e. Oct. 18,'62, res. Jan. 15,'65. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Howard Willison, e. Oct. 18,'62. 

First Sergeant. 

Wm. M. Standard, e. Aug. 9,'62, pro. 1st Lieut. 


John Milburu, e. Aug. 9.'62, kid. Nov. 25,'63. 
Alonzo M. Cole, e. Aug. 14, '62, ab. at m. o. of 

Sidney R. Quigley, e. Aug.11,'62, pro. serg. maj. 
Henry C. Black, e. Aug. 7, '62, d. Mar. 17,'63,dis. 

John Thompson, e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. Nov. 2.5,'63. 
Robt. B. Evans, jr., e. Aug. 7,'62, m. o. June 29, 

'65, 1st Sergt. 
John A. Chambers, e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65, Sergt. 
W. C. Staten, e. Aug. 3,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
C. W. Fluke, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Perry Morauville, e. Aug. 11, '62, died Oct. 30, '63. 
Andrew Barrett, e. Aug. 8,'62, d. Nov. 5,'63,dis. 
Alexander Morauville, e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. 

June, '21, '65. 



<;. R. Jordan, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Mar. 29,'(;a, dis. 
T. J. Piersol, e. Aug. 22,'6J, m. o. Mar. 10,'r,3. 

William Weaver, e. Aug. 22, '62. 

Aruett, J. N., e. Aug. 11,'&2, m. o. .luue 21. 'H."!. 
Anderson, John A., e. Aug. 22,'G2, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Alshurv, Levi, e. Aug. 22,'62. m. o. June 29.'Go. 
Barnhill, Wm. B., e. Aug. 8,'62, d. June 26,'6:^, 

for pro. 
Beezlev, Paul, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 21, Hw. 
Beezlev, John M., e. Aug. 9,"62, died Sep. 10, '63. 
Bechelshymer, Hezekiah, e. Aug. 9,'62, died 

Aug. 25, '63; wads. 
Bird, William, e. Aug. 9,'62, ni. o. June 21,'65, 

Bramble, George F., e. Aug. 9, '62. ni. (i. May 

16, '65. 
Berrv, John, e. Aug. 2, '62. 
Berry, Elliott, e. Aug. 4,'62. 
Bishop, Thomas S., e. Aug 22,'62, kid Nov. 

25, '63. 
Cockrell, Nathan, c. Aug. 9,'62, died Aug. 

Clifford, Kelson, e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, tol. C. 
Covert, Robert, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Cozan, Joseph, e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Chambers, J. B., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. .lune 

21, '6.5. 
Chamber, (Jeoi^e W.,e. Aug. 21, '62, ni. o. .Tune 

21, "65. 
Clark, Isiuic B., e. Aug. 13,'62, trans, to V. R.C. 
Calhoun, Andrew, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Feb. 9. 

Childers, James A., e. Aug. 14,'62, died Jan. 

29,63., John, c. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. .Iune21,'6,). 
Day, Nathan L.. e. Aug. ]7.'62. 
Davis, George J., e. Aug. 16, '62. 
Da\is, Thornton, e. Aug. 21, '62, ni, ". June 

21, '65. 
Evans, Edward F., e. Aug. 7,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Ellis, James A., e. Aug. S,'62, died Jan.8,'63. 
Ellis, Isaac, e. Aug. 22,'62, d. Mar. 17,'(i3. dis. 
Fitzgerald, William, e. Aug. 14, '62. 
(Juthrie, William, e. .\ug. 22, '62, ni. n. .Time 

21, '65, corpl. 
(Justine, Samuel H., e. Aug. 22, '62, m. o. June 

Hill, William, e. Aug. 12,'62, died Mar. 23,'6;!. 
Houston, O. P., e. Aug. 9,'(i2. 
Harrison, John e. Aug.12,'62. 
Horn, Isaac, e. Aug. 1, '62, kid. Nov. 25,"6;;. 
Horn, William, Jr., e. .\ug. 2(1, '62, died June 

Horn, Jonathan, c. Aug. 22, '62, d. Jan. 27, '65, 

sergt,, dis. 
Horn, Erasmus, e. Aug. •22,'(i2, died .'^ept, 9.'63. 
Hunter, William, e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 

•22, '(i5. 
Hedge, Eder, e. Aug. 21, '62. died Mar. :',i),'6;!. 
Hedge, Stephen B., e. Aug. •22,'62, m. (i. June 

21, "()5, corpl. 
.lenning, Nathan L.. e. Aug. 14, '(Vi, m. o. June 

Kruzan, Findlcy, c. Aug. 20,'62, d. Mar. 29,'(i5. 
Livingston, Johii, e. Aug. >>,'62, m. o. June 21. 

'65, sergt. 
Livingston, J., e. Aug. 29, '(>2, m. o. June 21, '(w. 
Livingston, William, e, Aug, 21,'62, kid, Aug. 

1,5, '64, 
Lenhart, Isaiah, e. Aug. 16,'62, m.o. June21,'65. 
McCumber. Anson, e. Aug. 7,'62, d. 25,'64, dis. 
McCJhee, I)a\-id, e. Aug. 7,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Messplay, .lames, e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. Juno 21, '65. 
Osborn, (ieorge F., e. .Vug. 5, '62. m. o. June 

21, '65. 

Reeves, David H., e. Aug. 3,'62, died Dec. 31. 

'63, wnds. 
Smith, Abram, e. Aug. 8, '62, kid .lune 27, '6.1. 
Smith, William C. e. Aug. m,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Summers, John W., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65, sergt. 
Toolev, Jo.siah. e. Aug. 13,'62, died Feb. 3,'63. 
Toolev, Joshua, e. Aug. 7,'62, tran.s. to 40th 111. 

Voris, Abraham, c. Aug. 13, '62, died July 13,'63. 
Wells, Greenberrv D., e. Aug. .5,'62, m. o. June 

■21, '6.5. 
Wells, James H., e. Aug. 5. '62. 
Wright, William M. e. Aug. 14, •(;2. 
Willson, Howard, e. Aug. 14, '62, pro. 2d Lieut. 
Walker. John, e. Aug. 2(.t,'62. 
Stone, Archibald, e. Aug. 22, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Call, George B., e. Mar, 21, '64, kid. July 28,'64. 
Coaklev, (ieorge W., e' Nov. 8, '63. trans, to 40tli 

111." Inf. 
Hill, Robert W,, e. Mar. 9,'C>4, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Iknrv, Levi E. 
Jones", Thomas S., e. Mar. 21. '64. kid. June 

•27, '(VI. 
Livingston, Isaac, e. Aug. 20, '62, d. Jan. 8,'.55. 

Moranville, Charles L.. e. Mar. 21, '64. kid Aug. 

Shaw. Amaziah. e. Mar, 21, '64, trans, to 40tli 

111. Inf. 
Tipton. Samuel S., pro. Adjutant. 
Wartield, William, e. Mar. '25, '64, kid. June 

•27, '(Vl. 


(). I). Cariieuter. e. Oct. 2, '62, res. April 7,'63. 
William Walsh, e. Oct. 2,'62, died Nov. •25,'(53. 
.\ndrew Smith, e. Aug. '22,'62, m.o. June ■21, '(i5. 

First Lieutenant". 
J. S. (Jardner, e. Oct. 2,'62, res. Feb. 5, '63. 
J. M. Swartz, e. Aug. 14,'62, ra. o. Juue '21, '65. 

Srrond Lieutenant. 
S. B. Boer, e. Aug. 14,'(;2. res. Aug. ]0,'63. 

Firt't Sergrnnl. 
Simon I!. Beer. c. .\ug. 14,'6'2, pro. 2d Lieut. 

James E. (J. Hibbard, o. .\ug. 14, '62, m. o. .June 

21, '65. 
Andrew Smith, e. Aug. 22,'62, i>ro. 1st Lieut. 
Elijah Lanman, o. Aug. 22,'tV2, kid. June •28,'64. 
.Vllen W. Smith, e. .-Vug. •26,'(i2, died Uar. 19,'6:;. 

I Joseph Prosser, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. May 2,'6o. 
I William HummoU, e. Aug. 14,'62, sergt., 
' ni. o. regt. 

Jacob W. Kist, e. Aug. 14, '(i2. 
Christ B. Fisher, e. Aug. 14. '62, m. o. June 21. 

"65, 1st sergt. 
Edward Hancock, e. -Vug. 2(i,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
James A Dailey, e. Aug. 11. '62. ni. u. June 21. 

'65, sergt. 
.lohnson Brunner, e, Aug. 14, "62, trans, to I. ('. 

Henry E. .Schaefor. e. Aug. 14,'62, app. jirin. 

Elim A. Parvin, c. Aug. 14,'62, app. prin. nni. 

Alfred P. Potter, e.Aug. 22,'62, m.o. May •29,'65. 

Arringdle, Francis, e. Atig. •20,'62, m. o. June 

Alms, Henry, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Alms, Andrew, c. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. May 19,'C5. 
Anno. Henrv. e. Aug. 14,'62, died Aug. '27,'63. 

iiis'i'oi;^' OF Kn/rox corxTV. 


KiikiT, .l;niR's I).. V. AiiK. I l.'ili^. 
Burrow, .Fanu's, v. Au.s,'. M.'iJ'J, iii.o. .luiiu 21,'Im. 
liinvors, .Jos'.'jih. o. Jl.'(ii>, kid May 14.'(>4. 
Uovvers, Daiiii^l, o. Aii^r. M.'iVJ, diod Sept. IT.'ii.!. 
Cariieiitt'r, .Iiilni H., c. Ant;. H.'t'>-. in. o. .litiu' 

( 'iniiiiii.uliinn, .Miriin I!., v. \\i\z. I l.'iVJ. in. o. 

.(unr ■-'l.'Ci.'i. 
t 'lino. l,ouis, \\iix. 1 l.'iij. 
Clark, Ilc-nry. t'. Aii;_'. I l.'^.J. kM. Nov. L'.'i.'Ci:',. 
D.uiaud, Ik'iij.iiiiiti M.. f. An^-. II, 'i;.'. ilii'il 

,-:c])r. 2-2.'M. 
l).ulv,.lolm R., I.', .\ilfi-. 1-1, '61;, 111. o. .luiic 15, 'I'm. 
Davis, Klirnczor, c. Aur. 21,'i',-j, d. Mar. 10,'Gl. 
Klliott, Cyrus, v. .\uk. 14,'i'rJ. i 1. o. .Tunc •J1,"Im. 
Fisiier, .lolin \V.. c. .\uk. li.'i'J. 111. o. Mayi'J, 

'05, coriil. 
Fisher, .losluia.!.. v. Ann. IJ.'il'i, 1st srr.ut. trans. 

to 1. C. 
Flower, William H.. Auu. 1 l.'d'J. 111. u. .lunc 

24, '(').">. 
Fry, Isaac, c. Aug. 14,'ii2. diod .Vug. (i,'i>4. 
(Uadmaii, Thomas, c. Aug. 14.'i)2, abs. at ni. o. 

of rcRt. 
(Jlass, Uriah .1.. c .Vng. ■Ji)."r)2. coriil. abs. at +11. 

(I. of regt. 
Llall, ,Joshua, e. .Vug. 14,'ii2, trans, to 4(itli Inf. 
HunimcU, Saiiiufl, v. Aug. 14, 'ill, 111. o. .Iniic 

21,'t)5, corjil. 
Hancy, Henry, e. Aug. ]l,'iJ2, 111. o. .Inne 21,'»'i5, 

Ileartlcy, William L., Aug. 14, '(12, d. May 7,'ti;!. 
Henry, .lohn, e. Aug. 22, '112, died Dec. ^(l.'lio. 
lleariley, .lohn, e. Aug. 14,'fi2, m. o. .luiie 

Ilitcs, Tllouiiis, e. .Vug. 21. '112, 111. o. .1 line 21 ,'(J5. 
.lackson, Ira, e, Aug. 14, '(12, 111. o.luly 14. '(15. 
Kiugswortli, .lohn, c. Aug. 14, '112, d. Mar. i(,'(l:i. 
ICnhn. Conrad, e. .Vug. 2(J,'(12,m. o. .Tune 21, '(15. 
Kc|)lcr, .Samuel, e, .Vug. 14,'tJ2, died Aug. '24. '(i:!. 
, Marklcy, .T. F., e. Aug. 14,'(i2, died .Fan. 12,'0:!. 
Markle'y, Marion, c. Aug. 14, '(12, died March 

McClcrg, .lohn K., c. Aug. 14, '(12. 
>rc('lerg, William, c. Aug. 14, '112, ni. o. .luiio 24, 

'(15, was pris. 
.Moutg(.)niery, George, e. .Vug. 14, '(12, abs. at m. 

o. of regt. 
.Montgoincrv. .Vdani. e. Aug. 14, '112, 111. o. .lunc 

21, '(15. 
Montgomerv, Richard, e. Aug. '22, '(12. klil. Nov. 

■2.5, •(;:',. 
Mantonga, Amos., c. .Vug. '20, '(12, died Aiml 

10, '(i;!. 

Mantonga, Sylvester, e. Aug. 1;;, '(12, kid. .lunc 

Nfartiu, Jjcwis, c. Aug. 14, '(i2, 111. o. .lunc 21, '(15. 
Norville, Elisha, e. Aug. 14, '(12, m. o. ,Iune21, 

'(15, sergt. 
Overman, Oscar, e. Aug. 14, '(12, in. o. .Tunc 21, 

()5, cori>l. 
Parker, Allen S., e. Aug. 14.'(i2, died Oct. 5,'();!. 
Palmer, Archibald D., e. Aug. 14, '(12, kid. Nov. 

■22, '(■>4. 
Pratt, Thomas, c. Aug. 14, '(C 
Pepitt, William, e. Aug. 14. '152, kid. Nov. •25,'t;;!. 
Roberts, ,To.seph T., e. Aug. 14,'t32, d. ^far.KI.'Cvl. 
Heed, William ^M., e. Aug. '22, '(12, m. o. .lunc '21, 

'(15, sergt . 
Swartz, Christopher M.. c. .Vug. 14, '(12, m. o. 

.Tune 21. '115. 
Swartz, Henry, e. Aug. 14, '(12, m. o. .rune 21, '(15. 
Stobaugh, .Tames, e. Aug. 14, '02. 
SlKjcmaker, .Vbraham, e. Aug. 14, '(12, m. o. 

.Tune 21, '(15. 
Seward, .Tasi)er.I., e. Aug. 14, '(12. 
Smith, .loseph .T., e. Aug. 22, '(12, died Jan. is, 

Spcer, .lohn (i., e. Aug. 22, '(52, died .Tulv 10, '(U. 
See, Daniel, e. Aug. 2(),'62, d. April l(l,'(i;l. 
Terry, William L.. c. Aug. 14. '(■)2, trans, to J. C. 
Volmar, Daniel, e. .Vug. i:i,'Ci2, m. o. .fuue 21, 


Whiting, Joint A., e. Aug. 14,'G'2, died Feb. '2, 

Whiting, Salathiel, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Nov. fi, 

V\'hceler, Joseph H., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 

21. '115, corpl. 
Zeil>v, William, e. Aug. 22,'62, kid. Nov. 25,'6:!. 
Vniio, James W.,e, Dec. 15,'6o, kid. June 'iT.'Rl. 
Donney, Frank E. 
.lamicsou, Ezra, died June I'J.'Go, 
Morris, P. W., e. Fel). 10,'(54, trans, to Kith Inf. 
Keed, William. 
Swartz, .lohn W., jiro. 1st Eieiit. 


F. M. Taylor, c. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. .luue 21, '(j5. 

First Lieutenants. 
II. 1,. Xicolet, e. Oct. 2,'(i2, res. Mar. (;,'(!:;. 
William Wilkinson, e. Aug. 11, '02, res. Julv 11, 

(i. S. Chapin. c. Aug. 15, "02, m. o. June 21, '05. 

Strond Lieutenant. 
.1. S. Smith, c. Oct. 2,'(i2, re.s. Apl. :;,'(35. 

First Sergeant. 
.loliii H. Harris, e. Aug. 12,'(32, d. Feb. 0,'(15. 

William Wilkinson, e. Aug. 11, '(32, pro. 1st 

Joshua M. Gibbs. e. Aug. 0, '02, d. May 9, '05. 
Alexander E. Wagstaff, e. Aug. 0,'(12, trans, to 

Co. G. 
Enos Kelsey, e. .Vug, 11, '02, m. o. June 21, '05, 

1 st sergt. 


J(jseiih I'arnham, e. .Vug. 5,'02, m. o. May .'W, 

Henry S. liigersoll, e. Aug. 11, '02, pro. Q. .sergt. 
(ieorge Stipj). e. Aug. 9, '02. pro. Com. sergt. 
Francis M. Hunt, e. Aug. 11, '(32, m. o. June 21, 

Gorham S. Chapin, e. Aug. 15, '02, d. June 8, '65, 

for pro. 
Kns.sell J Tanner, c. Aug. 15, '02, sergt. died 

Aug. '24, (34, wnds. 
Samuel Spillman. e. Aug. (1,'('>2. 

Washington F. Randolph, e. Aug. 14, '02, d. 

April S,'64. a 

Robt. E. Snyder, e. Aug. 22,'(32, d. March IT.'On, 



Alibott, Joel, e. Aug. 13,'e2, died June l.S,'(3S. 
Andrews, Jf)siah, e. Aug. 12,'(i2. 111. o. June 21, 

Armstrong, (iardner M., e. Aug. 7, '02, m. o. 

.lunc 21, '(15, .sergt. 
Ball, Edwin N., e^ Aug. 9,'fi2, trans, to I. C. 

.June '28, '63. 
Bailey, George L., e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. .luue 21, 

'(35, corpl. 
Bass, George M., e. Aug. 13,'02, m. o. June 21, 

'(35, sergt. 
Bavlor, Theo<lore, c. .\^ug. 13, '(32, kid. .luno '27, 

' '04. 
Beu.sou, William, e. .Vug. 14, "(32, m. o. June 21, 

Beu.sou, (ieorge. c. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, 

Bevans, Robert E., e. Atig. 12,'(32, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Blake, Samuel F., e. Aug. 14, '62, died Feb. 4, 

Brown, Benjamin, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. March 29, 

'03, dis. 
Bee.sou, Turner, e. Aug. 15,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Cannon, Thomas, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Oct. 19,'63, 




Chapin, Ivory, e. Aug. 15, '62. m. o. June 21, '65. 
Cone, Joseph C, e. Aug. 15,'62, m. o. June 9,'65. 
Carrico, Harrison, e. Aug. 14,'62, trans, to I. C. 
Cook, James, e. Aug. 12,"62. m. o. June 21. '65. 
Couch, John S., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, 

Dean, Stephen E.", e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 21, 

Evans, John, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21, '6-5. 
Evans, George VV., e. Aug. 13, '62, died July 5, 

Evans, David W.. e. Aug. 11, '62, abs. at m. o. 

of regt. 
Evans, Philip F., e. Aug. 13,'62, abs. at m. o. of 

Ellis. Isaac N., e. Aug. 6,'62, abs. at m. o. of 

Griffen, Da\dd S.. e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, 

Godlev, William, e. Aug. 13,"62, m. o. June 21, 

Gardiner. Benjamin C, e. Aug. 12,'62, died 

Oct. 4, '63. 
Oreinwill, Robert, e. Aug. 12,'62,'died Aug. 

31, '63. 
George, Samuel, e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. June 

21. '65. 
Gamer, Ferdinand, e. Aug. 14. '62, m. o. June 

21, '6.5. 
Giddings, William F., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Oct- 

10, '6.3. 
Greenslit, X. A., e. Aug. 8,62, died June •28,'frl, 

Hackett, George M., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 

21, '6.5. 
Hackett, Clavton S., e. Aug. 11. '62, m. o. June 

21, -6.5. 
Horton, George W., e. Aug. 11,"62, m. o. June 

21. '65, corpl. 
Hart. George, e. Aug. 13,'62, died July 6,'63, 

Huckabv, John H.. e. Aug. 6, '62, died April 

Herr, Sheaflf L., e. A»ig. 11, '62, m. o. June 

21, '6-5. 
Lee, Joseph F.. e. Aug. 11. '62. died Aug. 14,'63. 
Lee. William R., e. Aug. 11, '62, died June 

Lewis, Henry N., e. Aug. 11, '62, abs. at m. o. 

of regt. 
Lee, Jo.seph. e. Aug. 12,'62, died June 10,'63. 
Louis, Elijah, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Feb. 4,'&4. 
Little. Robert F., e. Aug. li,'62. m. o. June 

21, '6.5. 
• Lawrence. Amos B., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. June 

21, '6.5. 
Moore, William W., e. Aug. 16, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Marshall. Robert R., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. June 27. 

'64, dis. 
McKissick, John, e. Aug. 23, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
McGraw, John, e. Aug. 12,'62. 
Marvel, Robert, e. Aug. 12,'62. d. Jan. 19,"63, 

Riley, Henry, e. Aug. 11,'62, d. May 30,"63, dis. 
Roatson, Joseph, e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to 1. C. 
Stockdale, Albert, e. Aug. 15,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Stewart, Richard S., e. Aug. 12, '62, died Sept. 

8. '63. 
Sly. Wm. H., e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to V. R. C. 
Smith, William A., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65, sergt. 
Stone, Jesse, e. Aug. 15,"62, m. o. June 21. '65. 
Sebree, St. Clair S., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 

Sandford, Charles W., e. Aug, 15, '62, died Oct. 

Taylor, Francis M., e. Aug. 22,'62, pro. 1st sergt., 

then capt. 
Thorpe, Burton H., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

20, '63. 

Vandersloot, Albert L., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. Aug. 

8, '63. 
Veeman, Charles A., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 

21. '65, corpl. 
Werden, Jacob, e. Aug. 7, '62. 
Welch, Hosea W., e. Aug. 11,'62, d. May 4,'63, 

Wilkinson, George J., e. Aug. 11, '62, pro. sei-gt. 

Westerfield, Cary A., e. Aug. 20,'62, trans, to 

I. C. 
Zuck, Daniel, e. Aug. 11,'62, m. o. June 22,'65, 

Zuck. William, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21, "6.5. 
Adams. William J., e. Jan. 26.'65. m. o. June 

5, '65. 
Chapin, Ord. e. Jan. 26,'65, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Coroner, Thomas J., e. Jan. 26, '65, trans, to 

40th Inf. 
Dean, William F., m. o. June 21,'65, corpl. 
Ellis, Newton, m. o. May 30,'65. 
Hetherington. Jacob, e." April 29, "64, trans, to 

40th Inf. 
Mendenhall, Charles C, e. Jan. 26, '6.5. trans, to 

40th Inf. 
McLain, John, e. Jan. 10,'6.5, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Ralston, William D., e. Jan. 26,'65, trans, to 

40th Inf. 
Ralston, Jamas C, e. Jan. 26,'65, trans, to 40th 

Sanders. General I^e, d. Jan. 8, '65. 
Thomas, James B., e. Nov. 10, '63. died Aug. 5, 

'W. wnds. 
^^'hitaker, John C, e. Jan. 26,'65, trans, to 40th 

WalUng, Eli, kid. Oct. 15, '64. 



3. S. WyckofF, e. Oct. 2.'62, res. Apl. 20.'64. 
M. V. D. Voorhees, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 
21. '6.5. 

First Lieutenants. 
B. F. WvckoflF, e. Oct. 2.'62, res. ApL 7.'6.3. 
I.<aac McBean, e. Oct. 2.'62, res. June 22.'63. 
L. P. Blair, e. Aug. 13,62, kid. Julv 22,'64. 
R. L. Neefus, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21,'65. 
• First Sergeant. 

Matthew V. D. Voorhees, e. Aug. 13, '62, pro. 2d 


Archibald McCrea, e. Aug. 13,'6'2, died Aug. 

6, '64. 
John Hughes, e. Aug. 13,'62, pro. Hospital 
. Lawrence P. Blair, e. Aug. 13,'62, pro. 1st 
Allen D. Rose, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 
21, '65. 


Charles B. Edmonson, e. Aug. 13,'62, sergt. 

trans, to V. R, C. 
Cornelius W. Pratt, e. Aug. 13, '62, died Feb. 1, 

Ralph L. Neefus, e. Aug. 13,'62, pro. 1st Lieut. 
Robert D. Gigh, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
Peter D. Ditto, e. Aug. 13.'62, died Feb. 18,'6.3. 
Henrv A. Snvder, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Deo. 

31, '6?. 
John W. Bower, e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 


George M. Woodley, e. Sept. —,'62, d. April 16, 

'63, dis. 
Wm. W. Warner, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Jan. 18,'65, 



Joseph L. Cyphers, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 




Alpaugh, Chas., e. Aug. 13,'62, died Sep. 16,'63. 
Alwood, George W., e. Aug. 13,'62, died Aug. 

11, '63. 
Anderson, Lewis, e. Aug. 14,'62, kid. Nov. 

22, '64. 
Ashearn, Robert C, e. Aug. 13, '62, sergt., ab. 

m. o. regt. 
Beam, George, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Aug. 20,'63, 

Beaver, Martin L., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Blakeslee, G. M., e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Botkin, Marcellus, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Botkin, EInathan, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Oct. 8,'64. 
Botkin, Asa J., e. Aug. 22,'62, trans, to V. R. C. 
Buck, Sidney S., e, Aug. 13, '62, pro. 1st as. sur. 
Burson, George, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June21,'65. 
Brown, Simon V., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Sept. 6,'63, 

Bye, George J., e. Oct. 13,'62, died Sept. 3,'64. 
Corev, Steplien A., e. Aug. 13, '62, m. b. June 

21, '65. " 
Cyphers, J. W., e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Gammon, Theodore, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Aug. 23, 

'63, corpl. 
Dilts, Herman H., e. Aug. 13,'62, corpl., died 

Aug. 3, '63. 
Dilts, Charles J., e. Aug. 13,'62, died July 20,'63. 
Dilts, James, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June, 21, '65, 

Ditmars, Richard L., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Dyckman, Charles, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Sept. 30, 

'64, corpl; wnds. 
Dailey, George, e. Aug. 13,'62, trans to V. R. C. 
Diltz, Jacob, e. Sept. — ,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Foster, Richard, e. Aug. 13, '62, corpl., trans, to 

V. R. C. 
Foster, Humphrey, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. May 4,'63, 

Gick, Henrv, e. Aug. 13,'63, d. April 16,'63, dis. 
Goodell, Hiram, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Dec. 18,'63. 
Gronendyke, Wm., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Sept. 6,'63, 

Hagaman, Abram W., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Oct. 28, 

'63, dis. 
Hagaman, Garrett V., e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. 

June 21, '65. 
Hagaman, John T., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Dec. 28, 

'63, dis. 
Hall, Edward E., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Hall, Peter, e. Aug. 21, '62, died Aug. 5,'64. 
Hall, William, e. Aug. 13, '62, kid. iMay 11, '65. 
Hillpot, Hugh F., e. Aug. 13, '62, trans. V. R. C. 
Hutt; Christopher, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. July 

Huff, Lewis D., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Johnston, Jacob, e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 

21, '6.5. 
Johnston, Wm. C, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Aug. 

Kellogg, S. H., e. Aug. 13, '62, kid. Nov. 22, '64. 
Little, James, e. Aug. 13, '62, d. Sept. 6, '63, dis. 
Merriara, Syms A., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Moore, Simon, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21,'65. 
Montgomery. William, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. 

June 21, '65, corpl. 
Moor, George J., e. Aug. 13,'62, died Sep. 15,'64. 
Moor, Caleb, e. Aug. 13,'62, corpl., died Nov. 

25, '64, wnds. 
Polhemus, John, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, 1st sergt. 
Razee, James R., e. Aug. 13. '62. 
Reihm, Philip, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. May 18,'65. 
Roch, Philip, e, Aug. 13,'62. m. o. June 21, '65. 
Snodgrass, Robert, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 

Stiue, William R., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. July 

Stine, Jacob P., e. Aug. 13,'62, m.o. June 21, '65, 

Swiney, Gersham, e. Aug. 13,'62, died April 

12, '64. 
Swegle, John W., e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Taylor, George W., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Vail, Jasper, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Vanarsdale, Peter V. D., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. 

June 21, '65. 
Voorhees, Peter, e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Voorhees, Richard D., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. 

June 21, '65. 
Walsh, Daniel, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Feb. 16,'63. 
Winters, James, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Wyckoff, John G., Aug. 13,'62, d. Mar. 28,'62, 

Roberts, Paxon, e. Sept. 6,'62, d. Sep. 6,'63, dis. 
Blakeslee, Charles H., e. Nov. 13,'63, d. Feb. 24, 

'65, wnds. 
Moorehead, William, dism'd Mayl5,'63. 


F. C. Post, e. Oct. 2,'62. 

First Lieutenant. 
C. H. Suydam, e. Oct. 2,'62. 

First Sergeant. 

Benjamin F. Wood, e. Aug. 4, '62, died July 
9, '63. 


Christopher C. Bowman, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. 

June 20,'65. 
Douglass M. McCann, e. Aug. 4, '62, on duty at 

m. o. of regt. 
Wfsley S. Low, e. Aug. 4,'62, kid. Nov. 25,'63. 
Aljraham DeClerk, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 


Charles W. Thompson, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. 

June 21, '65. 
W. H. Jackson, e. Aug. 4,'6e, m. o. June 12, 

'65, sergt. 
Wm. Shaw, e. Aug. 4,'62, died Aug. 20,'63. 
Jones B. Fletcher, e. Aug. 4, '62, kid. Nov. 

Joseph T. Crawford, e. Aug. 4, '62, ab. at m. o. 

uf regt. 
J. A. Van Meddleworth, e. Aug. 4, '62, ab. at 

m. o. of regt. 
Lemuel Shooks, e. Aug. 4,'62, detached at m. 

o. of regt. 
Henry F. Castle, e. Aug. 4,'62, died June 11, '64. 


Angelo Thompson, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 
21, '65. 


Addis, Simon P., e. Aug. 4, "62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Anton, Joseph R., e. Aug. 4,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Abby, James D., e. Aug. 4,'62, d. Mar. 7,'65. 
Brown, Lyman P., e. itug.4,'62, died Feb. 3, '65. 
Baylor, Washington, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Breese, Watson, e. Aug. 4,64, ab. at m. o. regt. 
Breese, Noah, e. Aug. 4,'62, died April 10,'63., Orin, e. Aug. 4, '64, died Nov. 18, '62. 
Beasley, Thomas, sr.,e. Aug.4,'62, d. Mar. 16,'63. 
Beaslev. Thomas, jr., e. Aug. 4,'62, m. o. June 

21 ,'65. ■ 
Brandon, Parker, e. Aug. 4,'C2, died Aug.17,'64. 
Broadrick William, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 

Carver, Ira C, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 



CockreU, RosweU, c. Aug. 4,'62, kid. Nov. 

25, '63. 
Convin, James, e. Aug. 4,'62, died Sept. 21, '63. 
DeVVitt, David S., e. Aug. 4,'62, died Sep.22,'63. 
Downs, William., e. Aug. 4, '62, kid. Nov. 23,63. 
Edwards, David, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Frederick, Jacob Y., e. Aug. 4, '62, ab. at m. o. 

of regt. 
Fitzgerald, Haman, e. Aug. 4,'62, kid. Xov. 

25, '63. 
Fa-st, Omri, e. Aug. 4,'G2, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Glothen, Charles, e. Aug. 4,'62, d. April 16,'63. 
Gosham, Summers, e. Aug. 4,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65, sergt. 
(ribson, William, c. Aug. 4, '64, trans, to I. (J. 
Hill, Johu W., e. A\ig. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Hiller, F., e. Aug. 4,'(i2, died July 1VI,'64. 
Huston. J., e. Aug. 4, '62, ab: at m. o. of regt. 
Johngan, A., e. Aug. 4, '62, ni. o. June 21, '65. 
Johnson, W. H., e. Aug. 4,'62, m. o. June21,'65. 
Krims, Sol., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Maulsby, Law., e. Aug. 4,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Maloon, Win., e. Aug. 4, '62, d. Sejjt. 4, '63. 
Maloon, Samuel, e. Aug. 4. '62, trans, to I. C. 
McKinlev, J., e. Aug. 4, '62. died Dec. 24, '62. 
Mills, Benj. F., e. Aug. 4, '62, kid. Aug. 4,'64. 
Oviatt, Daniel, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Purcell, Ed., e. Aug. 4,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Patterson, An., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Rogers, J. W., e. Aug. 4, '62, died Mar. 15, '64. 
Ruey, H. C, e. Aug. 4, '62, corpl., trans. V. R. C. 
Rube, Andrew, e. Aug. 4, '62, d. May 7, '63. 
Reamy, Dan., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Reamy, John, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Rasmine, Thos., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Richardson, H., e. Aug. 4, '62, m.o. June 3, '65. 
Robinson, I., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. ,Iune 21, '65. 
Roberts, Joseph X., e. Aug. 4, '62. 
Smith, T. K., e. Aug. 4, '62, d. Xov. 7, '63. 
Swan, Jos. F., e. Aug. 4, '62, m, o. June 21, '65. 
Stephenson, Sam'l, e. Aug. 4, '62, trans to I. C 
Spencer, Sam., c. Aug. 4, '62, kid. June 15, '64. 
Strickland, John, e. Aug. 4, '62, died Jan.24,'63.. 
Spencer, Wm., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Thomi)kins, A. C, e. Aug. 4, '62, d. Oct. 27,'63. 
Tar, Jos., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. .lune 21, '65. 
Wages, Jacob, e. Aug. 4, '02, d. Feb. 7, '65. 
Wages, Isaac, e. Aug. 4, '62, d. May 16, '63. 
Wages, James, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Williams, Henry, c. Aug. 4, '62, kid. June 27, '64. 
Wilson, Simeon, e. Aug. 4,'62, m.o. June 21, '65. 
Wilson, Charles, e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. .lune 2, '65. 
Weaver, George H., e. Aug. 4,'62, in. o. Mav 

11, '65. 
Webb, Isaac, e. Aug. 4,'62, died July IS, '63. 
Weed, Ivory P., e. Aug. 4, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Webster, Alphons, e. Aug. 4,'62, d. May 30,'63. 
Watts, Converse Y., e. Aug. 4,'62. 
Baigley, Henry. 
Blair, Andrew" J. 
Fonts, DaA'id. 
Fitzpatrick, John, e. Mar. '.i,'65. trans, to 4i)tli 

111. Inf. 
Hurt!', Augustus. 

McCann, Thomas, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Weaver, James W., e. April 5. '65, trans, to 40th 

ni. Inf. 



William Vandevander.'e. Oct. 2. '62, res. April 

Bernard Kelly, e. Oct. 2.'62, hon. d. Oct. 13,'64. 
Jeremiah Vorhees, e. .Vug. 11, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 

Firi^t Lieutenants. 

J. H. Bailev, e. Aug. 11, '62, kid. June 27,'64. 
H. H. Orendorff, e. Aug. 20,'62, m. o. June 
21, '65. 

First Sergeant. 

DsLvid A. Snyder, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. Aug. 10, 
'66, wnds. 


Jared Woorhees, e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Aug. 24,'64, 

for pro. 
William Griggsby, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Dee. 3, 

'63. wnds. 
Joshua Ellis, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. Mar. 16,'63, dis. 
David Maxwell, e. Aug. 15,'62, died Dec. 18,'64. 

William Walters, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
Hazael Putnam, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. June 5,'C3. 
Daniel Walters, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Sept. 19,'63. 
George W., e. Aug. 14,'62, kid. June 27,'64. 
John Swearingen, e. Aug, 11, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Whittield, Barnett, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Mar. 28, 

'63, dis. 
Andrew J. Justice, e. .Vug. 11, '62, m. o. .rune 

21, '65, sergt. 
David Cranililet. e. Aug. 11, '62, died Sept. 2.s,'63. 


William A. Smith, e. Aug. 18,'62, d. Sept. 5,'63, 

William E. Cooper, e. Aug. 21, '62, d. Jan. 30, 

"64, dis. 

Erastus McQueen, e. .Vug. 14, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 

Andrew, D. D., e. Aug. 12,'62, died Feb. 24,'C3. 
Augustine, Michael, e. Aug. 11, '62, corpl. kid. 

Nov. 25, '63. 
Brice, Thos. A., e. Aug. 15,'62. 
Buck, C, e. Aug. 14,'62, corp. kid. July 22,'64. 
Barker, C. E., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Baylcss, F. J., e. Aug. 14,'62, died Jan. 24,'63. 
Buck, Jos. H., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Buck, Josepli, e. Aug. 19,'62, m. o. June 21/65, 

Brinton, E. 1)., e. Aug. S,'62, d. Mar. 22,'65, dis. 
Bailey, Maj., e. Aug, 11, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Baughman, Sam'l, e. Au.g. 14, '62. m. o. Juno 

21, '65, corpl. 
Barker, W., e. Aug. 14, '62, abs. at m. o. of regt. 
Bailey, Jas. M., e. Aug. 11, '62, pro. 2d Lieut. 
Campbell, Jos., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Mar. 3, '63. 
Coleman, .M., e. Aug. 20,'62, died Xov. 12,'63. 
Dearv, Ed., e. Aug. 11, '62 m. o. June 21, '65. 
Dowier, Wm., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Oct. 6, '63. 
Degrofl', H., e. Aug. 22, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Douglas, Sam'l, e. Augl2,'62, m. o. June '21, '65. 
Ellsworth?, .1. W., e. Aug. 22, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Eyerly, Wm. .1., e. A\ig, 11, '62, in. n. .lune 21, 

'65, coqil. 
Ellis, Henry C, e. Aug. 22.'62, d. Fel). 24,'63. 
Fordyce, J. F., e. Aug. 15, '62, d. Ai)rill6,'63,dis. 
Frizzel, .loshua, e, Aug, is, '62, m.o. June 21, '65, 

Fisher, Wilson, e. Aug. 11, '62, pro. (piarterma.s- 

ter sergt. 
(Josnell, Wes. L., e, Aug. 11, '62, d. Mar. 16,'63, 

Guthrie, F. M., e. Aug. 21, '62, died Jan. 31, '63. 
Grove, Jno., e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to I. C. 
Gibson, Wm., e. Aug. 20,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Glimpse, S. S., e. Aug. 11, '62. 
Haskin, C. V., e. Autr. 14, '62, m, o. June 21, '65. 
Hale, Jas M., e. Aug. 11, '62, die<l May, 1S63. 
Hoar, Will. ]'>., e. .Vug. '20, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Hari)er. ^lat.. e. Aug. 17, '62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Holler, Will., t'. .Vug. 12. '62, ni. o. June 21,'65, 

Johnson. B., e. Aug. ]U,'62, m. o, June 21, '65. 
Lermond, F., e. .Vug. 14,'t')2, pro. Sergt. ilaj. 
Lawrence, Wni. D., e. Aug. 11. '62. m. o. June 

Lowland, Wm., e. Aug. 14,'62, died Oct. 1,'63. 
Lowe,, e. Aug. 11,'62, died July 23,'64, 


rrrsToijY of rri/roN county. 


I^wis, Geo. H.,e. Aug. 22,'fi2, died Oct. lS,'t>4, 

Mo&s, Jos. H., e, Aug. 14,'02, m. o. June Jl/G."). 
Mayo, Da-\id, e. Aug. 12, '61, m. o. June 21,'t)5, 

.Miller, .loel J., e. Aug. 11,'62, d. Jan. JT.'Ci.'), dis. 
Manning, J. A., e. .\ug. 1."),'62, died May HI, '(i;! 
McDonnell, Wm. H., e. Aug. 12, '02. m. o. May 

27, '65. 
Orondorff, H. H., e. Aug. 20,'62, d. May r,i.'6.-), 

for pro. 
Orendorff, Jno. W., e. Aug. 20,'62, d. May 2s,'(i4, 

Points, Dan'l, e. Aug. 20,'62, d. Mar. 16,'63, dis. 
Prichard, Gilford, c. Aug. 1.5,'62, ahs. at ni. o. 

of regt. 
Pricliard, S., o. Aug. 22,'62, d. Aug. ir),'Gl, dis. 
Post, Wra., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June21,'6.'). 
Kamsey. J. P., e. Aug. 22,'62, d. May 0,'68, dis. 
Kockhold, Samuel W., e. Aug. 22, '62, ra. o. 

June 21, '65, as sergt. 
Rea, Sam'lG., e. Aug. i:!,'62, died June 21, iM, 

Spry, John, e. .\ug. 14, '62, abs. at m. o. of regt. 
Stuart, Jacob, e. Aug. 14, '62, abs. m. o. of regt. 
Stephens, M., e. Aug. 20, '62, d. June ",'64, dis. 
Tavlor, Geo. W., e. Aug. 18, '62, corpl. 
Wliite, Elijah, e. Aug. 18,'62, ni. o. June 21, ■6.'), 

W'Lse, John, e. Aug. 20, '62, m. o. June 21. '65. 
Ware.Juo. H., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Nov. 21, '6:^, 

Walters, Jos. S., e. Aug. 11, '62, ni.o. June 21, '65. 
Wheeler, S., e. Aug. lo,'62. m. o. June 21. '65. 
Walters, Marion, e. -Vug. 22, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Hrowu, F., e. Feb. 15,'64, trans, to lllth Inf. 
Caves, S. B., e. Feb. 8,'64, trans, to 4(itli Inf. 
Degroft', J., e. Jan. 24,'64, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Eskeringe, J. T., e. Feb. 8,'64, d. Mar. 31, '65, 

Harwick, Gscar, e. Oct. 10,'62. 
Miller, Geo. E.,d. April 20,'63, dis. 
Parvin, Chas., e. Sept. 21, '64, died Oct. 22,'64. 
lUch. Pierce, e. Oct. 30,'62, kid. .July 28,'64. 
Snvder, Peter. 

Stafford, Wm., e. Oct. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Tary. .\lfred, e. Feb. 15,'64, trans, to 40tli Inf. 


First Sergeant. 

Charles W. Griffith, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. July S,'6:!. 

Sergeant )<. 

Thos. A. Hill, e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. .luue 21, '65. 
Wm. I'euny, e. Aug. S,'62, died Nov. 28,'64. 
J. S. Brown, e. Aug. 9, '62, abs. at m. o. of regt. 
Robt. C. Thomas, e. Aug. 18,'62, d. Jan. 16.'63. 


Wm. Gustiue, e. Aug. IS, '62, d. .Ian. 8, '65. 
Wm. W. Montgomery, e. Aug. 22, '62, trans, to 

I. C. Sept. 20,'6o. 
.Ins. Colton, e. Aug. 11,'62, m. o. .Innc21,'65. 
K. Whittaker, e. Aug. 18,'62, kid. June 27, '64. 
J. J. Williamson, e. Aug. 0,'62, m.o. June '21, '65. 
N. Breed, e. Aug. 5,'62, sergt. died Dec. 7,'(>1. 

.1. E. Revuolds, e. Aug. 13,'62, d. May 21, '65. 
V. Hanchet, e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Feb. 17,'65, sergt. 


.1. H. Rodenbaugh, e. Aug. 22, '62, d. Jan. 15, '(io. 


Amos, Americus, e. Aug. 15, '62, trans, to Co. I. 
Bishop, Columbus II., e. Aug. 5, '62, m. o. 

,Iune 21, '65, corpl. 
Brown, Jeremiah, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. May 27, 

Beidenback, William, e. Aug. 20,'62, m. o. 

June 21, '65. 
Breed, Frank R., c. Aug. 6, '62, abs. at m. o. of 



Byere, Isaac, e. Aug. 8, "62, m. o. .June 21, '65. 
Cery, Francis M.. e. Aug. 6, '62, kid. Fot>. 

25, '65. 
Couyers, J., e. Aug. 13, '62, died March 5. '63. 
Counterman. William, e. Aug. 6,'62, trans, to 

I. C. 
Craig, James H.. e. Aug. 11, '62, abs. at m. o. of 

Cozad, James, e. Aug. 11, '62. d. Sept. 6, '63. 
Carroll, Samuel, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. May 30, '63. 
('rook, Josiah, e. Aug. 12,'62. 
])uml)lazier, William G., e. .Vug. 22. '62, cap. 

May 27,'64. 
Davidson, Alphous, e. Aug. 0,'ti2. d. .Vjiril 

•25, '64. 
Foot, William, e. Aug. 22, '62. 
Griggs, Franklin, e. Aug. 18, '62, in. o. .June 

21, '65. 
(iray, Wilson, e. Aug. 11, '62. 
Hunt, Lemuel, e. Aug. 18. '62, d. March 20,'63. 
Hudson, Stephen, e. Aue. 7, '62, ni. o. June 

■21, '65. 
llutt'ord, Abraham, e. Aug. 8, '62, kid. .\Iav 

27. '64. 
.lacobus. John, e. Aug. 13, '62, died .March 

.31. '6.5. 
.Jacobus, Thos. J., e. Aug. 13, '62, abs. at m. o. 

of regt. 
.lohnson, Abraham, e. .Vug. 11, '()2, d. Feb. 

15, '63. 
Lingenfelter. Josiah. c. Aug. 8. '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Lazwell, Josiah, e. .Vug. 22, '62, trans. t(i 1. c. 

Oct. 22, '62. 
Mvers, Artemus. c. .Vus. 22,'i)2, kid, .lunc 

27, '64. 
McEntvre, Samuel, e. Aug. 15, ■(i2, kid. .hiiic 

27, '64. 
McEntvre, Waterman, e. Aug, lt;,'62. died 

March 28, '65. 
Maxwell, Jacob E., c. Aug. It, '62, kid. .June 

27, '64. 
Moran, Oliver C, e. .Vug. 14, '62, died Mav 

22, '63, 
Mifliu, Henry J,, v. Aug. 22,'62, (iro. Hosp. 

Miksell, Isaac, e. Aug. 22. '62, m. o. .June 21, '65. 
Xicholson, Jacob J., e. Aug. 11, '62. trans, to I, 

C, Oct. 22, '63. 
Nicholson, Wm., e. Aug. 22, '62, m. o .Inly 4, '65, 
Parks, Henry C, e. Aug. 15,'62, d. Feb. 6,'63. 
Purnell, Lewis, Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Prichard, John, c. Aug. y,'62, d. July 1 l.'(i3. 
Richardson, James A., e. Aug. 'il,'62. 
Richardson, Robt., e, Aug. 8, '62, m. o. .lune 21, 

65, corpl. 
Roadcape, J., e. .Vug. 8, '62, trans, to I. C. Oct. 

22, '63. 
Roadcape, .Allen, e. Aug. 8,'62, d. Feb. 28,'63, 
Robert, Wm,, e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Record, C, e. Aug. 22,'62, trans, to I. C. Oct. 

22, '63. 
Ryan, M. B., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Rejniolds, L. J., e. Aug. 14, '62, died Sept. 14, '63. 
Reynolds, A., e. Aug. 11. '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Reynolds, J. W., Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Heynolds. Jesse, e. Aug. 22,'62, d. Feb. 22,'63. 
Rowlev, E., e. Aug. 13,'62, died April 13,'64. 
Shoemaker, I., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. March 28,'63. 
Shields, H. B., e. Aug. 14,'62, d. March 28,'63. 
Slater, Ed. D., e. Aug. 18,'62, d. Dec. •20,'64. 
Schenck, Oscar C, e. Aug. 22,'62, d. Oct. 2,'62. 
Stone, David, e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June '21, '65. 

Smith, J. M., e. Aug. 22,'62, kid. July 22,64. 
Stearns, P., e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Stearns, Horace, e. Aug. 7, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
Sco\'ille, Geo., e. Aug. 8, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 



Suydam, Ed., e. Aug. 6,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Switzer, lohn, e. Aug. 1.5,'62, died Aug. 8,'63. 
Slack, Irwin, e. Aug. U,'6J, m. o. June 21 '6o. 
Trader, George W., e. Aug. 13, '62, died Feb. 

Tilling, Robert, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. April 16, 63. 
West, James, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. Aug. 26,'63. 
Williamson, Jas. L., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Williams, S., e. Aug. 22,'62, kid. May 27,'64. 
Yocum, I. W., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. Juue 21,'65. 
Griggsby, Ellis, d. Jan. 15,'6:3. 
Harrison, James. , ^ , 

Hill Eph. A., e. Dee. 2, '63, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Hall, Jno. D., e. Dec. 2,'6-^, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Myers, D. M., e. Dec. 2,'63, kid. June 27, '64. 
Mvers, I. N., e. Oct. 14,'62, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Payne, John, d. April 13, '63, dis. 
Richardson, Wm., e. Oct. 10,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Smith, James, e. Jan. 1,'63, died Dec. 10, bo. 


J. J. Hale, e. Oct. 2,'62, res. eune 3.'63. 
William Boyd, e. Oct. 2.'62, res. Nov. 11, '64. 
F. M. Putnam, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 21.'6o. 

First Lieutenants. 
W. W. Fox, e. Aug. 9,'62, res. Sept. 17,'64. 
J. L. Thoma-s, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 21,'65. 

Second Lieutenants. 
S D. Woodson, e. Oct. 2,'62, res. Mar. 26,'63. 
Asahel Randel, e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. June 27, '64 

First Sergeant. 
William F. Fox, e. Aug. 9,'62, pro. 1st Lieut. 

Thomas Deens, e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to I. C. 
Francis M. Putnam, e. Aug. 9, '62. pro. Capt. 
Samuel Campbell, e. Aug. 11, '02, m. o. June 

21, '65, sergt. 
Jesse Hiuderleiter, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 


Arthur Miles, e. Aug. 9,'62, trans, to I. C. April 

Wm. S., Kimball, e. Aug. 12.'62. died N'ov. '62. 
Wm. C. Lisenby, e. Aug. 22,'62, died April 18, 

'63, wnds. 
Asahel Handle, e. Aug. 9,'62, pro. sergt. com. 

2d Lieut. 
Thomas D. Kelly, e. Aug. 12,'62, died June '63. 
Wm. J. Ashton, e. Aug. 12,'62. kid. June 15,'64. 
J. A. Ridle, e. Aug. 12,'62. kid. June 27,'64. 
J A. Westfall, e. Aug. 9,'62, trans, to I. C. May 

31, '64. 

Wm. T. Scott, e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. June 22,'65. 
Samuel T. Wells, e. Aug. 22,'62, d. Sept. 18,'63. 

Agnew, G. W., e. Aug. 11, "62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Austin, J., e. Aug. 12,'62, trans, to I. C. Jan. 

Baker, John, e. Aug. 11, '62, died Aug. '63. 
Belless, W., e. Aug. 12,'62, trans, to I. C. Jan. 

Bennett, Amos, e. Aug. 9,'62. 
Bird, Henrv, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. April,'64. 
Bolen, W. J., e. Aug. 12,'62, corpl. kid. July 

Bolen, W. B., e. Aug. 12, '62, d. March. '6.3. 
Bordner, H. P., e. Aug. 11, '02, died Nov.'63, 

Clark, Robert, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. May31,'65. 
Cornell, R. A., e. Aug. 9,'62, abs. at m. o. of 

Campbell, M. K., e. Aug. n,'62, kid. June 

27, '64. 

Davis, W., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Deford, F. M., e. Aug. 11,'62, corpl. kid. Nov. 

25, '63. 
Deraott, C, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Evans, J., e. Aug. 9,'62, d. May,'64, wnds. 
Ford, W. A., e. Aug. 22, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Gibbeny. T. F., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Glasscock, J. G., e. Aug. 12,'62, died July 6,'63. 
Hair, Elijah C,, e. Aug. 9,'62, d. for pro. 
Harris, Perry, e. Aug. 11, '62, wnd'd. 
Harris, W., e. Aug. 22,'62, kid. Nov. 25,'63. 
Hyde, John H., e. Aug. 15,'62, det. at m. o. of 

Jellison, E,, e. Aug. 11,'62, kid. June 27,'64. 
Jenkins, D. M., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Kimball, E. T., e. Aug, 9,'02, trans, to I. C. 
Lancaster, M., e. Aug. 9,'62, died April.'63. 
Lathburv, J., e. Aug. 18,'62, m. o. June 22,'65. 
Laws, Samuel T., e. Aug. 9, '62, trans, to I. C. 
Laws, W. H., e. Aug. 9,'62, m, o. June 21,'65, 

Lenhart, D. A., e. Aug. 22,'62, abs. atm. o. of 

Lisenbv, J., e. Aug. 22,'62, trans, to L C. Dec. 

15, '63. 
Linch, David, e. Aug. 9,'62, d. May ]8,'63. 
Matuev, D., e. Aug. ]1,'62, d. May,"64, wnds. 
Maxwell, D. E., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21. 

'65, corpl. 
McCarthy, D., e. Aug. 9,'62, died June, '63. 
McCumbei, John, e. Aug. 12,'62, trans, to I. C. 

Dec. 1.5, "63. 
Miller, Berhard, e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. 
Nieheson, J., e. Aug. r2,'62, m. o. June 21,'65. 
Nokes, Aaron, e. Aug. 12,'02, died Dec. 21, '62. 
Pressler, E., e. Aug. 12,'62, trans, to 40lh Inf. 
Reeves. N. T., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. june 21, '65. 
Rice. Charles T., e. Aug. 9,'62. d. April 16,'63. 
Rice. Henrv, e. Aug. 12,'62, died Feb. 18,'63. 
Shortness, C., e. Aug. 12,'62. d. Jan. 7,'65,wnds. 
Shrvock, J. P., e. Aug. 1S,'62; d. April 16,'63. 
Sennett, A. R., e. Aug. 12,'62, died '63, wnds. 
Slock, G., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Smith, B., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

sergt. ^ ^ 

Smith, C. M., e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to I. C. 
Smith, A., e. Aug. 12,'62, trans, to I. C. April 

Smith, Barnett, e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'05, corpl. 
Sparger, Samuel, e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Stevenson. E. J., e. Aug. 12,'62, died Dec.'63. 
Stutes, Wm. F. M., e. Aug. 9,'62, det. at m. 

o. of regt. 
Stutes, A., J., e. Aug. 9,'62, det. at m. o. of regt. 
Stack, R., e Aug. 11, '62, died Dec. 18,'62. 
Thomas, J. L., e. Aug. 9,'62, pro. 1st. Lieut. 
Virgil, John, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 22,'65. 
Walker. Hen., e. Aug. r2,'62, m. o. June 21, '65, ' 

Weston, Sam., e. Aug. 9,'62. m. o. une 21, '65. 
Wilcoxen, James C, e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 

21, '65. corpl. 
Wright, S. B., e. Aug. 9,'62, died Feb. — , '63. 
Wright. W. O., e. Aug. 9,'62, d. Mar. —,'6.3, dis. 
Wells, Wm., e. Aug. r2.'62, d. June —,'64, dis. 
Austin, Wm. J., died July —,'63. 
Austin. John E.. died Feb. —,'03. 
Freeman, Martin, d. May — ,'63. 
Gibbons, Mark, Feb. 18,'64, trans to 40th Inf. 

June 19, '65. 
Taylor, Henry. 
Weston, Edwin. 


Phillip Medley, e. Oct. 2,'62, res. Feb. 4,'63. 
S. H. Brown, e. Oct. 2,'62, res. April 1,'64. 
W. S. Johnson, e. Oct. 2,'62, 



First Lieutenants. 
N. P. Montgomery, e. Oct. 2, '62. kid. .June 

27, '64. 
Tim. Dewey, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Zeb. Branson, e. Oct. 15,'62, kid. June 27,'64. 

First Sergeant. 

A. S. Vansyckle, e. Aug. 4,'62, kid. June 2,'64. 


Isaac H. Ray, e. Aug. 14,'62. 

James Howard, e. Aug. 15, '62. 

J. B. Patterson, e. Aug. 21, '62, d. Apl 5,'65, dis. 

David S. R. Jackson, e. Aug. 14,'62 . 


Cornelius McWhirt, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. Dec. 15, 

'64, sergt., dis. 
ClifFord T. Lambert, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. Mar. — , 

'64, p'vt., dis. 
Wm. H. Zolman, e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
L. P. Zolman, e. Aug. 15,'62,- died Feb. —,'63. 
John Butler, e. Aug. 14,'62. 
Wm. Pierce, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Arthur F. Bust, e. Aug. 15,'62, trans, to I. C. 
W. H. Coons, e. Aug. 15,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 


VV. A. Gustin, e. Aug. 15,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
D. Smith, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Mar. 20,'63, dis. 


Levi Hedger, e. Aug. 14, '62. 


Allison, John, e. Aug. 15, '62, died Oct. 24, '62. 
Bevard, G., e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Brown, Geo., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65, 

Berg, Henry, e. Aug. 14,'62, died April —,'63. 
Bekelshymer, Charles, e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. 

June 21, '65, .sergt. 
Branson, Zeb., e. Aug. 15, '62, pro 2d Lieut. 
Bishop, Columbus H., e. Aug. 5, '62. 
Clanin, Thos. J., e. Aug. 14,'62, died Julv 3,'63. 
Clanin, John, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Oct. 11, '62. 
Clanin, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Cooper, John V., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Crawford, James, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Coons, Henry, e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Dervey, Tim., e. Aug. 14, '62, pro. 1st. Lieut. 
France, Isaac, e. Aug. 21, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
France, Wm. R., e. Aug. 21, '62, died Jan. '64. 
France, Michael, e. Aug. 21, '1)2, died Jan. '64. 
France, Robert, e, Aug. 14, '62. 
Goldsmith, James, e. Aug. 14, '62, corpl., kid. 

June 15,'64. 
Gray, Wm., e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Graven, John B., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
Howard, Geo. O., e.Aug. 14.'62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
Hummel, G. F., e. Aug. 14,'62, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Holt, William, e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Hillyer, John C, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, corpl. 
Krous, James, e. Aug. 21, '62. 
Kelly, Z. T., e. Aug. 14,'62, kid. June 15,'64. 
Littleton, George D., e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Littleton, John M., e. Aug. 14,'62, abs. at m. o. 

of regt. 
Littleton, F. e. Aug. 14,'62, died Mar. 18,'63. 
Lease, Dan., e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Jan. 30,'64, dis. 
McMuUen, Andrew, e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Miller, Geo., e. Aug. 21, '64, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Monroe, Enoch, e.Aug. 15,'62, died Aug. 20,'63. 
Monroe, Allen, e. Aug. 21, '62. 
Murry, Peter P,, e. Aug. 15,'62. 

Murry, Thomas, e. Aug. 21, '62, died Jan. ,'63. 
McQueen, Asa, e. Aug. 21, '62, abs. m. o. of regt. 
Nevin, Simon, e. Aug. 14, '62, died Oct. 20,'63. 
Nolan, Thos., e. Aug. 14, '61, died Feb. 18,'64. 
Nolan, Henry, e. Aug. 15,'62, d. Mar. 30,'63, dis. 
Paul, D., 6. Aug. 15,'62, d. Nov. 26,'63, wnds. 
Parkinson, Thomas K., e. Aug. 15,'62, m. o. 

June, 21, '65. corpl. 
Parkinson, J., e. Aug. 15, '62, ab. at m. o. regt. 
Patterson, Hamilton H., e. Aug. 15,'62, d. Mar. 

27, '65, dis. 
Pattenson, William, e. Aug. 15,'62, d. Nov., '63. 
Pattenson, And., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Oct. 7,'63. 
Patterson, T. S. e. Aug. 21, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Snider, Wm. H., e. Aug. 21, '62, kid. Nov. 25,'63. 
Snider, Orville, e. Aug. 21, '62, kid. Nov. 25,'63. 
Smith, Robert W., e. Aug. 21, '62. 
Spry, Elias, e. Aug. 15,'62, det. at m. o. regt. 
Sheppard, George, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65, corpl. 
Underwood, Jacob, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Nov. 18, 

'63, dis. 
Valentine, M., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. june21,'65. 
Warfleld, A., e. Aug. 15, '62, abs. at m. o. regt. 
Wren, J. O., e. Aug. 21, ,62, d. Mar.'63, dis. 
Peterson, Wm. S., e. Aug. 8,'62, App'ed Chap. 
Fanchon, M. T., e. Aug. 14,'62, kid. June 27,'64. 
Higgins, Hiram S., e. Atig. 14, '62. 
.lohnson, Gary C, e. Aug. 14, '62. 
Coleman, Wm. L., e. Aug. 14,'62, d. July 15, 

'64, dis. 
Grigsliy, Ellis, e. Aug. 22,'62. 
McKoggan, James, e. Aug. 22, '62. 
Clanin, J. S., e. Mar. 6,'65, trans to 40th Inf. 
Ames, Americus, abs. at m. o. of regt. 
Bishop, Nimrod C. 
Coons, Samuel. 
Long, William. 
Miller, JohnS. 

VanBrunt, J. W. Appointed Ass't Surgeon. 
Weston, Jos., e. Aug. 22,'62, m. o. June 21,'65, 


J. C. King, e. Oct. 2, '62, died Jan. 3, '63. 
A. B. Smith, e. Oct. 2,'62, m. o. June 21,'65. 

First Lieutenant. 
Aaron Amesley, e. Oct. 2,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

' First Sergeaiit. 
P. Barry, e. Aug. 22,'62, m, o. June 21, '65. 

D. Wilcox, e. Aug. 11, '62, died Dec. 19,'63,wnds. 
J. Stickler, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 17,'65. 
C. W. Fellows, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Tim. Coakley, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

H. Stickler, e. Aug. 13, '62, died Julv 2, '64. 
J. B. Prentiss, e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to I. C. 
J. E. McGrath, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o June 21,'65. 
Geo. H. Woodcock, e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
W. Jacobs, e. Aug. 11, '62, sergt., abs. m. o. regt. 
J. Gibson, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
J. Briley, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. May 7, '63, dis. 
Jacob Debert, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65, 


Payne, C. E., e. Aug. 14,'62, pro. prin. music'n. 
Wheeler. D. L., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 

Aub.iugh, Jesse, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Mar. 30,'65. 
Bricker, D. U., e. Aug. 13,'62, died June 18,'63. 
Bailie, Rufus M. e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65. corpl. 
Burge, C, e. Aug. 13. '62, d. Mar. 29, '63, dis. 
Burge, Wm., e. Aug. 13,'62, died Dec. 17,'63, 

Benson, M., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Baughman, H., e. Aug. 13,'62, corpl. kid. Aug. 




Boulby, J. P., e. Aug. 12,'62, died Aug. 1,'63. 
Bucklev, A., e. Aug. 14,'62, died Feb4,'64. 
Banks,"Wm. S., e. Aug. 22, '62, died Mar. 19,'r):;. 
Custon, E., e. Aug. 1.3,'62, trans, to I. C. Sept. 

Cooper, Wm., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, 'ft). 
Carroll, Wm. H., e. Aug. 13,'62, died Nov. 20. 

'63, wnds. 
Caldwell. J. B., e. Aug. ll.'tK, died Feb. 12,'63. 
Crippin, W. E., e. Aug. 13,'t52, m.o. June21,'6.D. 
Cathus, G. W., e. Aug. 14,'B2. 
Castello, W. A., e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. June 21, '6.:), 
Coleman, J., e. Aug. 22,'62. 
Deford, Thos., e. Aug. 13,'<)2, cap'd May 28,'64. 
Dunham, J., e. Aug. 14,'62, ra. o. June 21,'65, 

Dorrance, W. M., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 

Evans, A., e. Aug. 12,'62, died June 2.5,'63. 
Evans, M., e. Aug. 11,'62, abs. wnd'datm. o. of 

Gasarow, A., c. Aug. 14.'62, m. o. June 21, '6o. 
Grim, G. D., e. Aug. 22,'62, died Oct. 14,'65. 
Holt, S. R., e. Aug. 13, '62, d. Feb., '6.3. 
Harkhouse, G. W., e. Aug. 11,"62. 
Harman, J. P., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June '21, '6.5. 
Hews, A., e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Hughes, J. E., e. Aug. 13,'6'2. 
Haptonstall, J. H., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 

21, '6.5. 
Harper, J. W., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Hallan, W. H., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 24,'65. 
Hall, B., e. Aug. 14,'62, d. .Sept. 16,'63. 
Hughes, M., e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. ,iune 21, '6.5. 
Huber, W. C, e. Aug. 12,'62, died Jan. 4.'6.3. 
Heldebeidel. G., e. Aug. 14, '02, d. May 16,'63, 

Harder. C, e. Aug. 14,'62. d. April 16,'63, dis. 
Jackson, G., e. Aug. 22, '62. d. Mar. 20, '63, dis. 
Jacox, M., e. Aug. 22,'62, kid. July 28.'(>4. 
Kellogg, H., e. Aug. 14, '62, died Dec. 20, '63. 
Ketchum, J., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21, '6.5. 
Ketchum, L. T., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 21, 

'65, sergt. 
Lockwood. G., e. Aug. 11,'62, m. o. June 21, '6.5. 
Messinger, S., e. Aug. 13, '62, m. o. June 21, '65 
McMillen, T.C., e.Aug. ]3,'62, d. Jan.17,'63, dis. 
Miller, N. D,, e. Aug. 22, '62, abs. at m. o. regt. 
Minnick, G. \V., e. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. June 21, '65. 
Xewman, J. P., e. Aug. 12,'62, m.o. June 21. '65. 
Provard, J., e. Aug. 14,'62, died May 15,'63. 
Paul. G. W., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Pierce, J. H., e. Aug. 11, '62, trans, to I. C. Sept. 

Re%-nolds, J., e. Aug. 13.'62, trans, to 1. C. Oct. 

"20, '63. 
Ringer, J,, e. Aug. 11,'62, ra. o. June 2\,'6o. 
Rose, H. G., e, Aug. 11, '62. cap'd May 28,'64. 
Scanlon, B., e. Aug. 12, '6J, d. July 6. "64. 
Silvernail, J., e., Aug. U, '62, died Nov. 27, '63, 

Schaefler, W., e, Aug. 12,'62, m. o. June '21, '65, 

Tallmadge, Theo. T., e. Aug. 12, '62. ni. o. June 

21. '65. 
Varner, G. W., e. Aug, 15,'62, m. o. June 21,'65. 
Varner, J. M., e. Aug. 14. '62, trans, to 40th Inf. 
Veron, J. B., e. Aug. r2.'62, d. June 8.'63, dis. 
Wander, A., e. Aug. 12,'62, kid. June 6,'63. 
Weekel, J., e. Aug. •22,'62, m. o. June 21, '65. 
Zimmerman, G. W., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 

21, '65. 
Anderson, J., d. April 16, '63, dis. 
Hugh, T., died Sept. 20,'63. 
Smith, J. K.. det'd at m. o. of regt. 
Wright, G. W.. pro. Maj. 
Lingenfelter, J., died Mar. 22, '65. 
Lewis, W. D. 

Peterson, Isaac B., died April 2, '64. 
Phillip, S. T., died May 8, '64. 

113th INFANTRY. 

Snvder, J. L., Co. D, e. Dec. '26. '63, m. o. Sept. 
" 10, '6.5. 

Nelson, M. H., Co. E, e. Aug. 11,'62, died Jan. 

5. '63. 
Ralph, C. M., Co. E, e. Aug. 11, '62, died June 

Runvan. L., Co. E, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 

Runvan, J. W., Co. E, e. Aug. 11, '62, died Mar. 
30, '63. 


Second Lieutenant. 

G. A. Woodruff, e. Aug. 7,'62, m. o. June 20,'65. 

Stephen Hamblin, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. June 

20, '65, sergt. 
John Frith, e. Aug. 10,'62, m. o. June 26,'65, 

P. D. Sutton, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 20,'65, 

Chapman, A. P., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Jan. 8,'63. 

Devoe, Richmond, c. Aug. 9,'62, trans, to I. C, 

Everett, D., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Nov. 14,'62, dis. 
Frith, C. W., e. Aug. 13,'62. 
Holmes, John, e. Aug. 7.'62, died Dec